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Nova Latina

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Made by: M. Syarif

This constructed language is used only for the authors personal use.

SettingEdit

Nova Latina is a simplification of the Latin language by changing the inflections and additional vocabulary from Italian and Arabic. Plus, article-like endings inspired from the case system of Slavic languages.

Basic GrammarEdit

OrthographyEdit

The systems of writing used are Latin and Arabic. In writing Arabic words in the Latin orthography, the accuracy of the pronunciation is maintained through the use of letter combinations and diactrics. The pronunciation and orthography are mostly that of Italian added with some new combinations and different sound value to accomodate Arabic pronunciation.



The vowels have two lengths, long and short. For short vowels, they are written with plain letters (a, i, e, o). For long vowels, it can be either one of these:


  1. By the use of accents: for example : á, í, ú, é, ó
  2. By doubling the letters : aa, ii, uu, ee, oo
  3. Or, if there are no sufficient characters available in a keyboard they are made as this : a^, i^, u^, e^, o^


Quotation mark : <<Text>>,

AccentEdit

In monosyllabic words -mostly pronouns, adverbs, articles and prepositions, the stress it is unstressed or stressed depending upon position. If there are two or more monosyllabics come after another only one is stressed and the other is unstressed or all unstressed altogether. When a monosyllabic word or string of words is next to a polysyllabic word, it is usually unstressed. These trait of monosyllabic words are so for flexibility in poetry.


In disyllabic words, the stress falls on the first syllable (i.e. the penultimate). However, for Arabic words, the stress falls on long vowels.


In polysyllabic words, the stress or accent falls on either the third to last(penult) or second to last. Normally, it is correct to choose either one.

SubstantivesEdit

Nova Latina's substantive are devided into five categories which are nouns, adjectives, adverbs, pronouns, and articles. In this language there are four cases each are:

  1. Nominative: Subject of sentence or clause
  1. Genitive: Ownership, to be used exactly as the English of X or X's construction
  1. Ablative: Prepositional
  1. Accusative: As object

The following are the description:

NounsEdit

Nouns are declined according to numbers and cases. Nova Latina has two numbers, singular and plural, and four cases, nominative, genitive, ablative, and accusative. For nouns or any substantives to be declined, they are grouped into three classes, first, second, and third declension. The noun stems are classified based on the ending which are -o/-u, -a, and -e.

Stem -o/-u

Nominative/Faêilus : -us(sing.) -i(plur) eg.: alberus - alberi
Genitive/Idüafata : -i(sing.) -orum(plur) eg.: alberi - alberorum
Ablative/Magrurus : -o(sing.) -obis(plur) eg.: albero - alberobis
Accusative/Mafêulus (s/p): -um(sing.) -oi/os(plur) eg.: alberum - alberoi/alberos

Stem -a

Nominative/(s/p): -a(sing.)  (plur)-e eg.:
Genitive/ (s/p): -ae(sing.)  (plur)-arum eg.:
Ablative/ (s/p): -at/ae(sing.)  (plur)-abo eg.:
Accusative/ (s/p): -am(sing.)  (plur)-as eg.:

Stem -e (Masculine)

Nominative/(s/p): -e/-ies eg.:
Genitive/ (s/p): -ei/-erum eg.:
Ablative/ (s/p): -eide/-ibo eg.:
Accusative/ (s/p): -em/-es eg.:

Stem -e (Feminine)

Nominative/(s/p): -e/-is eg.:
Genitive/ (s/p): -eisi/-eirum eg.:
Ablative/ (s/p): -eit/-iba eg.:
Accusative/ (s/p): -eim/-eis eg.:


AdjectivesEdit

Positive: declined like nouns (every adjective either ends in -us, -a, or -e)
Comparative 1: formed by adding the word 'plus'
Comparative 2: formed by adding the suffix -ore(-e stem)
Superlative 1: formed by the word 'il plus'
Superlative 2: formed by adding the suffix -issimus

AdverbsEdit

Adverbs are made by adding the feminine singular nominative/marfu forms with the suffix -mente.

Pronouns Edit

The Personal Pronouns

The personal pronouns are as follows: (Prepositional=Ablative=Magrur)

First Person Pronoun
Singular Plural
Nom. ego noi
Gen. meu noser
Acc. me nusi
Prep. me nobe


Second Person Pronoun
Singular Plural
Nom. tu voi
Gen. teu voser
Acc. te vusi
Prep. te vobe


ia iddu
Fem. Mas.
Sing. Plur. Sing. Plur
Nom. ia ie isu isi
Gen. ie ei isi isor
Acc . ian ies isun isus
Prep. ie ei iso ise


Interrogative Pronouns

Interrogative pronouns is used to ask question like: "Who/what ran over there?"

But for sentences like, "Did he forced you?" or "You made that?", instead of the pronouns uses the interrogative particle 'an' when starting the sentence.

The interrogative pronoun has the same forms as the relative pronoun.

quus/qui qua
Mas. Fem. Mas. Fem.
Sing. Plur. Sing. Plur.
Nom. quus quei qua quae
Gen. cuius quorum cuius quorum
Acc . quem quos quam quas
Prep. quo quobus quat quabus


The Demonstrative Pronouns

The demonstrative pronouns are of two kinds there are the near and far. There are two forms of the near demonstrative that are interchangeable.

Far: cuellus(m.) cuella(f.)

Near1: cuistus(m.) cuista(f.)

Near2:

hi he
mas. fem.
sing. plur. sing. plur.
Nom. hi hei he hae
Gen. hui horum hae harum/ciarum
Acc. hun hus han cias
Prep. ho his ha his


 



The Relative Pronouns

Relative Pronouns when in use are differentiated into two:

1. Same Case: It is when the noun it modifies have the same case in both clauses. The use of therelative pronoun alone would be sufficient. The position of the pronoun is free. In this type of sentence the word 'item'(too, also) is in use.

ex: Clause1: La cellula facevit seam ATP(The cell made ATP) Clause2: La cellula beruit mytochondriam(The cell bears mytochondria)

Sentence: La cellula facevit seam ATP, qua beruit mytochondriam.


2. Different case: It is when the noun it modifies have distinct cases in each clause. The relative pronoun agrees with the first clause while the second clause uses 'illus/illa'.

ex: Clause1: Facevi unum aeroplanum(I made an airplane) Clause2: Il Aeroplanus volavit ante nos (The airplane flew before us)

Sentence: Facevi aeroplanum quem illus volat ante nos.(I made an airplane which flew before us.)

ArticlesEdit

Definite article

Fem. Mas.
Sing. Plur. Sing. Plur.
Nom. la le il li
Gen. lae larum lius lorum
Acc. lam las lum los
Prep. lat lis lo lis



Indefinite article

The Indefinite article uses the numeral unus(one).

Indeclinable marker: case marker for indeclinable nouns such as abbreviations, foreign terms/names(that havent been naturalised), etc. Such words are listed in the dictionary without the genitive and or plural inflection. The particle comes before the noun, as such: 'ASEAN'(an abreviation, fem.)=sea ASEAN, 'e-mail'(a foreign term, mas.)=seus e-mail, Jimmy Kimmel(a foreign name, mas.)=seus Jimmy Kimmel. The only exception is when such words use articles or adjectives.

The markers are identical to the second and first declension endings of substantives.

VerbsEdit

Verbs are classified into four categories: first, second, third and irregular conjugations. A verb has two voices (active, passive), five tenses(present, future, perfect, pluperfect, future perfect), three moods(indicative, subjunctive, imperative), two participles(active, passive), and an infinitive. The infinitive is also called the non-finite form, while the finite forms are the participles and the rest of the verb forms. Verbs when in the participial form inflect by case and number. When in finite forms they are by number, person, voice and tense.

The conjugation of finite verbs are in the sequence of 1st, 2nd, 3rd person; singular, plural number. Which is: 1st singular, 2nd singular, 3rd singular, 1st plural, 2nd plural, 3rd plural.


Indicative

#First Conjugation

Present tense: -o, -as/-asi, -at/-ati, -amus/-amos/-amo, -atis/-ate, -ant/-an/-anno

Perfect tense: -avi, -avisti, -avit, -avimus, -aviste,-avirunt/-avirun/-avirunno

Future tense: -abo/-ascio, -abis/ascis, -abit/ascit, abimus/ascimus, -abitis/ascitis, -abunt/ asciunt*

Past Perfect tense: -aver(am,as,at,amus,atis,ant)

Future perfect tense: -aver(o,is,it,imus,itis,unt)  

  • The -sc- can be substituted with -r-, so too is the case with -b-.

#Second Conjugation(Infinitive: -ere, -ure Present Active Participle: -ente Past/Passive Participle: -utus)*

Present tense: -eo, -es/-esi, -et/-eti, -emus/-emos/-emo, -etis/-ete, -unt/-un/-unno

Perfect tense: -evi, -evisti, -evit, -evimus, -eviste,-evirunt/-evirun/-evirunno

Future tense: -ero, -eris, -erit, -erimus, -eritis, -erunt

Past Perfect tense:-ever/uer(am,as,at,amus,atis,ant)

Future perfect tense: - ever/uer(o,is,it,imus,itis,unt)  


  • The verbs with infinitive -ure are declined with the -u- discarded and sometimes further added -i- in the present, and in the perfect uses -ui insted of -uvi.
  • The -r- in the future tense is interchangeable with -b-. 

#Third Conjugation

Present tense: -io, -is/-isi, -it/-ieti, -imus/-imos/-imo, -itis/-ite, -iunt/-iun/-iunno

Perfect tense: -ivi, -ivisti, -ivit,  -ivimus, -iviste, -iverunt/-ivirun/-ivirunno

Future tense: -iro, -iris, -irit, -irimus, -iritis, -irunt

Past Perfect tense:-iver/uer(am,as,at,amus,atis,ant)  

Future perfect tense: -i ver/uer(o,is,it,imus,itis,unt)  


Some verbs are partially irregular, that is in the perfect tense and past participle are different from the indicative/stem, they will be listed in a sequence such as this: infinitive-pres.part.-past.part. The regular ending for the perfect is -(a,e,i)v-.


Subjunctive Mood

The subjunctive mood is used to:

1. State a wish, command

2. State an assumption, supposition, or a hypothesis (uses particle: si[if]) 

3. State a conditional sentence contrary to fact(uses particle: si[if]), if not, use the indicative

4. State a purpose (uses particle: ut[for])

5. State a result (uses particle ut/sic[thus, that])


#First Conjugation

Present tense: -aem, -aes/-aesi, -aet/-aeti, -aemus/-aemos/-aemo, -aetis/-aete, -aent/-aen/-aenno

Perfect tense: habea(m,s,t,mus,tis,nt) +Past/Passive Participle

Past Perfect tense: habuisse(m,s,t,mus,tis,nt)  +Past/Passive Participle

Future perfect tense: -avess(im,is,it,imus,itis,unt)  



#Second Conjugation(Infinitive: -ere, -ure Present Active Participle: -ente Past/Passive Participle: -utus)*

Present tense: -eam, -eas/-easi, -eat/-eati, -eamus/-eamos/-eamo, -eatis/-eate, -eant/-ean/-eanno

Perfect tense: habea(m,s,t,mus,tis,nt) +Past/Passive Participle

Past Perfect tense: habuisse(m,s,t,mus,tis,nt)  +Past/Passive Participle

Future perfect tense: - evess/uess(o,is,it,imus,itis,unt)  



  • The verbs with infinitive -ure are declined with the -u- discarded and sometimes further added -i- in the present, and in the perfect uses -ui insted of -uvi.
  • The -r- in the future tense is interchangeable with -b-. 

#Third Conjugation

Present tense: -io, -is/-isi, -it/-ieti, -imus/-imos/-imo, -itis/-ite, -iunt/-iun/-iunno

Perfect tense: habea(m,s,t,mus,tis,nt) +Past/Passive Participle

Past Perfect tense: habuisse(m,s,t,mus,tis,nt)  +Past/Passive Participle

Future perfect tense: -i vess/uess(o,is,it,imus,itis,unt)  


Passive voice

Essere(in the main verbs tense, number and mood) + Main Verb(in past/passive participle)


Irregular Verbs


  • Essere

Indicative

Present tense: som/sum, esi, est, estis, sunn/sunt

Perfect tense: fui, fusti, fuit, fumus, fustis, furunn, furunt

Future tense: ero, eris, erit, erimus, eritis, erunn/erunt

Past Perfect tense: -saraver(am,as,at,amus,atis,ant)

Future perfect tense: saraver(o,is,it,imus,itis,unt)  


  • Second conjugation:

Verbs ending in -cere: perfect: -xi past participle: -ctus

                        -gere: perfect: -xi/-gi past participle: -ctus

                        -vere: perfect: -vi past participle: -tus

                        -uere: perfect: -ui past participle: -utus

                        -niere perfect: -ssi past participle: -ssus


  • Special cases:

-facere, feci, factus

PrepositionsEdit

All prepositions use the Ablative or Magrur case. But there are two exceptions: de and ad. 'De' uses Magrur to have the meaning 'from, and uses Idafa when it means 'of'. Ad uses Maf3ul when the meaning is the sense of motile direction and uses Magrur to have the meaning of posession, perspective, and facing a direction.


circa ((Mag./Abl.): around

cum/cun (Mag./Abl.): with

da (Mag./Abl.): from

de (Idaf./Gen.): of

dopos ((Maf./Acc.): after

ecceptus (Mag./Abl.): except

estra (Mag./Abl.): out of

ex (Maf./Acc.): out from

in (Mag./Abl.): in

in (Maf./Acc.): into

per (Maf./Acc.): through

pos ((Maf./Acc.): then

senza (Mag./Abl.): without

DictionaryEdit

NounsEdit

aeroplánus,-i (m.) :airplane
álberus,-i (m.) : tree
amíca,-e (f.) :friend
amícus,-i (m.) :friend
annotazióne, -is (f.) : note
attáccus,-i (m.): attack
biláncia,-e (f.): scale, device for weighing
bomba,-e (f.): bomb
cavállus,-i (m.): horse
capitánus,-i (m.): captain, chief
carta,-e (f.): paper
casa,-e (f.): house
cellula,-e (f.): cell(Bio.)
cerclus, -i (m.): circle
chalífatus,-i (m): caliph
chalifatia,-e (f.): caliphate
cielus,-i (m.): sky
cittáte,-atis (f.) : city
computrátus.-i (m.) : computer
crise,-is (f.) : crisis
dharrata,-e (f.) : atom
difficoltáte,-is (f.) : difficulty
Il Dius(m.) : the God
domus,-i(m.) : dome
duce,-ies (m.) : leader, duke
flore,-ies (m.) : flower, blossom
flume,-ies (m.) : river
folia,-e(m.) : leaf
forza,-e(f.) : force
                La ~: the Force, military, police
fratéllus,-i(m.) : brother
fraternitáte,-is (f.) : fraternity
fruttus,-i(m.) :fruit
giardínus,-i(m.) : garden
gihádus,-i(m.) : jihad
hora,-e(f.) : hour
idéa,-e(f.) : idea
degiúnus,-i(m.) : fasting
jatímus/a,-i/-a(m.&f) : orphan
igne,-ies (m.) : fire
issula,-e(f.) : island
libertáte,-is (f.) : liberty
laude,-is (f.) : praise
lume,-ies (m.) : light
luna,-e (f.) : moon
madinata,-e (f.) : city
masgid,-i (m.) : mosque
matre,-is (f.) : mother
mella,-e (f.) : honey
mense,-ies (m.) : month
mente, -is (f.) : mind
misúra,-e (f.) : measurement
modestia,-e (f.) : modesty
musulmana,-e (f.) :muslima
musulmanus,-i (m.) :muslim
(il)nafsus,-i (m.) :self
nome,-ies (m.) : name (variation/s of this word: nomine)
natióne,-is (f.) : nation, people (variation/s of this word: nazione)
nota, -e (f.) : note
occlus, -i (m.) : eye
omo,-menies (m.) : man (variation/s of this word: homo, huomo, uomo)
pace,-is (f.) : peace
patre,-ies (m.) : father
pisce,-ies (m.) : fish
la polizia,e (f.) : the police
pomma,-e(f.) : apple
porcus,-i(m.) : pork, pig
preambolus, -i (m.) : preamble
rege,-ies (m.) : king
regína,-e (f.) : queen
rosa,-e (f.) :  rose
rota,-e (f.) : wheel
rotatióne,-is (f.) : rotation
Il Signóre (m.) : the Lord
salámata,-e (f.) : salvation, peace
sale,-is (f.) : salt
sanctitáte/santitáte, -is (f.) : sanctity
sheichus,-i (m.) : sheikh
sidde, -is (f.) : seat
sole, -ies (m.) : sun
spada, -e (f.) : sword
spegatióne,-is (f.) : explanation
terra,-e (f.) : earth, land
vale,-ies (m.) : valley
via,-e (f.) : way, street
vita,-e (f.) : life
voce,-is (f.) : voice
zaitúnus (m.) : olive oil

AdjectivesEdit

For adjectives, if the masculine and feminine forms are different, the masculine singular is written first, then the feminine singular suffix is written.
antiquus,-a: old
bonus,-a : good
clarus,-a : clear
cortus,-a: short
deliciosus,-a: delicious
dulce: sweet
effeminatus,-a: effeminate
facile  : easy
felice  : happy
femininus,-a: feminine
flavus,-a: yellow
fortus,-a: strong
frescius,-a: fresh
grande  : great, grand
grave  : heavy
hostile : hostile
insicúrus,-a: insecure
iustus,-a: just
lacrimosus,-a : tearful
longus,-a: long
magnus,-a: big, great  
                -magiore: bigger, greater  
                -maximus: biggest, greatest  
malus,-a : bad
mascuus,-a: macho
masculinus,-a: manly, virile
mortale  : deadly
mortus,-a: dead
nativus,-a: native
nerus,-a: black
novus,-a: new
pacicus,-a: peaceful
politicus,-a : political
proprius,-a: proper, respective
robus/rodus,-a : red
sicúrus,-a: secure
solidus,-a: solid, compact
tantus,-a: only, mere, just  
lucrifere : profitable
vanus,-a : vane
verde : green
xhalálus,-a: halal
xharámus,-a: haram
xhajjus,-a: life

Verbs Edit

agere, agi, actus: to do, act
amare: to love
collegere, collexi, collectus: to collect
coquere, cocui, coctus: to cook
corrupere: to corrupt
cupire: to love
devere: to have to, to have a debt
dicere, dixi, dictus: to say
                           ~ de: to say about
dominare: to dominate
dormire: to sleep
ducere, duxi, ductus: to lead
edire: to eat
essere: to be
facere, feci, factus: to make
ferure: to bring, to bear
habere: to have
habitare: to dwell, live (in)
legere, lexi, lectus: to read
loquere, loqui, loquitus: to speak
luminare: to luminate
mangere: to eat, consume
memenire: to remember
mitere, missi, mittus: to send
morere, morevi, moretus: to die
noscure(-i): to know
poniere, possi, possus: to place, put
potere/posere: to be able
regere: to rule, to be king
regulare: to regulate
reminere: to remind
rotare: to rotate
salinare: salinate
sapere: to know
scribere,scribsi,scriptus: to write
tangere, tanxi, tanctus: to touch  
volere: to want
 

Particles & Other WordsEdit

alcuna: any
alcunus/i: some
anche: too, even though, also
come: as if, like, as
ed: and
hi/qui, ha/qua: here
ma: but
posche: since
qualche: some, (inter.) any
qualcosa: something, (inter.) anything
quando: when
quindi: therefore
 
-Arabic Vocabualry and their Latin Counter Part
-English-Nova Latina Dictionary
-Polysyllabic_antepenultimate_accent_words

Numbers Edit

Unlike the Classical Latin language, Nova Latina applies declension to numerals just like any other adjectives. The paradigm will be based upon the declination for the numeral one, two, three, or one thousand in the Classical language.


  • For cardinal:
  1.  unus, una   
    dui, duae
    tres
    quatrus
    cinques
    sessi (declined like a singular third declension adjective)
    sette/septe
    ottus (declined like a singular third declension adjective)
    nove
    dece

For 11 to 19, it would be formed as the following:

  1. 11, 14, 19 are formed by erasing the 2 final letters of each numerals plus deces. Thus: undeces, quattordeces, noveces or noudeces
  2. 12, 13, 18 are formed by erasing the final most letter of the numeral plus deces


For 20-30, it would be formed as this (follows first(f.) and second(m.) declensions):

20: viginti,-e

30: triginti,-e

40: quatraginti,-e

50: quinginti,-e

60: sessuaginti,-e

70: settuaginti,-e

80: ottaginti,-e

90: noginti,-e



  • For ordinal:
  1.  primus   
  2. secondus
  3. tresius
  4. quartus
  5. quintus
  6. sestus (declined like a singular third declension adjective)
  7. settimus/septimus
  8. ottimus (declined like a singular third declension adjective)
  9. nonus
  10. decimus

For 11 to 19: turn '-deces' into 'decimus/-a'

For 20-90: turn '-ginti/-e' into '-gintesimus/-a'

100: centesimus/-a

For 200-900: turn '-centi/-e' into '-centesimus/-a'

1000: milesimus

Example textEdit

... Poem

Quando pensavi che haveo fattus unam bontatem

Ma vedeo che siat niente nello mondo

Quando arrivavi ego hi per vedere lam belletiam

Ma vedeo che siat niente nello mondo

Anche quando stavi di avanti dellae portae giardini

Qualique esti, vedeo che niente siat nello mondo


Translation:

When I thought that I have made a good

But I see nothing in the world

When I arrived here to see the beauty

But I see nothing in the world

Also when I stood in front of the garden gate

Whatever it is, I see nothing in the world.

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