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Nukilmea

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Progress 74%
Nukilmea
늨일메
Type
semifusional
Alignment
Topic prominent

Nom-Acc

Head direction
final
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
3 noun

9 adjective
2 verb

Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

Nukilmea (litt: lang of the north), is a language based on korean, heavily influenced by japanese and mandrin, though a part of the lang will still be a-priori.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

labial coronal Post-alveolar  (alveolo) Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive b p t d k g
Fricative ɸ s z ʃ ɕ
Affricate
Approximant ʋ w j ç h
Flap or tap ɾ
Lateral app. l

Initial consonant ortography and hangulizationEdit

ipa roman hangul ipa roman hangul
b b s s
p~ɸ p ʃ~ɕ c
d d z~tɕ z
t t ɾ~l r
m m w~ʋ w
n n
g g h~ç h
k k j y

Final consonant ortography and hangulizationEdit

ipa roman hangul ipa roman hangul
s s t t
n n m m
l l b b
k k g g
ŋ ng z z

VowelsEdit

Front Central Back dipthong
Close i: i y ɨ ɨ: u: ua~wa
Close-mid e: ɪ o:
Mid ɛ ɔ ɛi~ɛj
Open-mid æ æ: ʌ ai~aj
Open ä: ɑ ɑu~ɑw

Vowel ortography and hangulizationEdit

ipa roman hangul ipa roman hangul
y~ɨ u i~ɪ i
ɔ~ʌ o o: ō <oo>
ɑ~æ a ä: ā <aa>
ɛ e e: ē <ee>
ɛi~ɛj ea ɑu~ɑw ao
ai~aj ae ua~wa oa
i:~æ: ī <ii> u:~ɨ: ū <uu>

Vowel harmonyEdit

The vowel harmony in Nukilmea is front-back harmony, the neutral group is usable in words with both front and back harmony. Harmony does effect the gramar minimal, as most of the grammar is based on using the neutral group, some pre-and-affixes change due to vowel harmony.

Front group Neutral group Back group
open ī i u ū oa
mid e ē o ō
close ea ae a ā ao

The opposites are :

  • ii and uu.
  • ee and oo.
  • e and o.
  • ea and oa.
  • ae and ao.

these opposites occur in the changes of pre-and-affixes and grammar.

AlphabetEdit

Nukilmea uses the korean, hangul, alphabet. wich is slightly adapted to their own needs.

the order of their alphabet is:

for the consonants (in roman : initial/final )

roman B/B P S/S D/T T C Z/Z M/M N/N R/L W G/G K/K -/NG H Y
hangul

for vowels :

roman i u ii uu e o ee oo a aa ea ae oa ao
hangul

PhonotacticsEdit

The phonotactics of Nukilmea are simple.

A syllable is IV(F),

  • I is for initial, wich is either a consonant or the null-consonant.
  • V is a vowel, note that vowel harmony exists !
  • F is final, this is one of the final consonants.

A word has no limit to syllables, though all vowels have to be either front and neutral, or back an neutral (vowel harmony) Verbs and adjectives have fixed ending, more about this in the grammar section.

GrammarEdit

  • note that the verbs will be redone sone for sure!

SyntaxEdit

A normal sentence in Nukilmea ends on a verb, though the syntax is fully free, most people stick to the standard TSOV (topic-object-subject-verb), in speach the topic, subject and object tend to switch places often, but the verb tends to stick to the end of the sentence. In poetry it is more common for a verb to be in different places than on the end of the sentence thanm in actual speech, but it still is not that common to see this happen in basic poetry. This movement of the verb also tends to be more common in higher wealth communities and poetry than in others.

VerbsEdit

The verbs in Nukilmea, almost always at the end of the sentence, conjugate in a fusional way to tense, aspect and also formality, affixes are used to add moods, unlike the aspect/tense the mood affixes are stackable.

Nukilmea has 2 kinds of verbs, da and ma verbs. they conjugate different to tense, aspect and formality. The conjugation is done by replacing da with the things in the table.

note that the conjugations have back harmony in this table, use the opposite vowels to conjugate to the harmony! (when the verb only has neutral vowels, it is consedered to have back harmony) also the verb affixes harmonize to the verb itself, sentence initial ones are free to choose form, but in poetry it's common to harmonize them with either the verb or the word following.

verbs  verbs
tense aspect formal normal intimate formal normal intimate
present simple 미다
mida da da mas ma ma
perfective 미닷 암앗
midas das sa am'as man am
continuous 고미 가맛
gomi go ga gamas ga ga
hybrid* 마힌 미아 하맛
mahin mian an hamas ha an
initiative 고븐 브맛
gobun pu pa bumas pa pa
terminative 고다 보맛
goda gu ok bomas bu ko
iterative 미미아 미아 브마아 마마아 마안
mimia mia am buma'a mama'a ma'an
past simple 포닷 보암
podas das das bo'am am am
perfective 오닷 다앗
o'das da'as as bo ba ba
continuous 모글 모그 보미
mogul mogu gu bomi im mi
hybrid* 보하
hin in ni boha hag ha
initiative 히브 이브 모브
hibu ibu bu mobu sum su
terminative 히닷 히다 부맛 브마
hidas hida hi bumas buma bu
iterative 미맛 미앗 앗암 스마아 스마 스스
mimas mias asam suma'a suma susu
future simple 소마 미타
soma so os mita um mu
perfective 소나 미짜 음짜
sona son in miya umya ya
continuous 가마 미카 미아
gama ga ik mika ka mi'a
hybrid* 가짠 가안 가마미 가마 가아
gayan ga'an an gamami gama ga'a
initiative 브소마 브소 미탄
busoma buso bo mitan tan ta
terminative 고브마 고브 미수다 다소
gobuma gobu bu misuda daso su
iterative 브모맛 브모 드마 비마 모이
bumomas bumo mao buma bima mo'i

.note that the hybrid aspect is a habitual, gnomic or stative

moods and particles negation tag question interrogative imperative conditional subjunctive optative potentiative
verb affix 카(캇)
ta mo nao yo nis - nas ka(s)
sentence initial 온짤
at - no su nis uun onyal po

nounsEdit

Nouns have three possible endings, a syllable ending on a consonant, a syllable ending on a vowel and having a initial consonant, and a syllable with only a vowel. Some syllables ending on only a vowel are irregular and the ㅇ is seen as a vowel, and thus declined following rules of vowel final syllables.

in this table the ha syllable is used for the vowel final syllable, and the vowel a is used for the vowel only syllable, these ofcourse occur replaced, the same as with the verbs, a back vowel harmony is used, (in romanized script, an x is used on the replacables)

form Consonant final syllable vowel final syllable  vowel only syllable
topic
nun xn -xn
nominative
ak xg kx
accusative
na xm nxm
instrumental
do xd dxn
genitive 오노 한모 남노
ono xnmo nxmno
locative 한오
ho xn'o hxn

Nouns can become a verb, by adding da after the noun stem (without declension) it becomese a part of to be, in some cases this is translated to a different verb in english, but most often it is something is something. when using the something is something construction, most often the accusative or topic equals the verb form of the noun, this rarely is for the nominative.

an verb can also be formed with the locative of the noun, for example

늨일멘머「보캅」나「교갈드례브」허다

nukilmeanme"bokab"na"gōgal-duraebu"heda

nukilmea GEN vocab ACC google drive LOC is

Nukilmea grammar is at google drive

Dumunitives are formed by using the hanzi 小(지) as a prefix to a noun.

오火는小市남火니포닷

otaknuncioronamignipodas

fire TOP city DUM ACC burn down PAST SMPL

the fire burned down the little city

Nouns can have two forms of definiteness, definite and indefinite, normally you get definiteness from the context but it can be forced using these pre-fixes.

besides that yii and ii mean something different than no and non, the pre-fix used is speaker preffered and does not change anything in the context.

indefinite
yii ii no non
definite
ho hol yul huk

yii and ii can both be written with the hanzi 一 , they can be replaced by any numeral.

AdjectivesEdit

Adjectives, unlike nouns, have a more fixed endings, most often on i.

once again, this table uses back vowel harmony!, for the regular xi syllable an h vowel replaces the hangul vowel.

form 미/ 마/나 노/모
xi -i mi/ni ma/na sa no/mo ko ka ba
normal form 미/니 마/나 노/모
hi i mi/ni ma/na sa no/mo ko ka ba
humble form
him min min man san nom kon kan ban
honorific form 히쪼 이쪼 미쪼/니쪼 미짜/니짜
hiyo iyo miyo/niyo miya/niya sam hom gon ga pa
negative form 히나 나이 미나이 마나이 모나 고나 카이 바이
hina nai minai manai cao mona gona kai bai
comperative form 히아 이아 니아 나아 모낫
hia ia nia na'a san monas os as as
superlative form 히안 이안 미안 마안 사만 모안 코나 키아 비아
hian ian mian ma'an saman mo'an kona kia bia
inclusive form 나마 나마 사마 소마
ha nam nama nama sama soma ha ki bi
exclusive form 노마 노마 사모 노모 호노
ho nom noma noma samo nomo hono ho bo

An adjective can become a noun by having a noun declension ending, this only occurs at the normal, humble, inclusive and excluse forms of adjectives, other forms can not form them. An adjective can always become a verb, this most often is translated with the verb to be, but there are some irregular adjectives that translate differently. this like nouns is done using the da verb conjugation, though unlike nouns adjective can take all their possible forms when becoming a verb.

VocabularyEdit

demonstrativesEdit

Demonstratives proximal medial distal question
objectal 오힌 소힌 고힌 何힌/나힌
ohin sohin gohin nahin
locational 何호/나호
hong sog gong naho
instrumental 서던 何던/나던
het seden gen naden
personal* 소人/소도 고人/고도 何人/나도
hot sodo godo nado

the person demonstratives, besides nado (何人/나도) are rarely used, they are replaced by personal pronouns and names, though when specifically pointing to a person the demonstratives are used. Hod (혿) is a weird way to point to oneself, it is compared to talking in 3rd person to yourself in english.

Personal pronounsEdit

personal pronouns formal normal intimate rude
1st pers 미타란 프탈
mitalan putal yoong
1st pers male 프너 오너 버쫑
pune one beyong
1st pers male 란 / 이안 버란
lan / ian belan
1st pers female 으니찬 으이차 으짜
unizan uiza uya
2nd pers 가헤란 거나 가안
gaheran gena ga'an
2nd pers male 토카가 마거 며허
tokaga mage ge meehe
2nd pers female 쪼타카 사히
yotaka sahi
3rd pers 미고도 소도 쩌옵
migodo sodo yeob
3rd pers +* 이으도 츄넌
iudo zuunen

The third pers sing + is used to talk about a person of the opposite sex, most often used to reffer to a crush, girl/boyfriend or to someone who has a (romantic) relation ship to the other person you're talking about.

the second person male/female is the gender of the person speaking, it does say nothing about the gender of the person speaking to.

for creating plural forms the affix 타지(taci) is used, for duals the affix 탄니(tanni) is used.

NumeralsEdit

Demonstratives x x (hanzi) 10^x 10^x (hanzi)
0 어초 -
ezo uu
1
ii nuu
2
nii zuu
3
zii yuu
4
pii huu
5 뉴휴 十万
hong nuuhuu
6 츄휴 百万
pu zuuhuu
7 쮸휴 千万
tao yuuhuu
8
tan men
9 뉴먼 十億
huul nuumen

Example textEdit

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