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Nureki

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 Nureki - Noraqçı
Morphological Type: Agglutinative
Morphosyntactic Alignment: Nominative-Accusative
Linguistic Head: Head Initial
Word Order: SOV
Made by: Maxseptillion77


General InformationEdit

Nureki, (Nureki: noraqçı ; Tajik: Норакӣ, Norakī), is a turkic language taking root in Sogdia along side the local Sogdian and Tajik languages. It comes primarily from Old Turkish and Farsi loans. Reletively recently, Russian loans began appearing mainly for recent advancements such as the computer or the nuclear bomb. Nureki is an agglutinative language using various suffixes to express grammatical relationships. Another feature of Nureki is the creation of new verbs by attaching a root to the verb (such as attaching prepositions to verb roots in French).

Phonology and OrthographyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal m n
Plosive p b t d tʃ c k g q
Fricative s z ʃ h
Liquid w l~ɫ r j (ɫ)

Allophony and MorphophonologyEdit

[l~ɫ] works like Russian: [ɫ] is usually everywhere except before palatal vowels where it becomes [l].

Vowel harmony occurs with every word (see Vowel Harmony and Ğ)

/l/ becomes /ğ/ before another consonant. 

VowelsEdit

Front Back
Close i i: y y: ɯ ɯ: u u:
Mid e e: ø ø: o o:
Low ɑ ɑ:
Diphthongs: {aɪ̯ eɪ̯ ɵʏ̯ oʊ̯}

Vowel Harmony and ĞEdit

Nureki features a slightly irregular and mandatory vowel harmony which matches front/back vowels. The system works head-initially where the vowel in the syllable following the one of the static vowel will change front/backness to agree (for example, -lar/-lerhööt, tree, has a front vowel. So, when the plural marker is attached, it takes a front vowel: höötler, trees. To compare, dokat, nine, has a back vowel. So, the opposite happens and the collective marker takes a back vowel: dokatlar, nines). 

These are the relationships:

Front Back
i <-> ɯ
e > ɯ
y <-> u
ø <-> o
e < ɑ
ɑ* > o*
e* > ø*

(*) This is a rounding changing which applies rarely in certain suffixes in the same fashion as the front/back change. The vowel that will change will agree to the roundness of the preceding syllable's vowel's roundness and front/backness. For exmaple, the collective suffix, -ağ. This suffix can be the following: -ağ, -eğ, -oğ, -öğ. Note the following: oğr, fortune/luck, becomes oğroğ; daş, spider, becomes daşağ; çeriğ, army, becomes çeriğeğ. 

Writing SystemEdit

There are two alphabets: the old, Soviet-era Cyrillic one and the newer, pan-turkic Latin one. Gradually, but surely, the Latin variant is overtaking the Cyrillic one therefore the article will be written with the Latin one.

Cyrillic

А , Б , Г , Д , Е , Ё , З , И , Й , К , Ќ , Л , М , Н , О , П , Р , С , Т , У , Ў ,  Х , Ч , Ж , Ш , Ы , Ю 

{ a , b , g , d , e , ø , z , i , j , k , c , l~ɫ , m , n , o , p , r , s , t , u , w , h , tʃ , dʒ , ʃ , ɯ , y }

Long vowels recieve a macron. When the Soviet alphabet was used, the sound /q/ hadn't developed yet, so to represent this phoneme, the most common symbol is къ or қ. The same applies to /c/, which is represented by кь or ќ.

Latin

A , B , C , Ç , D , E , G , Ğ , H , İ , I , K , Ķ , L , M , N , O , Ö , P , Q , R , S , Ş , T , U , Ŭ , W , Y , Z

{ a , b , dʒ , tʃ , d , e , g , ~ , h , i , ɯ , k , c , l~ɫ , m , n , o , ø , p , q , r , s , ʃ , t , u , y , w , j , z }

Ğ ğ is a special letter with no clear value. Instead, it is a sort of auxiliary letter to mark diphthongs on certain letters. They include:

  • Ağ ağ - [aɪ̯]
  • Eğ eğ - [eɪ̯]
  • Oğ oğ - [oʊ̯]
  • Öğ öğ - [ɵʏ̯]

Any other combination however is silent such as between vowels or after a vowel not listed above. Long vowels a written doubly. 

GrammarEdit

NounsEdit

Nouns do not decline to anything. Instead, they are a root with various suffixes put thereon and compound verbs. 

Order of MorphemesEdit

fill in later

But, as a sketch, it'll be: plurality, case, possession

CaseEdit

There are 8 cases. All cases come directly from Old Turkic. Cases fuse with suffixes of possession (although, most are simply suffixes on suffixes). None of these suffixes are applied to the roundness change, except with a few exceptions. 

In the table, each case will be shown with its potentially fused suffix of possession.

1st 2nd 3rd
Nominative -∅
Singular -(i)m / -(ı)m -(i)n / -(ı)n -i / -si / -ı / -sı
Plural -miz / -mız -niz / -nız -leri / -ları
Genitive -nin / -nın
Singular -inim / -ınım -inin / -ının -nin / -nın
Plural -nimiz / -nımız -niniz / -nınız -ninleri / -nınları
Dative -ke / -ka
Singular -kem / -kam -ken / kan -kesi / kası
Plural -kemiz / -kamız -keniz / kanız -keleri / kaları
Accusative -iğ / -ığ
Singular -iğm / -ığm -iğn / -ığn -iğ / -ığ
Plural -iğmiz / -ığmız -iğniz / -ığnız -iğleri / -ığları
Ablative -din / -dın
Singular -dim / -dım -dinen / -dının -dine / -dını
Plural -dimiz / -dımız -diniz / -dınız -dileri / -diları
Directional -erü / -aru
Singular -erüm / -arum  -erün / -arun -erüsi / -arusı
Plural -erümiz / -arumız -erümiz / -arunız -erüyiri / -aruyırı
Semblative -leyi / -layı
Singular -leyim / -layım -leyin / -layın -leyisi / -layısı
Plural -leyimiz / -layımız -leyiniz / -layınız -leyisi / -layısı
Instrumental -(i)n / -(ı)n
Singular -(i)nim / -(ı)nım -(i)nin / -(ı)nın -(i)ni / -(ı)nı
Plural -(i)nimiz / -(ı)nımız -(i)niniz / -(ı)nınız -(i)nleri / -(ı)nları
Locative -de / -da
Singular -dem / dam -den / -dan -desi / -dası
Plural -demiz / -damız -deniz / -danız -deleri / -daları
Comparative -reḳ / -raq
Singular -rekim / -rakım -rekin / -rakın -reki / -rakı
Plural -rekimiz / -rakımız -rekiniz / -rakınız -reçleri / -raqları
PluralityEdit

There are two numbers: singular and plural. Singular is unmarked, and the plural takes the suffix -lar/-ler (agrees with the vowel harmony). The plural form also happens to be a formality marker when speaking to people of high authority where it would be attached to the appropriate word (for example, the word bodşa, king, would take the pseudo-plural formal marker, becoming bodşa, when used as a vocative or addressing a monarch in anyway) fix.

Some nouns can be "collective" which is equivalent to Germanic "mass" nouns. This is indicated by the suffix -ağ. This suffix is better explained under Vowel Harmony.  

PossessionEdit

These suffixes indicate possession or relationship of the word attached thereto. There is a cetain sandhi with singular number suffixes. After vowels or ğ, the suffixes does not take a vowel. For example, denırıdenırı-m but gırgır-ım. This is similar to the 3rd person suffix: denırıdenırı-sı but gırgır-ı. The 3rd person plural suffix follows the same patter as the collective suffix -ağ (information under Vowel Harmony). 

Singular Plural
1st -(i)m -miz
2nd -(i)n -niz
3rd -i / -si -ları

AdjectivesEdit

Adjectives are much looser than in English or romance languages where often times, an adjective can equally be a noun. When a possessive suffix is put thereon, the adjective represents the quality of the owner. Adjectives themselves can also be suffixed after a fully suffixed verb as an adverb. 

However, a given noun can be clarified as an adjective with the suffix -liğ/-lığ.  

Adjunct / AdverbEdit

A noun or postposition is put into the instrumental case when it functions as an adjunct (adverb to a noun). A noun, postposition, or adjective receives the suffix -ti / -tı.

Derivatives and SuffixesEdit

Those with an asterisk are applicable to adjectives as well. Those with two asterisks are only for adjectives.

  • -(i/ı)ç

The first diminutive is used solely with the first person possessive suffixes, -(i/ı)m, to show a sense of the endearment of the object by the speaker. (anaçım = my [dearest] mom; güdegüçim = my [dearest] son-in-law).

  • -kine / -kını

The second diminutive which is used to give a sense of smallness or belittlement to the object by the speaker. (dağ mountain > dağkını hill ; or city > orkını small, trade/farm town)

In English (loose): -y/-ie/-ey

  • -siğ / -sığ

Only used with adjectives, it means "similar to." (ağdunlı golden > ağdunlısığ gilded ; caşlı old/aged > caşlısığ aged-esuqe / elden-like)

In English: -like-esque-ish

  • -eyüt / -ayut

An honorific that is applied to white-collar-esque people and soldier (such as a merchant, a soldier, a business) as a form of respect, signigaling that they have honor. (serböz soldier > serbözeyüt honorable veteran)

  • -deş / -daş

Someone who is a follower of something, usually a religion.  In English: -ist , -ian

  • -çi* / -çı

It is used to name a language, an national group, or a profession.

In English: -ian-ese-ish-er-or

  • -siz / -sız

Can be applied to both nouns and adjectives although meaning different things. When attached to nouns, it means, in essence, "without" or "a lack of." However, when attached to an adjective, it negates the quality of the adjective. (çeriide in an army > çeriidesiz without being in an army ; ağtunlı golden > ağtunlısız not-golden)

  • -(i/ü/ı/u)m

Only put on certain nouns and adjectives which are gendered to represent the feminine form of that noun (e.g. dirni, god > dirnim, goddess)

---157---

PronounsEdit

Personal PronounsEdit

1st and 2nd
1st 2nd
Sing. Plur. Sing. Plur.
Nominative bün büz hin hiz
Genitive böning bözing hening hezing
Dative bona büzne hana hizne
Accusative böni büzni hini hizni
Ablative böntin büznidin hintin hiznidin
Directional bonaru büznerü hanaru hiznerü
Semblative bünleyi büzleyi hinleyi hizleyi
Instrumental bünde büzde hinde hizde
Locative bünte büzte hinte hizte
Comparative  bürneḳ bürzeḳ hirneḳ hirzeḳ
3rd and Determiner
Determiners, which are like adjectives, don't take cases; they stay in the "nominative" case (which is just the raw noun without being declined).
Proximal Distal
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Mas/Neu Fem Mas/Neu Fem Mas/Neu Fem Mas/Neu Fem
Nominative bu bum bolar bomlar oğ / an oğm golar / anlar gomlar
Genitive bun bunum bolarnın bomlarnın anı anım golarnın gomlarnın
Dative buna bunam bolarka bomlarka ana anam golarka gomlarka
Accusative bunı bunım bolarnı bomlarnı anı anım golarnı gomlarnı
Ablative buntın buntınım bolardın bomlardın antın antınım golardın gomlardın
Directional birü - birüler - anaru anarum golarğaru gomlarğaru
Semblative bünleyü bünleyüm bünler bümler enleyü enleyüm golarayu gomlarayu
Instrumental bunu bunum bunular bunumlar anın anınım golarnın gomlarnı
Locative bunta buntam bolarda bomlarda anta antam golarda gomlarda
Comparative borneḳ bornekim bolarneḳ bomlarneḳ anaq anakım golarnaq gomlarnaq

VerbsEdit

ConjugationEdit

The conjugation of a verb is done through various suffixes (as with nouns). 

BASE.non-finite marker.mood-voice-tense-person/number

Item: positive morpheme, negative morpheme; a dash, /, indicates before vowel/before consonant

  • Mood:
    • Indicative: -∅-
    • Potential: u- / ü-
    • Continuous: ir- / ır-
  • Voice
    • Active: -∅-
    • Passive: -il-/-iğ- / -ıl-/-ığ   (*potential passive: üül-/üüğ-/uul-/uuğ-)
  • Tense
    • Present: -∅--m(e/a)-   
    • Perfect: -miş-/-mış--madok-/-madoq-/-medök-/-medöç-
    • Future: -eğ-/-ağ--meçi-/-maçı-
    • Conditional: -sar-/-ser-, -mazar-/-mezer-
  • Person/Number
    • Non-volitional
      • 1st sing.: -(i/ı)m
      • 2nd sing.: -(i/ı)n
      • 3rd sing.: -(s)i / -(s)ı
      • 1st plur.: -(i)miz / -(ı)mız
      • 2nd plur.: -(i)niz / -(ı)nız
      • 3rd plur.: -(s)iler / -(s)ılar
    • Volitional
      • 1st sing.: -eğm / -ağm
      • 2nd sing.: -eğn / -ağn
      • 3rd sing.: -zün / -zun
      • 1st plur.: -(e)lim / -(a)lım
      • 2nd plur.: -(e)lin / -(a)lın
      • 3rd plur.: -zünler / -zunlar
  • Infinitive / Participle: -ğli/-ğeli, ğlı/-ğalı
  • Converb (i.e., gerund): -meḳ/maq

Copulae and AuxillariesEdit

The simple copula (as in, the copula presenting equals: "he is happy", "that is a tree", "we are here") is er-. It is placed before nouns as a sort of prefix ("It is a tree" = an er-hööt).

The "place-holder subject" (i.e., "there is" / "there are") is bar-, positive, or yek-, negative. 

The epistemic auxillary is bol- / boğ-.   

Clitics and ParticlesEdit

The vowel of the head noun affects the vowel of the clitic/particle. 

  • eḳ / aq : emphatic particle ; before the head
  • ceḳ / caq : "just", "exactly", "right" ; it functions as a pseudo-definite article, but can be placed on any part of speech ; before the head
  • -mu / -mü : interrogative particle (although, it can be treated as a suffix on verbs; then it will be placed at the very end of the complete conjugated verb) ; after / suffixed to the head
  • gen / gın : functions like ceḳ/caq but for temporal adverbs ; before the head
  • en / an : makes a superlative ; before the head
  • deki / dakı : emphasizes a comparative ; before the head, the head is always a postposition
  • ici / ıdı : emphasizes a nominal/temporal negative (like "never", "nothing", "no where") ; before the head
  • nen / nan : emphasizes a qualitative/quantitative negative (like "not any", "neither") ; before the head

SyntaxEdit

Lexicon and TextsEdit

Swadesh ListEdit

English Nureki Old/Pre Turkic Notes Translation
Tajik Uzbek Turkish
Tree daraq - дарахт daraxt daraxt ağaç
Flower guğ - gul- prevocalically гул gul gul çiçek
Blood gan kan хун xun qon kan
Heart cüreḳ yürek дил dil yurak yürek
Liver ciğer - ҷигар jigar jigar karaciğer
To Eat ceeğli Stem is cee- хӯрдан xūrdan yemoq yemek
To Bite dişleeğli - газидан xurdan tishlamoq ısırmak
To Laugh gööğli kül- Stem is göğ-/gül- хандидан xandidan kulmoq gülmek
To Hear işitğeli eşit- шунидан šunidan ko‘rmoq görmek
To Know bööğli bil- Stem is böğ-/bül- донистан donistan bilmoq bilmek
To Think oylaağlı - Stem is oyla- андешидан andešidan o‘ylamoq düşünmek
To Consider hanğalı san- - - -
To Smell (s/th) iskeeğli - Stem is iske- бӯй кардан būy kardan isqamoq koklamak
To Fear gurçğalı - Stem is gurç-/gurk- тарсидан tarsidan qo‘rqmoq korkmak
To Come geeğli kel Stem is gel-/geğ- омадан omadan kelmoq gelmek
Sun güneş küneş хуршед xuršed quyosh güneş
Moon ay - моҳ moh oy ay
Star cuğduz ситора sitora yulduz yıldız
Water suu sub/suv об ob suv su
Salt duz tuz намак namak tuz tuz
Salt (poetic) namaq -
Stone gum kum санг sang qum kum
Name aat at ном nom ot, nom ad

Al-Fatihah (الفاتحة)Edit

(1) En mehribön we ırahım aatın bülen Allahnın: 
(2) bütün hemd Allahda, Bodşa alamlarnın! 
(3) En mehribön we ırahım, 
(4) Bodşa eeğmenliğ gunnını ükümnin, 
(5) Hin gimi yödelim yağnıztı we Hin gimi yardamka uçun huralım yağnıztı. 
(6) Büzni cularu doğru hadaağn:
(7) cul bolarnın gimi Hin bermişeğn, we nan
الفاتحة
Nureki English Turkish Uzbek Tajik
1:1 En mehribön we ırahım aatın bülen Allahnın: In the name of Allah, the Entirely Merciful, the Especially Merciful. Rahmân ve Rahîm olan Allah'in ismiyle. Меҳрибон ва раҳмли Аллоҳнинг номи билан бошлайман Ба номи Худованди бахшояндаи меҳрубон!
most gracious and merciful name.INST with Allah.GEN Mehribon va rahmli Allohining nomi bilan boshlayman. Ba nomi Xudovandi baxšoyandan mehrubon!
1.2 bütün hemd Allahda, Bodşa alamlarnın!   [All] praise is [due] to Allah, Lord of the worlds - Hamd o âlemlerin Rabbi, Барча мақтов, шукрлар оламларнинг тарбиячиси Аллоҳга бўлсин.  Ситоиш Худоро, ки Парвардигори ҷаҳониён аст.
all-praise Allah.LOC, King.NOM world.PLUR.GEN Barcha maqtov, shukrlar olamlarning tarbiyachisi Allohga bo‘lsin. Sitoiš Xydoro, ki Parvardigori jahoniyon ast.
1.3 En mehribön we ırahım, The Entirely Merciful, the Especially Merciful, O Rahmân ve Rahim, У Роҳман ва Раҳийм... Бахшояндаи меҳрубон,
most gracious and merciful U Rohman va Rahiym... Baxšoyandan mehrubon,
1.4 Bodşa eeğmenliğ gunnını ükümnin, Sovereign of the Day of Recompense. O, din gününün maliki Allah'in. У қиёмат кунининг подшоҳи, эгаси. Фармонравои рӯзи ҷазо.
king.NOM sovereign day.GEN.3rd-poss judgement.GEN U qiyomat kunining podshohi, egasi. Farmonravoi rūzi jazo.
1.5 Hin gimi yödelim yağnıztı we Hin gimi yardamka uçun huralım yağnıztı It is You we worship and You we ask for help. Ancak sana ederiz kullugu, ibadeti ve ancak senden dileriz yardimi, inayeti. Фақат сенгагина ибодат қиламиз ва фақат сендангина ёрдам сўраймиз. Танҳо Туро мепарастем ва танҳо аз Ту ёри меҷӯем.
You.NOM which.ACC worship.VOL.1st-plur alone.ADV and You.NOM which.ACC help.DAT for ask.VOL.1st-plur alone.ADV Faqat sengagina ibodat qilamiz va faqat sendangina yordam so‘raymiz Tanho Turo meparastem va tanho az Tu yori mejūem
1.6 Büzni cularu doğru hadaağn: Guide us to the straight path - Hidayet eyle bizi doğru yola, Бизни тўғри йўлга бошлагин.  Моро ба роҳи рост ҳидоят кун:
we.ACC path.DIR straight guide.VOL.2nd-sing  Bizin to‘g‘ri yo‘lga boshlagin Moro ba rohi rost hidoyat kun:
1.7 cul bolarnın gimi Hin bermişeğn, we nan golarnın gimi Hini gazaw gazğanmışağn ya nan golarnın gimi Hintin dulaşmışzun  The path of those upon whom You have bestowed favor, not of those who have evoked [Your] anger or of those who are astray. O kendilerine nimet verdigin mutlu kimselerin yoluna; o gazaba uğramislarin ve o sapmişlarin yoluna değil. Ўзинг неъмат берганларнинг йўлига (бошлагин), ғазабга дучор бўлганларнинг йўлига эмас, адашганларникига ҳам эмас. роҳи касоне, ки онҳоро неъмат додаи, на хашмгирифтагонӣ бар онҳо ва на гумроҳон.
path.NOM these.GEN which.ACC You.NOM give.PERF.VOL-2nd-sing, and not- those.GEN which.ACC You.NOM.3rd-sing-poss anger earn.PERF.VOL-2nd-sing or not- those.GEN which.ACC You.ABL walk-away.PERF.VOL-3rd-sing O‘zing neemat berganlarning yo‘liga (boshlagin), g‘azabga duchor bo‘lganlarning yo‘liga emas adashganlarnikiga ham emas. rohi kasone, ki onhoro ne'mat dodai, na xašmgiriftagonī bar onho va na gymrohon


Other LinksEdit




Sound ChangesEdit

Key: V - vowel | C - consonant | $ - syllable | f - front vowels | b - back vowel | B - labial consonant | % - around (ie. before or after) | A - alveolar | Y - palatal consonant, [j], [i], or [g] | Ä - {e/æ ɑ} | Ö - {ø o} | Ü - {y u} | Ï - {i ɯ} | V - falling diphthong | f - front consonant

h > Ø
j > dʒ / #_
b > w / _#, _C
V[+round] > V[-round] / _{k ɲ tʃ}
V[-round] > V[+round] / B_
V[-round] > V[+round] / $̀[+round]_
V[+round] > V[-round] / $̀[-round]_
∅ > ɯ / #_{r tʃ p} 
∅ > ɯ / C_r
{m v n} > {b b d} / #_
{ø o} > {y u} / $́_ , Ɵ́
{a ɯ o u} > {æ i ø y} / _Y
{k g ŋ} > {tʃ dʒ n} / A_
{ɲ ŋ} > n ; ɲ > jn / _
b > v / V_V
VCV̀CV > VCCV
Cr > rC
{k g}ʃ > ʃ{k g}
l > ɣ / _C, _#
g > ɣ ! #_
æ > e
{p t k tʃ} > {b d g dʒ} / #_
{ɣ v} > ∅ / V_V
s > h / #_
v > w / #_
{ó ú ɯ́} > g{ó ú ɯ́} / #_
{Ö Ü}w > {Ö Ü}:
ÖÜ > Ü:
Vɣ > V↓
k > q / $b_#, b_C
  > tʃ / f_C
  > c / $f_#

Notes :

  1. /ä~a/ becomes /œ~o/ when rounded
  2. /o/ becomes /ɑ/ when unrounded
  3. Falling diphthong
    1. {i e} > eɪ
    2. {y ø} > ɵʏ
    3. {ɯ u} > {ɯ u} (do not change)
    4. o > oʊ
    5. a > aɪ

–––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––

Best reasource: http://altaica.ru/LIBRARY/turks/Erdal_OTG.pdf (149)

Websites

My understanding of his notation:

/ä ï ü ö a/ > {æ ɯ y ø ɑ}

/č ŋ y ñ š/ > {tʃ ŋ j ɲ ʃ}

  • SOme Nureki words:
  • ööğli - to praise (övgü in Turkish; Old Turkic ög-)
  • ceön - lord
  • yödeeğli - to worship
  • üçün/uçun - for, with the intent to, in order to (+DAT), because, as a result of (+DIR), since, according to, as per (+ABL)
  • cul - road (Old Turkic yol)
  • yağnız - only, alone (Old Turkic yalıŋuz)
  • hurğalı - to ask (Old Turkic sor-)
  • yardam - help
  • doğru - straight, direct, clear, right (Old Turkic toğru)
  • hadaağlı - to guide, to lead (Arabic هَدَى, hadā)
  • hiday - guidance (Arabic هِدَايَة, hidāya)
  • berğeli - to give (Old Turkic ber)
  • gazğanğalı - to earn, to win, to gain (Old Turkic kazgan-)
  • gazaw - anger 
  • dulaşğalı - to walk away (+ABL), to wander
  • guş - bird 
  • ötğeli - to sing [of animals], to crow, to make [pleasent animal] noises (Old Turkic öt-)
  • cocuq - children (Old Turkic çocuk)
  • goynaağlı - to play (Old Turkic oyna-)
  • gıt - dog (Old Turkic ıt)
  • üürğeli - to bark, to bay, to blow, to make [a loud/ugly] noise (Old Turkic ǖr-
  • arı - bee (Old Turkic arı)
  • wiziğdeeğli - to buzz, to hum, [of machines] to whirr
  • baaği - baby
  • haçğalı - to shine, to emit, to radiate; (+INST) to sow, to scatter, to sprinkle (Old Turkic saç-)
  • maşına - (colloquial) car, compact car (Russian машина mašína)
  • aftomobıl - (formal) car, automobil  (Russian автомобил avtomobil) ; afto - (casual) car (Russian авто avtó)
  • daşka - car, wagon, a car that rides bumpely (pej.), carriage (Russian тачка tačka)
  • araba - passanger car, taxi, uber, carriage (can be pej.) (Arabic عربة ‘araba)
  • buşlaağlı - to begin, to start, to initiate (+DAT), to commence (Old Turkic başla-)
  • möçtew - school (Arabic مَكْتَبْ maktab)
  • yanı - new (Old Turkic yaŋı)
  • yandın - again, anew, still, once again [the same way] (yaŋı-din/-dın)
  • yanaru - again, from the top, once more [in a different way] (yaŋı + -erü/-aru)
  • nerces - narcissus, daffodil (Persian نرگس narges)
  • haağaağlı - to sway, to undulate, to oscillate
  • boqtı - happy

Example words

  • alkış - applause  
  • al - red
  • alın - forehead
  • agrı - pain 
  • az - not much/many
  • tag - mountain
  • taş - stone
  • yag - oil, fat, grease   
  • kız - girl 
  • boş - empty, free 
  • ur - to hit, pound, beat
  • örümçek - spider 
  • yüz - hundred 
  • sıŋar - deaf  
  • tut - hold
  • töri - to be born, arise, spring up
  • töz - root, origin, foundation 
  • teŋri - God of the blue sky
  • taban - sole, foot
  • topur - to dry out
  • yaş - age
  • ogur - luck, fortune
  • unıt - forget
  • çerig - army
  • öl - to die, kill
  • çiçek - flower
  • üstin - up, top
  • üze - above, over
  • şiş - skewer
  • çıpık - branch
  • or - city
  • kut - holy, fortune
  • süt - milk
  • uz - to make, to be able to
  • sıgır - cattle
  • yat - to bend, incline, lie
  • yaŋı - new
  • siŋür - digest
  • tat - taste
  • ut - win
  • elig - hand
  • alaŋ - area
  • udu - following, after
  • büt - to come to an end, be perfected
  • buzagu - calf
  • bulıt - cloud
  • tık - to stuff
  • tik - to erect
  • sık - to squeeze
  • kır - mountain
  • kir - filth
  • ırk - omen
  • irk - ram
  • -lig - adjective
  • -kiña - endearment to children and object
  • -iç - endearment for family
  • -iš - cooperation/vying
  • -ka - dative
  • -lar - plural
  • ber - to give
  • -ma - negative
  • -sig - diminutive
  • -siz - privative
  • -kiña - locative
  • -ça - instrumental
  • karı - old, to get old
  • tariŋ - deep
  • agri - bent
  • -siz - without
  • -sig / -dam - "similar to" or "trying to be like" the noun
  • -agut - profession
  • kolo - moment
  • köŋül - spirit
  • kövdöŋ - body
  • ordo - army camp
  • oron - place
  • orto - middle
  • osog - manner
  • öŋöç - larynx
  • sögöt - tree
  • toko - belt buckle
  • tokoz - nine
  • töpö - hill, top
  • törö - teaching
  • yogon - thick
  • yogto - mane
  • odog - awake
  • ogol - son
  • bodo- - to paint, copy
  • olor- - to sit
  • odon- - to wake up, be awake
  • topol- - to pierce
  • altun - gold
  • küdägü - son-in-law
  • -mati - gerund

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