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Nutingka
Nutingka
Type Fusional
Alignment Nominative-accusative
Head direction Mixture
Tonal No
Declensions Yes
Conjugations Yes
Genders None
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Meta-information
Progress 0%
Statistics
Nouns 0%
Verbs 0%
Adjectives 0%
Syntax 0%
Words of 1500
Creator Popilo


Background InformationEdit

Nutingka (/'nʊtɪŋka/) is the sole surviving descendant of Proto-Nutingka, a hypothetical branch of Proto-Indo-European. In an alternate universe, instead of Proto-Italic, there was Proto-Nutingka, and thus the ancient settlers of near and in Italian peninsula spoke this. Years passed and all dialects of Proto-Nutingka but Nutingka died out, most likely because they were not recorded in words while people gradually forgot their vocabularies. In search for a method to document their history and preserve their last hope of a language, in ways not relying on mere speech and memory, the settlers borrowed the alphabet of their more sophisticated neighbours, the Greeks. However, they altered the alphabet to better suit their phonology. Though the Nutingkan word 'alfubit' was derived from Greek 'alphabetos', instead of naming their rendition so after the first two letters, the settlers named it after their first vowel and consonant.

As the settlers became more technologically advanced and conquered the Mediterranean, they, who would later be referred to as the 'Nutingkans', acquired so many loanwords from their expanded territory, that in response to the radical changes to their native language, they called their language a 'new tongue', which is what 'Nutingka' means (compare with PIE 'newos' + 'dngwehs').

As you can see, that name stuck, and Nutingka is still referred to as 'Nutingka' to this day.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive p b t d k g
Fricative f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ x h
Affricate ts t̠ʃ d̠ʒ
Approximant
Trill r
Flap or tap
Lateral fric.
Lateral app. l
Lateral flap

VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
High i y ɯ u
Near-high ɪ ʊ
High-mid e
Mid ə
Low-mid ε ʌ ɔ
Near-low æ
Low a

Glides Edit

/j/ - palatal approximant (when the letter It is followed by another vowel, and to distinguish between /jɪ/ and /i:/, /jɪ/ is written as two Its and a macron is placed over a single It for /i:/)

/w/ - labiodental approximant (similar situation as above, but with the letter Un)

PhonotacticsEdit

Syllables are in the structure (C)(C)(C)(V)V(V)(C)(C)(C), meaning that the simplest of syllables is a vowel, and the most complex of syllables allows three consonants for the onset, a triphthong for the nucleus and three consonants for the coda.

In order to not divide a syllable further, the first vowel in a triphthong is read like a glide.

Writing SystemEdit

Letter Alfu Eon Bit Vit Gan Del El Aen Zit Zhel Hit Thit
Sound /a/ /ʌ/ or /ə/ /b/ /v/ /g/ /d/ /e/ or

/ε/

/æ/ /z/ /ʒ/ /h/ /θ/ or /ð/
Letter It Kan Lan Man Nan Ing Ix Ou Pit Ran Sit Shu
Sound /i/, /ɪ/ or /j/ /k/ /l/ /m/ /n/ /ŋ/ /ks/ /ɔ/ /p/ /r/ /s/ /ʃ/
Letter Tsu Tu Un Euthenu Fit Chan Khin
Sound /ts/ /t/ /ʊ/, /u/ or /w/ /ɯ/ /f/ /tʃ/ /x/

Letter Origins Edit

In an alternate universe, the letters the Nutingkans needed were invented by them. But here, in this world, I, Popilo, was inspired by several writing scripts.

Nutingkan Letter

Origins

Alfu Alpha
Eon IPA symbol /ʌ/
Bit Beta
Vit Combination of Bit + Fit (voiced like Bit, labiodental fricative like Fit)
Gan Gamma
Del Delta
El Epsilon
Aen IPA symbol /æ/, combination of Alfu + El
Zit Zeta
Zhel IPA symbol /ʒ/
Hit Eta
Thit Theta
It Iota
Kan Kappa
Lan Lambda
Man Mu
Nan Nu
Ing IPA symbol /ŋ/, combination of Nan + Gan
Ix Combination of Kan + Sit
Ou Omicron
Pit Pi
Ran Rho
Sit Sigma
Shu Shin
Tsu Cedilla C
Tu Tau
Un Upsilon
Euthenu Combination of Un + staccato symbol + reference to the fact that Euthenu leaves the tongue closer to the ceiling of the mouth than Un (close vowel as opposed to near-close, ‘thinner’ or smaller gap)
Fit Phi
Chan Qoppa*
Khin Chi

*technically from Latin Q that is repurposed to read /tʃ/, but Q itself descends from Qoppa

Orthography Edit

Sound Romanisation*
/a/ a
/ʌ/ or /ə/ eo
/b/ b
/v/ v
/g/ g
/d/ d
/e/ or /ε/ e
/æ/ ae
/z/ z
/ʒ/ zh
/h/ h
/θ/ th
/ð/ dh
/i/, /ɪ/ or /j/ i
/k/ k
/l/ l
/m/ m
/n/ n
/ŋ/ ng
/ks/ x
/ɔ/ o
/p/ p
/r/ r
/s/ s
/ʃ/ sh
/ts/ ts
/t/ t
/ʊ/, /u/ or /w/ u
/ɯ/ eu
/f/ f
/tʃ/ ch
/x/ kh
/dʒ/ j**
/y/ y***
polyphthongs write as a mix of vowels, but use a hyphen when disambiguation is necessary (esp. in the case where a single vowel is Romanised as two letters)
long vowels place macron over vowel

*only Romanisation available currently, the alphabet of Nutingka does not have a keyboard

**originated as a digraph of Del and Zhel, but it's too cumbersome to write 'dzh' for /dʒ/

***similar case as above, but as a diphthong of Euthenu and Un, 'y' preferred over 'eu-u'
Nutingka

The Alphabet of Nutingka.

GrammarEdit

NounsEdit

Grammatical Case Table

Case Singular Plural
Nominative - '-s'/'-i'
Accusative '-ma'/'-a' '-mas'/'-as'
Genitive '-dek'/'-ek' '-dex'/'-ex'
Dative '-ti'/'-iti' '-tis'/'-itis'
Ablative '-kot'/'-ot' '-kots'/'-ots'
Locative '-not'/'-inot' '-nots'/'-inots'

The first ending in each cell is a first declension ending and the second ending in each cell is a second declension ending. A singular nominative first declension noun ends with a vowel (hence the added consonant in endings for ease of pronunciation) and a second declension one ends with a consonant.

To match the nouns, adjectives have the same endings as the nouns they describe, except for most occasions in the genitive case. This is to elucidate, for example, that a phrase is intending to say 'of the green apple', and not 'of green of apple' nor 'green of apple', as an adjective always precedes a noun. 'Apple', in this case, would either be nominative, accusative or dative in a sentence, depending on how direct it is and whether it's a subject or an object. A similar rule applies to nouns with more than one separate part; only the first part gets the genitive ending. Unlike adjectives, particles do not decline, as they occur too frequently.

'of the green apple'- 'uiridek malu/maluma/maluti'

'Isaac Newton's'- 'Isākek Niuteon/Niuteona/Niuteoniti'

Also, since the accusative and ablative are such prominent cases, here is a table judging which directional indicators or prepositions take which case.

Accusative

Ablative

Had- to Hap- from
Hante- before Kon- with
Kerkon- around De- down
Konter- against, opposite Exa- out
Exter- outside En- in, on
Enhad- into Pra- for
Konen- within, among Konnon- without
Pir- through Subo- under
Pust- after, behind
Dant- far
Nondant- near
Prater- on account of
Suber- above
Trens- across

Pronouns Edit

Here are some tables of pronouns. The locative case is omitted for obvious reasons. ( ͡° ͜ʖ ͡°)

Pronouns are made reflexive with the prefix 'sui-'/'suit-', meaning 'self',

First person ('I' and 'we'- treat 'we' as separate from 'I', but still plural):

Case Singular Plural
Nominative Ig uei
Accusative Iga ueimas
Genitive Igek ueidex
Dative Igiti ueitis
Ablative Igot ueikots

Second person ('you'):

Case Singular Plural
Nominative ia ias
Accusative iama iamas
Genitive iadek iadex
Dative iati iatis
Ablative iakot iakots

Third person ('they'- 'he' or 'she' only derived from context):

Case Singular Plural
Nominative thi this
Accusative thima thimas
Genitive thidek thidex
Dative thiti thitis
Ablative thikot thikots

VerbsEdit

Tenses

Simple Continuous Perfect Perfect Continuous
Present -/'-s' 'em/is/er -ing' 'kaf -d/-id' 'kaf isarid -ing'
Past '-d'/'-id' 'vas/ver -ing' 'kad -d/-id' 'kad isarid -ing'
Future 'vell' 'vell isari -ing' 'vell kaf -d/id' 'vell kaf isarid -ing'

'Isari' ('to be', where '-ari/-ri' is an infinitive suffix) is the infinitive form of 'is' ('is'). 'Isarid', being the past form of 'isari', means 'been'. Only third person singulars use 'is' and simple present verbs that end with 's'. Only first person singulars may use 'em'. 'Vas' is only shared among the first and third persons.

To make a verb an imperative, simply add '-di/-i' when addressing one person, or '-dite/-ite' to many.

When describing a verb with an adverb, add '-li' to an adjective.

Add '-ing' to make a verb a gerund, but one will rarely have to do this.

'Hapi!', thi dicid, in e konteruelhoning uiama, ueitis.- 'Begone! (lit. preposition 'from', but as an imperative)', he said, in an unwelcoming way, to us.

SyntaxEdit

Sentences follow the structure S-V-O.

LexiconEdit

Basic vocabulary (see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indo-European_vocabulary for comparison):

Family: Edit

Mother- modar

Father- podar

Brother- bredar

Sister- sisdar

Daughter- dedar

Son- sun

Nephew- nifat

Brother in law- defar

Daughter in law- snuar

Mother in law- suagar

People: Edit

Person- gemon

Man- hanar, bir

Woman- guin

Pronouns, particles: Edit

I- Ig

Me (accusative)- Iga

Me (dative)- Igiti

Mine, my- man, Igek

You (nom. sing.)- thu

We, us- uei, nus

You (nom. and acc. plu.)- ia, iamas

Oneself- sui

What- kat

Who- kiu

And, any- et, ka

Not, no- non

Numbers: Edit

Same- hom

One- on

Two- do

Three- trei

Four- ket

Five- pangk

Six- sez

Seven- seb

Eight- ekht

Nine- nin

Ten- den

Twenty- bingkti

Hundred- kint

Anatomy: Edit

Tear- tiar

Tongue- tingka

Blood- aim

Chin- kin

Knee- keni

Tooth- don

Bone- oz

Ear- aus

Ear- oko

Heart- kor

Nose- noz

Foot- fod

Liver- yepar

Animals: Edit

Horse- eku

Cow- bou

Sheep- ouo

Bear- uk

Dog- kien

Mouse- mou

Pig- su

Wolf- lup

Goose- gu

Duck- anit

Agriculture: Edit

Grain- gran

Field- akar

Plow- arkha

Milk (verb or noun)- melk

Grind- mil

Honey- mel

Mead- med

Salt- sel

To sow, seed- soua, sem

Yoke- yug

Bodily Functions: Edit

Breathe- anim

Sleep- suem

Sweat- sued

Eat- eta

Drink- biba

Produce- kigna

Grow- ogna

Live- uika

Die- mora

States: Edit

Hear- klua

See- uida

Know- ueda

Recognize, know- konana, kona

Be ignorant of- nonkona

Think- menta

Declare, say- seka, weka

Ask- preka

Name- nam

Natural Features: Edit

Star- astar

Day- dier

God- deuar

Sun- sol

Moon- mon

Earth- umer

Water- uatar

Tree- trei

Wind- uentar

Snow- snekar

Fire- fir

Warm- uarma

Light- luk

Adjectives: Edit

Mid- medi

Big- makhr

Heavy- grau

Light- lehit

Red- rubi

Other- ali

New- nu

Young- iuben

Old- sen

Naked- nakan

Construction: Edit

Door- dur

House- dom

Wheel- sikle

Sew- sou

Construct- teksa

Weave- uiba

Work- urga

Clothe- uaera

Motion: Edit

Is- is

Become- isarihon

Sit- sida

Lie down- laekha

Bed- keit

Stand- standa

Go- goa

Come- hona

Follow- sekua

Carry- ber

Convey- behia

Drive- aga

Place- deha

Give- dona

Grab- kafa

Take- khaba

Kill- bania

Abandon- leiga

Time: Edit

Yesterday- iisterdier

Night- nakht

Dawn- ausra

Winter- khiem

Spring- bar

Experienced, last year- ueti, ultueti

Year- ier

Example textEdit

Ig donad igek iubenboum Jonti.- I gave my young cow (=calf) to John.

Ig vell dona igek anitam iati.- I will give my duck to you.

Ig vell goa had Hellēnesa.- I will go to Greece.

In di trensparonot, Deuar kondehad di keilomas et di umera.- In the beginning, God created the heavens and the earth.