| Nyaěmu |
|Nouns decline according to...|
|Verbs conjugate according to...|
I was inspired by the Sumerian language (in some categories, at least) and - to some extent - Tolkien's Quenya.
This language had once been spoken by a civilization of the same name, that formed a seafaring empire in the region of the Five Seas. They founded multiple colonies and gained wide knowledge about the world, stored in the so-called 'Houses of Wisdom'; unfortunately, economical crisis and accompanying political strife weakened them so much, that they fell victim to a coalition of peoples (apparently led by several Aqͣqarͤrhat colonies, intending to gain more influence in the region) that nearly wiped them out. Only a remnant lives today. They started to use the languages of the other tribes inhabiting the island, although Nyaěmu remained a language of lore (like Latin in the Reality or Quenya in Tolkien's Ea).
The Mynnayan Nyaěmu population occupies the islands's lowlands (in the north-eastern part). They live in several villages. Men are usually farmers or shepherds, and women are mostly weavers. They speak a dialect of Gauloinde, who inhabit the city of Nukka that lies near their settlements.
Although spoken Nyaěmu is now extinct, there are nevertheless large quantities of ancient Nyaěmu texts that are still preserved in a House of Knowledge in the mountainous region of the island. The local Khrit people are now guarding it and taking care of its resources; that even led to a division in their society, producing several specialized castes, with the highest one being able to converse freely in the language and to have the full access to the knowledge stored in the House.
Classification and DialectsEdit
The Nyaěmu language is an isolate; it seems that it used to have a few relatives, but, after, becoming a koine language of its region, its dominating position eventually put them out of use. Nowadays, it's not spoken anymore; it was forgotten after the Fall (of their civilization). However, in several spots, including Munnaya, it stayed as the language of lore, which enabled some to keep a large part of their former knowledge and achievements. As such, it's rather monolithic, with few recorded variations (just some small ones; think of Noldorin and Vanyarin Quenya).
|Nasal||m, mʷ, mʲ||n, nʷ||ɲ||ŋ|
|Plosive||p, pʲ, pʷ, b, bʲ, bʷ||t, tʷ, d, dʷ||c, ɟ||k, kʷ, g, gʷ|
|Flap or tap|
|Lateral app.||l, lʷ||ʎ|
Approximants [w] and [j] are generaly considered shorter versions of full vowels [u] and [i], respectively; if directly following a consonant, they fuse together, causing labialization or palatalization (again, respectively) of that consonant; palatalization usually causes the consonant to turn into a full palatal (thence come the palatals in the table above), though one should bear in mind that they could as well be pronounced as usual palatalized sounds. The changing patterns are as follows:
t>tɕ d>dʑ s>ɕ l>ʎ n>ɲ k>c g>ɟ
The velar nasal appears only in clusters, when folowed by a /k/ or /g/; it's not used otherwise.
|Mid||e, eː, ẽː||o, oː, õː|
|Open||a, aː, ãː|
Diphthongs and triphthongsEdit
Nyaěmu had several diphthongs, these being:
/ai/ /ei/ /oi/ /ui/ /au/ /eu/ /ou/ /iu/ /ae/ /oa/
...and five triphthongs, basically being simply two diphthongs 'merged' together:
/aei/ /aeu/ /oai/ /oau/ /oae/
Vowel length and nasalityEdit
Vowels have contrastive length (short or long). Close vowels [i] and [u] are considered to be long at all times (contrasting with [j] and [w]). Also, there are three nasal vowels, that are also considered to be always long ([ãː], [ẽː] and [õː]). If a nasal vowel is followed by a stop and a vowel, then it usually causes an assimilated nasal to appear between them (for example, õː + d = õːnd).
Consonant clusters cannot be formed with any two consonants, as only some are permissible. The simplest ones are, of course, geminates; also any two stops (of the same voicing) can be joined together in such a way. Semi-vowels [w] and [j] and their interactions have been decribed earlier; [s], [l] and nasals always precede any stop consonant. Nasals tend to assimilate with the following stop in nasal-stop pairs (mb, nd, ŋg, ɲɟ). Practically any consonant cluster fullfilling the above conditions can appear inside a word; only single consonants are tolerated word-initially or word-finally. Thus, Nyaěmu syllable structure can be defined as CVC.
Stress and syllable lengthEdit
In Nyaěmu every stressed syllable has a pitch of its own, which is contrastive; these pitches are:
- high (á)
- low (à)
- rising (long syllables only) (ǎ)
- falling (long syllables only) (â)
The location of stress in a word is often unpredictable. There might be some rules drawn, however:
- if a two-sylable word has both syllables short, then accent the first one
- if a more-than-two syllable word has only short syllables, then accent the third-to-the-last
- if a word has only one long syllable (long vowel, diphthong or triphthong), then accent it
- if a word has more than one long syllable, among which is a single triphthong, accent the triphthong
- if a word has several long syllables and/or more than one triphthong, accent the one which is closest to the second-to-the-last position (and if the three final syllables are long-short-long, then accent the first of the two long ones).
|Letter||u||i||o||ō||õ, ǫ||e||ē||ẽ, ę||a||ā||ã, ą|
Nouns decline according to class (Human/ Non-human), definitness (Definite vs. Indefinite), case (Agent, Patient, Sociative, Locative, Vocative), number (Singular, Dual and Plural) and size/degree (5 level scale). As Nyaěmu is agglutinative, all these qualities are marked by special affixes (except definitness, which is marked with articles, and class, which is inherent). The order of affixes is SIZE-root-CASE-NUMBER. Nouns can also have possessive endings, inserted between the root and the case suffix.
There are 8 articles: proximal, medial, distal and indefinite, each agreeing with their noun object in class, as follows:
Articles in NyaěmuEdit
All articles (when directly preceding their object) are proclitics, so they acquire stress if and only if the object word consists of one to two short syllables.
The size prefixes can strengthen or weaken words they modify. There are 5 levels of size a noun can acquire: Neutral (0), Amplifying (+1), Intensive (+2), Weakening (-1) and Residual (-2). Neutral has no prefix.
Size prefixes in NyaěmuEdit
And so, the difference between, let's say, a tower, miùn, and a fortress (gwamiùn) is simply the size prefix.
Grammarians are still unsure whether to qualify these prefixes as inflectional or derivational; it is thought that they might have served a similar purpose to that of number once.
There are 5 cases in Nyaěmu; two alignment cases (Agent and Patient), two indirect object cases (Sociative and Locative), as well as a Vocative case. Each of them is expressed with an ending.
- Agent: usually ends in -a or -an in Human class; doesn't have a distinct ending in Non-H. Marks the agent of a transitive verb, as well as the subject of an intransitive one (in some circumstances).
- Patient: ends in -at (final n, if present, drops out) in Human and in -(e)s in N-H.; marks the patient of a transitive verb, and the intransitive subject in some circumstances.
- Sociative: ends in -o (final a, if present, drops out) in H. and in -(e)m in N-H.; marks the indirect object in sense more metaphorical than just spatial or temporal.
- Locative: ends in -k in H. (final n, if present, drops out) or in -(o)to in N-H.; marks the indirect object in spatial relationships.
- Vocative: ends in -ae (in H. fully replaces the Agent ending) in both classes.
Number in Nyaěmu is expressed with endings; to be exact, two Dual (-se for Human and -ul for Non-Human) and one Plural ending (-(i)n). Singular is unmarked.
Example inflection of a Human-class nounEdit
goân (a man)
Note how the Dual and Plural endings in Patient and Locative cases switch places with the final consonants, respecting the Fricative/Sonorant-Before-Stop-Only rule. Also notice the moving accent in the Vocative, and how its pitch (in this case, the rising one) stays the same as in the stem.
Example inflection of a Non-Human class nounEdit
mwálya (a boat)
Note how the Dual ending -ul merges with the final vowels in most cases, and the moving accent in the Vocative (as in Human class, its pitch - in this case, the high one - remains the same as in the stem).
Adjectives and adverbsEdit
Adjectives agree with nouns they modify in all qualities, except size.
Adverbs don't decline.
Adjectives in attributive position can be placed either before, or after the word they modify, but they agree with it in the definitness, so they always have the same article as their object, no matter the position (like in Koine Greek); so, if it precedes the object, one article will precede them both, but if it follows it, then the article appears doubly (e. g., nwa sísil mwálya, but nwa mwálya nwa sísil, both meaning "a fast boat").
When predicative, they don't have an article, and are usually followed (or preceded) by the copula.
Comparatives and superlatives are formed with help of size prefixes and some special adpositions.
Adjectives have several types of derivational endings (or, in the case of so-caled 'primary' adjectives, no special ending at all), and are declined just like nouns.
- -(e)na for Human class, -(e)nu for Non-human: possessive ending (of ...)
- -ila (H), -il (N-H): semblative ending (similar to ...)
- -(e)man (H), -(e)min (N-H): possessed ending (...-ful)
These endings are changed when an adjective is put directly before its object. Some special rules apply:
1 Object starts with a stop consonant:
- when ends in a vowel, nothing happens;
- when ends in y+vowel, or w+vowel, then the vowel drops out, and the y or w gets strengthened to i or u, respectively;
- if ends in a nasal, it assimilates;
- if any other consonant, it drops out
2 Object starts with a non-stop consonant:
- if vowel-ending, nothing happens;
- when ends in y+vowel, or w+vowel, then the vowel drops out, and the y or w gets strengthened to i or u, respectively;
- if stop-ending, it drops out;
- if fricative/liquid-ending, nothing happens
3 Object starts with a vowel:
- if ends with a single short open vowel, it drops out;
- if ends with a short i or u, it's simplified to -y or -w, respectively (only if the preceding consonant is neither palatalized or labialized; oherwise, it drops out);
- if ends with a diphthong or a triphthong, it's simplified to a single vowel (ae- -> e-, oa- -> o-; others turn the second element - i or u - into y or w, respectively);
- if ends with a long vowel, it's shortened;
- if ends with a nasal vowel, it's shortened into a short vowel, and a nasal appears after it (n for a or e, m for o);
- when ends in y+vowel or w+vowel, then the vowel simply drops out;
- when ends with a consonant, nothing happens
If two concepts are to be compared, then:
- firstly, you add the right size prefix to the adjective
- secondly, you put the preposition mo ('from') before the object of comparison, if the prefix you used is to- or gwa-; and if you used swi- or kyu- instead, then you use with it the postposition si ('towards') instead.
You can also use the comparative adverbs.
Adverbs have no inflexion, and they can either follow, or precde the word they modify.
They can be either 'primary' or 'derived' from adjectives by the means of the ending -ya.
Like adjectives, their endings are often changed when placed before an object; and so, the derivational ending -ya changes to -y before vowels, and to -i before consonants (unless the adverb ends in a -i or a triphthong; then the ending stays unchanged).
Primary adverb's endings change according to rules set out in the section 'Adjectives'.
As the name suggests, Nyaěmu has both prepositions and postpositions, so one simply has to remember which one is which (especially that some of them can change their meaning depending on position). Adpositions agree with their objects in class and number, and that can sometimes influence their exact meaning, too.
Verbs conjugate according to tense (Past, Pluperfect, Present, Future), aspect (Perfective vs. Imperfective), mood (Indicative, Subjunctive), volition (Voilitonal vs. Non-volitional), and voice (Active, Passive, (archaic) Middle). They can be suffixed with shortened forms of pronouns.
Tense and moodEdit
In Nyaěmu, tense is marked by morphemes that mark mood at the same time. There are 3 conjugations and some irregular verbs.
Here are conjugations in the Indicative mood:
1st conjugation, Ind.Edit
The 1st conjugation, or the a-conjugation, applies to the verbs that end in simple -a. Although quite simple, it nevertheless has several (namely, 3) variations in the past tense formation, dependent on a verb's structure.
Present tense- the most basic one; denotes actions/states that are currently occuring. All of this conjugation's verbs end in a simple -a.
Past tense- denotes action/state that occured in the past; there are 3 variations:
- if a verb end in a non-stop consonant+a, then -mo- is infixed between the consonant and -a, -o- and -a merging into a diphthong: swâla (to sail), p. t. swâlmoa
- if a verb ends in a stop and -a, the -m- and stop switch places, and the nasal assimilates to the stop; thus, tága (to lift), p. t. tangoá
- if a verb ends in a consonant cluster + a, then the -m- disappears altogether, and the -o- changes to -õ- to compensate; and so, kánda (to build), p. t. kandṍa.
- if a verb ends in a labialized/palatalized consonant + -a, the labialization/palatalization simply disappears.
Pluperfect tense- denotes a past-in-the-past (like English Past Perfect). It's formed just like the Past tense, with only one difference: there's an augment prefixed to the verb. The augment is made of the onset and nucleus of the first syllable (or the nucleus and coda, if there's no onset); thus, the Pluperfect of tága is tatangoá. There are only two exception:
- if the onset is a labialized/palatalized consonant, the vowel of the augment will be u or i respectively, no matter what the nucleus of the originally first syllable really is; so, swâla, plp. t. suswalmoâ
- ...or, if there are one or more hidden letters; it can be just a consonant, or a vowel, or even both; consider verbs like latá (to throw), plp. t. lallantoá (a second l appears) or bḗla (to rule), plp. t. amambḗlmoa (a syllable am is added).
Future tense- denotes a (usually distant) future; is formed completely regularly, by the use of an ending -yen (the final -a disappears, together with any labialization/palatalization): kánda. f. t. kándyen.
Notice how the accent moves to the longest sylable (always respecting the rules, of course)!
2nd conjugation, Ind.Edit
...Or, the nasal conjugation; the verbs that fit in here end in -e- + nasal. Again, while the Present and Future tense formation is easy to forsee, the Past and Pluperfect is harder to predict.
Present: as said above, ends in -e- + nasal; for example, lyěn (to carry).
Past: the -e- in the final syllable changes to -a; there are four things that can happen to the nasal, though:
- it can stay unchanged: twèm (to write), p. t. twàm
- it can become prolonged (geminated), with final -e appended: sîlen (to see), p. t. sîlanne
- it can turn into a nasal-stop pair (n can change both into /n/ and /ŋ/): lyěn, p. t. lyǎnge
- it can disappear altogether (it's quite rare; the final -a becomes nasalized in compensation): kúen (to kill). p. t. kuã́.
Pluperfect: is formed in the same way as in the 1st conjugation: lyěn, plp. t. lilyǎnge.
Future tense: also formed with the edning -yen: sîlen, f. t. sîlenyen.
Important note: There is also a so-called sub-2nd conjugation - verbs that end in a diphthong or triphthong, like maên (to love) or koaěn (to protect). They form they Past tense in such a way that -ae- changes into a single long a, which becomes nasalized (the final nasal disappears): maên, p. t. ind. mą̂; koaěn, p. t. koą̌ (notice that in the second example, the o becomes detached from the following vowel, forming a separate syllable together with the initial k: ko.ą̌). The other tenses are formed regularly.
3rd conjugation, Ind.Edit
Verbs of this conjugation end in a vowel different than -a.
Present: the most basic form, with no special marking; e. g. daé (to catch), îsu (to do, to act).
Past: formed with the addition of -m(o) (final o being optional); thus, daé, p. t. daém or daémo
- if the verb given ends in a single -u or -i preceded by a plain (i. e. neither labialized, nor palatalized) consonant, an -a- appears between the stem and the final -m(o), and the -u-/-i- turns into a -w- or -y-, respectively; and so, îsu, p. t. îswam(o).
Pluperfect: the same rules as above apply; daé. plp. t. dadaém(o); but note îsu, plp. t. kikîswam(o), with a k showing up before the initial i.
Future: just add the -yen ending to the stem, with no other changes; îsu, f. t. îsuyen.
Variable a-class verbs: Some verbs belonging to the 1st conjugation can actually be inflected also according to the 3rd; all verbs ending in consonant cluster+a (like kánda) or that have the final a accented (like latá), along with a few others, function in such a way.
1st conjugation, Sub.Edit
The Subjunctive mood is used when an action/state is not something real, but rather hypothetical or desired; there are also some constructions that require the use of Subjunctive.
The a-conjugation in the Subjunctive is as follows:
Present: just change the final -a into -e, with al the rest staying as it was: tága, pr. t. subj. táge.
Past: instead of -mo, we infix -nw-:
- if there is a non-stop at the end, the suffixing is completely regular and simple: swâla, p. t. subj. swâlnwe
- if there is a stop, however, the nasal goes before it and assimilates, and the labialization affects the stop (displacing any previous labialization/palatalization in the process): tága, p. t. subj. tángwe
- and if there is a consonant cluster, the n drops out, and the final e becomes nasalized in compensation: kánda, p. t. subj. kandwẽ́.
Pluperfect: is formed quite regularly; tága, plp. t. subj. tatángwe.
Future: instead of -yen, in the Subjunctive we will see -olsi, displacing the final -e; kánda, f. t. subj. kándolsi.
2nd conjugation, Sub.Edit
The nasal conjugation shows some variations in the Future tense, but at least the past is formed rather regularly.
Present: To turn a nasal-type verb Subjunctive, just change the vowel before the final nasal into an -a-; thus, lyěn, pr. t. subj. lyǎn.
- The diphthong-class verbs form their pr. t. sub. by changing their -ae- into a long a (not nasalized, this time) and dropping the final nasal: maên, pr. t. sub. mâ.
Past: is formed wuite regularly, as I said before; you only need to revert the vowel before the nasal to -e-, and append -we after the nasal; so, twèm, p. t. subj. twèmwe.
- The diphthong class uses the same form as in the pr. t. ind., just with the -we added: maên, p. t. sub. maênwe.
Pluperfect: as usual, add the augment (remember about the irregularities!); sîlen, plp. t. sisîlenwe.
Future: this one is a bit tricky; and you'll have to know the formation of the Past tense, Indicative:
- If a verb in p. t. ind. ends in a single nasal, just add the usual Future Subjunctive ending -olsi: twèm, f. t. subj. twàmolsi
- if it has a double nasal, or a nasal-stop pair, you add the -yen ending: lyěn, f. t. subj. lyěngyen
- and if it loses its final nasal, then once again add the -olsi ending, just erase its first vowel (as it's suppressed by the preceding one), and add an -n at the end to compensate: kúen, f. t. subj. kuálsin (notice that, unlike in the p. t. ind., the -a- is not nasalized; so, the final -n is added).
- In order to form the Future tense of a diphthong-class verb, just add the -lsin ending to the Present tense Subjunctive form: maên, f. t. sub. mâlsin.
3rd conjugation, Sub.Edit
This conjugation is thoroughly regular.
Present: pr. t. subj. forms end in -l (or -el for verbs ending in consonant+u or i, in which case the latter vowel turns into labialization or palatalization, respectively): îsu. pr. t. subj. îswel.
Past: is formed analogically to the Indicative forms; they just end in -(e)nu, instead of-(a)m(o): daé, p. t. subj. daénu (but îswenu, with the -e- infixed).
Pluperfect: there's no exception to the usual rules: daé, plp. t. subj. dadaénu.
Future: add the usual Future Subjunctive ending -olsi, just remove the -o-: îsu, f. t. subj. îsulsi.
In Nyaěmu, verbs can have either the Perfective aspect (the basic one), or the Imperfective (formed by addition of a suffix):
1st conjugation, Ind.Edit
The 1st conjugation forms the Imperfective simply by adding -il at the end (which usually means forming a diphthong or triphthong):
Present: for example, swâla, imp. swâlail.
Past: swâla, p. t. imp. swalmoaîl (note the final triphthong); tága, p. t. imp. tangoaíl; kánda, p. t. imp. kandoín (note how final l changes to n, following the loss of nasalization by the o).
Pluperfect: unlike the usual manner of prefixing augments, in the Imperective we can (and must) prefix only lei- (ley- before vowels different than i); thus, tága, plp. t. imp. leitangoaíl.
Future: here, the standard -yen changes to -yeil: kánda, f. t. imp. kandyeíl.
2nd conjugation, Ind.Edit
Here, instead of -il, the Imperfective marker is -in:
Present: the in marker melds with the standard e+n/m ending to produce -ein: lyěn, pr. t. imp. lyeǐn; twèm, pr. t. imp. tweìn (note the change m>n).
- The diphthong-class has the -in simply suffixed to the original form: koaěn, pr. t. ind. imp. koaěnin.
Past: here, the marker is suffixed at the end of the original Past tense Indicative form, displacing the final -e (if present): sîlen, p. t. imp. sîlannin; kúen, p. t. imp. kuã́nin (note how an n appears to separate the two vowels; the same hapens in the diphthong-calss: maên, p. t. ind. imp. mą̂nin).
Pluperfect: is formed with the same prefix as in the 1st conjugation: twèm, plp. t. imp. leitwàmin.
Future: as in the previous conjugation, adds the -yein ending (notice the final change: l>n): lyěn, f. t. imp. lyenyeǐn.
3rd conjugation, Ind.Edit
And here, the -il ending is once again used:
Present: the ending is added directly to the stem, unless it already ends in i or a triphthong, in which case a second l appears to separate the vowels: daé, pr. t. imp. daeíl; but: tyaeí (to cover), pr. t. imp. tyaeílil.
Past: the ending is appended to the full past form: îsu, p. t. imp. iswamoîl.
Pluperfect: uses the standard prefix lei-/ley-: îsu, plp. t. imp. leiswamoîl (notice how the i in lei- merges with the initial i of the word îsu).
Future: once again, uses the standard Future Imperfective ending yeil: tyaeí, f. t. imp. tyaeíyeil.
1st conjugation, Sub.Edit
This conjugation uses ending -us to make Imperfective forms:
Present: the ending -us combines with the final -e to form a diphthong: swâla, pr. t. imp. sub. swâleus.
Past: as above, combine the final -e with the Imperfective ending: tága, p. t. imp. sub. tangweús.
Pluperfect: unlike the Indicative forms, it uses sau- (saw- before vowels different than u): kánda, plp. t. imp. sub. saukandweún (notice the final -s change to -n, compensating for the loss of nasalization in the -e-).
Future: the standard ending -olsi is changed to -olsus (or, sometimes, -olsius with a diphthong; both variants are considered valid); thus, latá, f. t. imp. sub. latólsus (or latolsiús).
2nd conjugation, Sub.Edit
In this conjugation, the Imperfective marker is -un rather than -us:
Present: The -un ending combines with the standard final -an to produce -aun with a diphthong: kúen, pr. t. imp. sub. kuaún.
- The diphthong-class simply adds -nun to the Present Subjunctive form: koaěn, p. t. sub. imp. koǎnun.
Past: The -un is appended at the end of the regular Past Subjunctive form: twèm, p. t. imp. sub. twemweùn.
Pluperfect: Is formed regularly: twèm, plp. t. imp. sub. sautwemweùn.
Future: simply adds -ols(i)un to the Present Subjunctive form: lyěn, f. t.imp. sub. lyanólsun (or lyanolsiún).
3rd conjugation, Sub.Edit
Present: The -us ending is once again used (changed to -sus after a u or a triphthong): daé, pr. t. sub. imp. daeús.
Past: The -us ending is appended to the full Past Subjunctive form (the second u disappears): daé, p. t. sub. imp. daénus.
Pluperfect: Formed regularly, thus: tyaeí, plp. t. sub. imp. sautyaeínus.
Future: The standard ending drops the initial -o- to form -ls(i)us: îsu, f. t. sub. imp. îsuls(i)us.
Voice and volitionEdit
Voice and volition are both marked by one morpheme that's different for both moods.
Indicative v/v markersEdit
Since there are 3 voices (Active, Passive and Middle) and two volition states (Volitional and Non-volitional), there are 6 suffixes (added after the full verb form, but before a pronominal suffix) used to mark them (12 together with the Subjunctive ones).
|Volitional Sub.||-ku (-pu)||-mau||-meu|
|Non-volitional Sub.||-nal||-tae (-pae)||-tā (-pā)|
As you can see, there's no Vol. Ind. Act. suffix.
The k and t in Vol. Sub. Act. and N-V. Sub. Mid. and Pass. change into p when following m.
The Middle voice is considered archaic; its meaning is more or less that of Reflexive.
Other verb formsEdit
Nominal verb form(s)Edit
There are two forms of a verb, when it functions in a more 'nominal' way: the Infinitive/Supine, and the Gerund.
- Infinitive: Infinitives are formed by adding -(a)l to the full verb form (that is, inflected for Aspect, Tense, Mood, Voice and Volition). If a given form ends in a vowel (as happens most often), the linking -a- disappears; thus, daé, pr. t. ind. act. vol. inf. daél; but, kúen, pr. t. ind. act. vol. kúenal.
They are used mostly in in order to... constructions or in subject position with a predicative adjective (to live is good), although even there they can, and usually are, replaced by Gerunds. Note, however, that there's nothing like the ACI constructions in Nyaěmu (e. g., I see him eat). Rather, nominal clauses or participles are used in such cases.
- Gerund: Gerunds are most basically verbs functioning as nouns; they are marked with ending -'e in the Agent Singular (the apostrophe informs that it is to be pronounced as a distinct syllable, even after a, where it normally would fall into a diphthong), which is replaced by other endings in the remaining cases, and always belongs to the Non-Human class (with just a few exceptions). Thus, latá, pr. t. ind. act. vol. ger. sg. latáe, latáes, latáem, latáoto, latáae.
In this language, there are relatively few irregular verbs; some most often used have their full conjugation shown below.
Sasâ (copulative 'to be')Edit
Twâ (existential 'to be')Edit
Dù (negative verb)Edit
Baû (to have, to possess)Edit
The basic word order alternates between SVO and SOV. In either case, the subject always comes first. Adjectives may stand before or after nouns they modify, as do adverbs; this language uses both prepositions and postpositions, although the former are the more common.
The language is split ergative, as it behaves like a Erg-Abs in some contexts, and like a Nom-Acc in the others.
The Erg-Abs alignment is used:
- When the verb is Indicative Non-Volitional
- When the verb is Subjunctive Volitional Middle or Passive
- When the verb is Subjunctive Non-Volitional Future
- Always with some verbs (for example, syaên, to go)
The Nom-Acc alignment is used:
- Everywhere else
- With some special verbs (like màsa, to eat)
miùn - n tower
mwálya - n boat
kyitá - n sail
swâla - v to sail
tága - v to lift
kánda - v to build
latá - v to throw
bḗla- v to rule
lyěn - v to carry
twèm - v to write
sîlen - v to see
kúen - v to kill
daé - v to catch
îsu - v to do, to act
syaên - v to go (Erg-Abs only)
màsa - v to eat (Nom-Acc only)
sísil - adj fast
sasâ - v to be (copula)
twâ - v to be (existential)
dù - v to be not, to do not
baû - v to have, to possess