The Phonology of AdpihiEdit
The Sounds of AdpihiEdit
The Consonants of AdpihiEdit
Languages are ranked by the sizes of their consonantal inventories into:
- "Very Small" (10 or fewer),
- "Small" (11 to 20),
- "Medium" (21 to 30),
- "Medium-Large" (31 to 40), and
- "Large" (over 40).
Adpihi has a medium-sized inventory of consonants. However, Adpihi's consonant inventory is almost as large as it can be and still be considered "medium" instead of "medium-large".
Proto-Adpihi apparently had 33 (thirty-three) consonants.
By place-of-articulation, Proto-Adpihi had
- 7 alveolars; rr, s, n, t, l, d, z;
- 6 velars; k, g, N, k_h, x, k_>;
- 5 labials; m, p, b, p_h, w;
- 4 dentals; t_d, n_d, d_d, T;
- 3 palatals; j, J, c;
- 2 post-alveolars; tS, dZ;
- 2 labio-dentals; f, v;
- 2 glottals; ?, h;
- 1 retroflex; r`; and
- 1 palato-alveolar; S;.
By manner-of-articulation, Proto-Adpihi had
- 6 mute fricatives; S, f, s, x, T, h;
- 6 mute stops; k, p, ?, t, t_d, c;
- 5 nasals; m, N, J, n, n_d;
- 4 voiced stops; b, g, d, d_d;
- 2 voiced fricatives; v, z;
- 2 mute aspirated plosives; p_h, k_h;
- 2 voiced rhotics; rr, r`;
- 2 semi-vowels; j, w;
- 1 mute affricate; tS;
- 1 voiced affricate; dZ;
- 1 mute ejective stop; k_>; and
- 1 lateral; l.
The following table presents the consonants of Proto-Adpihi in SAMPA.
In descending order by frequency of occurrence, the manners of articulation were;
- Voiceless Stops
- Mute Fricatives
- Voiced Stops
- Voiced Fricatives
- Mute Affricates
- Mute Apirated Plosives
- Voiced Rhotics
- Mute Ejective Stops
- Voiced Affricates
In descending order by frequency of occurrence, the places of articulation were;
In descending order by frequency of occurrence, the consonant segments were;
m, k, p, b, g, N, tS, S, rr, ?, f, j, s, J, n, t, l, dZ, p_h, k_h, r`, w, x, t_d, d, v, n_d, d_d, k_>, c, T, z, h
By the time of Old Adpihi, five of these (tS, dZ, p_h, k_h, and k_>) were lost. All of the consonants of Old Adpihi were pulmonic egressive, so Old Adpihi had no ejective stops. Old Adpihi also has no affricates and no aspirated stops. So Old Adpihi has 28 (twenty-eight) consonant phonemes.
What Became of the "Lost" ConsonantsEdit
- [tS] was re-analyzed, usually as [t][S] but sometimes as just [t] or [S]. Where it became [t][S], often an epenthetic vowel was introduced between the [t] and the [S].
- [dZ] was re-analyzed, usually as [d][Z] but sometimes as just [d] or [Z]. Where it became [d][Z], often an epenthetic vowel was introduced between the [d] and the [Z].
- [k_h] was re-analyzed, usually as [k][h] but sometimes as just [k] or [h]. Where it became [k][h], often an epenthetic vowel was introduced between the [k] and the [h].
- [p_h] was re-analyzed, usually as [p][h] but sometimes as just [p] or [h]. Where it became [p][h], often an epenthetic vowel was introduced between the [p] and the [h].
- [k_>] was re-analyzed, usually as either [k][?] or as [?][k] but sometimes as just [k] or [?]. Where it became [k][?] or [?][k], often an epenthetic vowel was introduced between the [k] and the [?].
Unusual and/or Difficult Features of Adpihi's Consonant InventoryEdit
Alveolars and DentalsEdit
The distinction between the alveolar place-of-articulation and the dental place-of-articulation is difficult for some foreigners to make. In Adpihi there are four pairs of consonants that differ just this way.
Adpihi is unusual in having two rhotics rather than only one.
The SIL definition of a "rhotic" is "any liquid that is not a lateral"; the SIL definition of a "liquid" is "any approximant that is not a semivowel". Neither of Adpihi's "rhotics" is an approximant, so this definition is inadequate to include them.
Very many uvular and/or retroflex consonants, as well as very many trills, taps, and flaps, are considered "rhotic" in the languages in which they occur, even when they aren't approximants. To a much smaller degree, many laterals that aren't approximants are considered "liquids" in the languages in which they occur.
Usually if a language has a nasal at a particular point of articulation, it will have more than just a voiceless stop and an approximant at that same P.o.A.
The Vowels of AdpihiEdit
Languages are ranked by the sizes of their vowel inventories into:
- "Small" (fewer than 5),
- "Medium-Small" (5 to 9),
- "Medium" (10 to 14),
- "Large" (15 to 19), and
- "Very Large" (20 or more).
Adpihi has a medium-small inventory of vowels. However, Adpihi's vowel inventory is almost as small as it can be and still be considered "medium-small" instead of "small".
Old Adpihi has or had five vowels; close front unrounded i, close back rounded u, mid front unrounded e_o or E_r, mid back rounded o_o or O_r, and open central unrounded 6_o or a_" or A_".
|mid||e_o E_r||o_o O_r|
|open||6_o a_" A_"|
In descending order by frequency, the vowel segments are; Close front unrounded i ; Mid back rounded o_o O_r ; Mid front unrounded u ; Close back rounded e_o E_r ; Open center unrounded 6_o a_" A_" .
The Phonotactics of AdpihiEdit
Adpihi does not allow gemination at all.
Adpihi does not allow two consecutive consonants at the same place of articulation, without an intervening vowel.
Adpihi also has a high-priority violable constraint against two consecutive consonants with the same manner of articulation; but notice that a difference in voicing counts as a different manner of articulation. So, for instance, a mute fricative and a voiced fricative count as different manners of articulation; and a mute stop and a voiced stop also count as different manners of articulation.
Adpihi's Syllable StructureEdit
All Adpihi syllables fit the pattern:
There is a sonority scale among Adpihi's consonants;
1. Stops and Plosives
4. Rhotics and Laterals
If two consonants both occur in a syllable, then the one closer to the vowel(s) must be more sonorant than the one further away from the vowel(s).
So onsets must have rising sonority, and codas must have falling sonority.
It is possible for two consonants in a syllable to be equally close to, or equally far away from, the vowel(s); provided, that they are on opposite sides of the vowel(s), that is, that one is in the onset and the other is in the coda. If this happens, the one in the onset must be less sonorant than the one in the coda (the one in the coda must be more sonorant than the one in the onset).
A "sonority trough" -- a consonant which is less sonorous than either of the sounds just before or just after it -- is the first sound of the onset of the next syllable; just before it, the previous syllable ends, whether or not it had a coda.
Most Common Syllable TypesEdit
Far and away the most common type of syllable in Adpihi is:
Also quite common are:
Less common, but not uncommon, are:
Syllables with diphthongal nuclei tended to diminish from Proto-Adpihi by the time of Old Adpihi; so, also, did syllable codas containing clusters of consonants. Many of the diphthongs were re-analyzed as vowel+semivowel or as semivowel+vowel; many of the diphthongs had an epenthetic semivowel or glottal inserted between the vowels. In some cases one of the vowels metathesized with a neighboring consonant. In some cases one of the vowels was simply dropped. And, of course, in some cases no sound change was made.
Many of the consonant clusters, especially the clusters in the codas, had an epenthetic vowel inserted between the consonants. In some cases one of the consonants metathesized with a neighboring vowel; sometimes this resulted in the cluster being in the onset instead of in the coda. In some cases one of the consonants was simply dropped from the cluster. And in some cases no sound change was made. CVCC syllables tended to be more likely to survive without change than syllables whose nucleus was a diphthong and than syllables whose onset and coda were both clusters.
The Morphology of AdpihiEdit
The Syntax of AdpihiEdit
There doesn't have to be a Topic. Any constituent can be the Topic. The Topic always comes first. There doesn't have to be a Focus. Any constituent can be the Focus. The Focus always comes last. There can't be more than one Topic nor more than one Focus. I haven't worked out whether or not the same constituent can be both the Topic and the Focus at the same time, nor what to do about it if that happens. Unless the Verb is the Focus, the Verb comes before anything else except the Topic if there is one. If there is an Extended core term, then, unless it's the Topic, it comes after everything else except the Focus if there is one. The Actor always comes before the Undergoer except if the Actor is the Focus or the Undergoer is the Topic.
So dominant unmarked word-orders are: VS VAU VSE VAUE
But topicalization can produce SV AVU UVA SVE EVS AVUE UVAE EVAU
and focussing can produce SV AUV VUA SEV VES AUEV VUEA VAEU
and topicalization with focussing can produce UAV ESV EAUV UAEV EVUA AVEU UVEA
The Typology of AdpihiEdit
Adpihi is Topic-Prominent; it is not Subject-Prominent.