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Old Aspatese

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Old Aspatese
Epsöy Arhi
Type
Fusional
Alignment
Accusative
Head direction
left
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
No
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General InformationEdit

Old Aspatese (/ˈæspətiz/, natively Epsöy Arhi [ˈæpsøj ˈaɹ̥i] lit. "Fluid Speech") was spoken in the country of Besörüg.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

bilabial alveolar palatal velar pharyngeal glottal
nasal m n
stop p b t d k g
fricative s ɬ x ħ h
approximant ɹ̥ ɹ j̊ j ʍ w
flap ɺ

VowelsEdit

front back
unrounded rounded unrounded rounded
high i y u
low æ ø a o

Vowel HarmonyEdit

All vowels of a word must be of the same backness except for the neutral vowel /i/.

High Mid Low
Front y ø æ
Back u o a

For example, the agentive suffix is -hhan in whalhhan "hunter", and -hhen in keyühhen "worker". These changing vowels in suffixes are represented as uppercase back vowels (so the agentive suffix would be represented -hhAn).

NounsEdit

VerbsEdit

ConjugationsEdit

All verbs end in /A/, /O/, or /i/.

Present tenseEdit

sg pl
1 ex -s -As
in -wit
2 -p -rOp
3 -0 -rh
  • In the A conjugation, the 1p.ex ending becomes -Us.
  • In the O conjugation, the 2p ending becomes -As.

Nonfinite formsEdit

  • infinitive: -t
  • active participle: -yh
  • passive participle: -lh
  • contemporary transgressive: -Ag, -Ug in the A conjugation
  • anterior transgressive: -mbO, -mbA in the O conjugation

PassiveEdit

The passive gives a perfective meaning to a verb. It's formed by using the passive participle plus the conjugated copula.

ExamplesEdit

biyet "to trek, hike" (biyeyh, biyelh, biyeüg, biyembö)

sg pl
1 ex biyes biyeüs
in biyewit
2 biyep biyeröp
3 biye biyerh

ksunot "to scald"

sg pl
1 ex ksunos ksunoas
in ksunowit
2 ksunop ksunorap
3 ksuno ksunorh

hhaidit "to love"

sg pl
1 ex hhaidis hhaidias
in hhaidiwit
2 hhaidip hhaidirop
3 hhaidi hhaidirh

CopulaEdit

löt "to be" (löyh, lülh, löeg, lömbe)

sg pl
1 ex leks luas
in luwit
2 ünöp nurap
3 ex nurh

VocabularyEdit

NumbersEdit

  1. nai
  2. kemk
  3. kwharh
  4. leg
  5. lugal
  6. düs
  7. krhia
  8. dulha
  9. whit
  10. raso
  11. renö
  12. wölh

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