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Old Aspatese
Epsöy Arhi
Type
Fusional
Alignment
Accusative
Head direction
left
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
No
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General InformationEdit

Old Aspatese (/ˈæspətiz/, natively Epsöy Arhi [ˈæpsøj ˈaɹ̥i] lit. "Liquid Speech") was spoken by the Chesnon (Stanhhan) in the country of Pesoerg (Besörüg) on the moon Chesnon (Müte).

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

bilabial alveolar palatal velar pharyngeal glottal
nasal m n
stop p b t d k g
fricative s ɬ x ħ h
approximant ɹ̥ ɹ j̊ j ʍ w
flap ɺ

VowelsEdit

front back
unrounded rounded unrounded rounded
high i y u
low æ ø a o
  • Diphthongs can be formed from any two adjacent vowels. They are always falling.

Vowel Harmony Edit

All vowels of a word must be of the same backness except for the neutral vowel /i/.

High Mid Low
Front y ø æ
Back u o a

For example, the agentive suffix is -hhan in whalhhan "hunter", and -hhen in keyühhen "worker". These changing vowels in suffixes are represented as uppercase back vowels (so the agentive suffix would be represented -hhAn).

Phonotactics Edit

Word initials:

  • zero initial
  • any C
  • /s/ + /p/, /t/, or /k/
  • /p/, /t/, or /k/ + /s/, /ɹ̥/, /j̊/, or /ʍ/
  • /b/, /d/, or /g/ + /ɹ/, /j/, or /w/
  • /s/ + /p/, /t/, or /k/ + /ɹ̥/, /j̊/, or /ʍ/

Intervocalic:

  • any C
  • /s/ + /p/, /t/, or /k/
  • /p/, /t/, or /k/ + /s/, /ɹ̥/, /j̊/, or /ʍ/
  • /b/, /d/, or /g/ + /ɹ/, /j/, or /w/
  • /s/ + /p/, /t/, or /k/ + /ɹ̥/, /j̊/, or /ʍ/
  • /ɺ/ + /p/, /b/, /t/, /d/, /k/, or /g/
  • /ɺ/ + /p/, /t/, or /k/ + /s/, /ɹ̥/, /j̊/, or /ʍ/
  • /ɺ/ + /b/, /d/, or /g/ + /ɹ/, /j/, or /w/
  • /ɹ̥/ + /p/, /t/, or /k/
  • /ɹ/ + /b/, /d/, or /g/
  • /ɹ̥/ + /p/, /t/, or /k/ + /s/
  • /m/ or /n/ + /p/, /t/, or /k/ + /s/, /ɹ̥/, /j̊/, or /ʍ/
  • /m/ or /n/ + /b/, /d/, or /g/ + /ɹ/, /j/, or /w/
  • /m/ or /n/ + /ɹ/
  • any C + /ħ/

Word finals:

  • zero final
  • any C minus /ħ/, /h/, /ʍ/, or /w/
  • /s/ + /p/, /t/, or /k/
  • /p/, /t/, or /k/ + /s/
  • /ɺ/ + /p/, /b/, /t/, /d/, /k/, or /g/
  • /ɹ̥/ + /p/, /t/, or /k/
  • /ɹ/ + /b/, /d/, or /g/
  • /m/ or /n/ + /p/, /b/, /t/, /d/, /k/, or /g/

Minimum syllable: i /i/

Maximum syllable: strhoalb /stɹ̥oaɺb/

Stress Edit

Stress is consistantly placed on the first syllable of a word, and is never used to differentiate words.

NounsEdit

Number Edit

Nouns can be countable with singular, dual, and plural number or they can be mass nouns.

Dual number is expressed via a suffix -(A)t; plural number is expressed via a suffix -(O)r. ex. kseld > kseldet > kseldör

The vowels in parenthesis only appear when the addition of the bare consonant would violate phonotactical rules.

The final consonant of some nouns may be deleted in non-singular numbers, especially if the noun ends in a consonant cluster. Examples include nouns ending in -ast > -asat > -asor including bounast and anhhast and wörhp > wörht > wörhpör.

A small number of short words undergo a process called harmonic inversion in the plural. In harmonic inversion, the backness of the word's vowels flip. ex. pou "spirit" > pout > pöür

Examples of mass nouns would be hhomrau "hatred" and ixilh "defenses".

Pronouns Edit

Personal pronouns Edit

sg du pl
1 ex si salg
in sehhe
2 perh perht saos
3.inan i it ir
3.α xa lhuat lhoi
3.β pyha
3.γ da

Possessive pronouns Edit

sg du pl
1 ex sir salgur
in sehher
2 perhür perhtür saosur
3.inan yur itür irür
3.α xar lhuatur lhoir
3.β pyhar
3.γ dar

Gendered pronouns Edit

Gender is an interesting topic when talking about the Chesnon or their languages. They have three genders: alpha, beta, and gamma (ilhomenbi, and hherdü in Old Aspatese). Old Aspatese has no grammatical gender, but it does have gendered third-person singular pronouns.

The most prominent features of each gender are alphas' large manes, betas' curled horns, and gammas' bright chest spots.

VerbsEdit

ConjugationsEdit

All verb stems end in /A/, /O/, or /i/.

Person/Number suffixesEdit

The person/number suffixes follow the conjugational endings.

sg pl
1 ex -s -As
in -wit
2 -p -rOp
3 -0 -rh
  • In the A conjugation, the 1p.ex ending becomes -Us.
  • In the O conjugation, the 2p ending becomes -rAp.

Tense Edit

present (0), persistive, past, future

Negation Edit

Negation of a verb is expressed by adding an suffix -bU to the verb stem, and conjugating the verb using the normal endings. Due to its usage of a differing vowel than all of the other conjugations, the negative is sometimes considered a fourth conjugation. ex. biyetü "to hike" > biyebüte "to not hike"

Nonfinite formsEdit

  • Infinitive: -tA, -tU in the A conjugation
  • Active participle: -yh
  • Passive participle: -lh
  • Contemporary transgressive: -Ag, -Ug in the A conjugation
  • Anterior transgressive: -mbO, -mbA in the O conjugation

Periphrastic constructions Edit

Passive Edit

The passive is formed by using the passive participle plus the conjugated copula. ex. Sir lherdi ex ksunolh! "My tongue is burned!"

Modalities Edit

Many differing moods/modalities can be shown by putting the main verb in the infinitive and following it with a conjugated auxiliary verb, such as these:

  • Conditional setü: used to show the truth of the statement depends on certain conditions, ex. I arhita se. "It would speak."
  • Hypothetical oprhota: used to signify a conceptually possible event, ex. I arhita oprho. "It might speak."
  • Desiderative grüite: used to show that the statement is desired by the subject, ex. I arhita grüi. "It wants to speak."
  • Necessative arhkatu: used to signify need by the subject, ex. I arhita arhka. "It needs to speak."

ExamplesEdit

biyetü "to trek, hike" (biyeyh, biyelh, biyeüg, biyembö)

sg pl
1 ex biyes biyeüs
in biyewit
2 biyep biyeröp
3 biye biyerh

ksunota "to scald, burn"

sg pl
1 ex ksunos ksunoas
in ksunowit
2 ksunop ksunorap
3 ksuno ksunorh

hhaidita "to love"

sg pl
1 ex hhaidis hhaidias
in hhaidiwit
2 hhaidip hhaidirop
3 hhaidi hhaidirh

Irregular verbs Edit

dantu "to have"

sg pl
1 ex danus danuas
in danuwhit
2 danup danurop
3 dan danurh

CopulaEdit

lötö "to be" (löyh, lülh, löeg, lömbe)

sg pl
1 ex leks luas
in luwit
2 ünöp nurap
3 ex nurh

Verbal derivational morphology Edit

  • Causative (rA-): prefix,indicates that the subject causes the object to perform the action, ex. Salg rauxaus lhuat. "We fed them"
  • Inceptive (sO-): prefix, indicates the beginning of an action, ex. Sehhe söbiyewit. "Let's start hiking."
  • Terminative (tAl-): prefix, indicates the end of an action, ex. Talarhita arhkap. "Stop talking."
  • Capabilitive (-Um-): suffix immediately after the root, indicates the subject has the ability to perform an action, ex. I ksunumo "It's flammable"

VocabularyEdit

ConjunctionsEdit

Aspatese Meaning English
a/e non-contrasting info and, nor
kwhü alternative info or
hhi contrasting info but, yet
yön rationale/consequence for, so

NumbersEdit

  1. nai
  2. kemk
  3. kwharh
  4. leg
  5. lugal
  6. düs
  7. krhia
  8. dulha
  9. whit
  10. raso
  11. renö
  12. wölh

Colors Edit

Directions Edit

Family Edit

Time/Seasons Edit

Body Parts Edit

Important phrases Edit

Kyherg! "Bye!"

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