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Old Aspatese
Epsöy Arhi
Type
Fusional
Alignment
Accusative
Head direction
left
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
No
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General InformationEdit

Old Aspatese (/ˈæspətiz/, natively Epsöy Arhi [ˈæpsøj ˈaɹ̥i] lit. "Liquid Speech") was spoken by the Chesnon (Stanhhan) in the country of Pesoerg (Besörüg) on the moon Chesnon (Müte).

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

bilabial alveolar palatal velar pharyngeal glottal
nasal m n
stop p b t d k g
fricative s ɬ x ħ h
approximant ɹ̥ ɹ j̊ j ʍ w
flap ɺ

VowelsEdit

front back
unrounded rounded unrounded rounded
high i y u
low æ ø a o
  • Diphthongs can be formed from any two adjacent vowels. They are always falling.

Vowel Harmony Edit

All vowels of a word must be of the same backness except for the neutral vowel /i/.

High Mid Low
Front y ø æ
Back u o a

For example, the agentive suffix is -hhan in whalhhan "hunter", and -hhen in keyühhen "worker". These changing vowels in suffixes are represented as uppercase back vowels (so the agentive suffix would be represented -hhAn).

Phonotactics Edit

Word initials:

  • zero initial
  • any C
  • /s/ + /p/, /t/, or /k/
  • /p/, /t/, or /k/ + /s/, /ɹ̥/, /j̊/, or /ʍ/
  • /b/, /d/, or /g/ + /ɹ/, /j/, or /w/
  • /s/ + /p/, /t/, or /k/ + /ɹ̥/, /j̊/, or /ʍ/

Intervocalic:

  • any C
  • /s/ + /p/, /t/, or /k/
  • /p/, /t/, or /k/ + /s/, /ɹ̥/, /j̊/, or /ʍ/
  • /b/, /d/, or /g/ + /ɹ/, /j/, or /w/
  • /s/ + /p/, /t/, or /k/ + /ɹ̥/, /j̊/, or /ʍ/
  • /ɺ/ + /p/, /b/, /t/, /d/, /k/, or /g/
  • /ɺ/ + /p/, /t/, or /k/ + /s/, /ɹ̥/, /j̊/, or /ʍ/
  • /ɺ/ + /b/, /d/, or /g/ + /ɹ/, /j/, or /w/
  • /ɹ̥/ + /p/, /t/, or /k/
  • /ɹ/ + /b/, /d/, or /g/
  • /ɹ̥/ + /p/, /t/, or /k/ + /s/
  • /m/ or /n/ + /p/, /t/, or /k/ + /s/, /ɹ̥/, /j̊/, or /ʍ/
  • /m/ or /n/ + /b/, /d/, or /g/ + /ɹ/, /j/, or /w/
  • /m/ or /n/ + /ɹ/
  • any C + /ħ/

Word finals:

  • zero final
  • any C minus /ħ/, /h/, /ʍ/, or /w/
  • /s/ + /p/, /t/, or /k/
  • /p/, /t/, or /k/ + /s/
  • /ɺ/ + /p/, /b/, /t/, /d/, /k/, or /g/
  • /ɹ̥/ + /p/, /t/, or /k/
  • /ɹ/ + /b/, /d/, or /g/
  • /m/ or /n/ + /p/, /b/, /t/, /d/, /k/, or /g/

Minimum syllable: i /i/

Maximum syllable: strhoalb /stɹ̥oaɺb/

Stress Edit

Stress is consistantly placed on the first syllable of a word, and is never used to differentiate words.

NounsEdit

Number Edit

Nouns can be countable with singular, dual, and plural number or they can be mass nouns.

Dual number is expressed via a suffix -(A)t; plural number is expressed via a suffix -(O)r. ex. kseld > kseldet > kseldör

The vowels in parenthesis only appear when the addition of the bare consonant would violate phonotactical rules.

The final consonant of some nouns may be deleted in non-singular numbers, especially if the noun ends in a consonant cluster. Examples include nouns ending in -ast > -asat > -asor including bounast and anhhast and wörhp > wörht > wörhpör.

A small number of short words undergo a process called harmonic inversion in the plural. In harmonic inversion, the backness of the word's vowels flip. ex. pou "spirit" > pout > pöür

Examples of mass nouns would be hhomrau "hatred" and ixilh "defenses".

Pronouns Edit

Pronoun table Edit

sg du pl
1 ex si salg
in sehhe
2 perh perht saos
3.inan i it ir
3.i xa lhuat lhoi
3.m pyha
3.hh da

Gendered pronouns Edit

Gender is an interesting topic when talking about the Chesnon or their languages. They have three genders, called ilho, menbi, and hherdü in Old Aspatese. Old Aspatese has no grammatical gender, but it does have gendered pronouns.

VerbsEdit

ConjugationsEdit

All verbs end in /A/, /O/, or /i/.

Person/Number suffixesEdit

sg pl
1 ex -s -As
in -wit
2 -p -rOp
3 -0 -rh
  • In the A conjugation, the 1p.ex ending becomes -Us.
  • In the O conjugation, the 2p ending becomes -rAp.

Tense Edit

present (0), persistive, past, future

Relative tense Edit

  • Anterior: dantu + passive participle
  • Posterior: lötö + active participle

Mood Edit

Mood endings come immediately before the conjugational endings A, O, i.

  • Indicative (-0-): the basic mood, ex. I arhi "It speaks"
  • Conditional (-As-): used to show the truth of the statement depends on certain conditions, ex. I arhasi "It would speak"
  • Hypothetical (-Ob-): used to signify a conceptually possible event, ex. I arhobi "It might speak"
  • Desiderative (-Ugr-): used to show that the statement is desired by the subject, ex. I arhugri "It wants to speak"
  • Necessative (-Arhk-): used to signify need by the subject, ex. I arharhki "It needs to speak"

Negation Edit

positive (0), negative ()

Nonfinite formsEdit

  • Infinitive: -tA, -tU in the A conjugation
  • Active participle: -yh
  • Passive participle: -lh
  • Contemporary transgressive: -Ag, -Ug in the A conjugation
  • Anterior transgressive: -mbO, -mbA in the O conjugation

PassiveEdit

The passive is formed by using the passive participle plus the conjugated copula. ex. Dir lherdi ex ksunolh! "My tongue is burned!"

ExamplesEdit

biyetü "to trek, hike" (biyeyh, biyelh, biyeüg, biyembö)

sg pl
1 ex biyes biyeüs
in biyewit
2 biyep biyeröp
3 biye biyerh

ksunota "to scald, burn"

sg pl
1 ex ksunos ksunoas
in ksunowit
2 ksunop ksunorap
3 ksuno ksunorh

hhaidita "to love"

sg pl
1 ex hhaidis hhaidias
in hhaidiwit
2 hhaidip hhaidirop
3 hhaidi hhaidirh

Irregular verbs Edit

dantu "to have (aux.)"

sg pl
1 ex dant danus
in dantwhit
2 danp danrop
3 dan danor

CopulaEdit

lötö "to be" (löyh, lülh, löeg, lömbe)

sg pl
1 ex leks luas
in luwit
2 ünöp nurap
3 ex nurh

Verbal derivational morphology Edit

  • Inceptive (sO-): prefix, indicates the beginning of an action, ex. Sehhe söbiyewit "Let's start hiking"
  • Terminative (tAl-): prefix, indicates the end of an action, ex. Talarharhkip "Stop talking"
  • Capabilitive (-Um-): suffix immediately after the root, indicates the subject has the ability to perform an action, ex. I ksunumo "It's flammable"

VocabularyEdit

ConjunctionsEdit

Aspatese Meaning English
A non-contrasting info and, nor
kwhü alternative info or
hhi contrasting info but, yet
yön rationale/consequence for, so

NumbersEdit

  1. nai
  2. kemk
  3. kwharh
  4. leg
  5. lugal
  6. düs
  7. krhia
  8. dulha
  9. whit
  10. raso
  11. renö
  12. wölh

Colors Edit

Directions Edit

Family Edit

Time/Seasons Edit

Body Parts Edit

Important phrases Edit

pyharba

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