Old Aspatese
Epsöy Arhi
Head direction
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect

General InformationEdit

Old Aspatese (/ˈæspətiz/, natively Epsöy Arhi [ˈæpsøj ˈaɹ̥i] lit. "Fluid Speech") was spoken in the country of Pesoerg (Besörüg) on the moon Chesnon.



bilabial alveolar palatal velar pharyngeal glottal
nasal m n
stop p b t d k g
fricative s ɬ x ħ h
approximant ɹ̥ ɹ j̊ j ʍ w
flap ɺ


front back
unrounded rounded unrounded rounded
high i y u
low æ ø a o
  • Diphthongs can be formed from any two adjacent vowels.

Vowel HarmonyEdit

All vowels of a word must be of the same backness except for the neutral vowel /i/.

High Mid Low
Front y ø æ
Back u o a

For example, the agentive suffix is -hhan in whalhhan "hunter", and -hhen in keyühhen "worker". These changing vowels in suffixes are represented as uppercase back vowels (so the agentive suffix would be represented -hhAn).

Stress Edit

Stress is consistantly placed on the first syllable of a word, and is never used to differentiate words.


Number Edit

Nouns can be countable with singular, dual, and plural number or mass nouns.

Dual number is expressed via a suffix -(A)t; plural number is expressed via a suffix -(O)r. ex. kseld > kseldet > kseldör

The final consonant of some nouns may be deleted in nonsingular numbers, especially if the noun ends in a consonant cluster. Examples include nouns ending in -ast > -asat > -asor including bounast and anhhast.

A small number of short words undergo a process called harmonic inversion in the plural. In harmonic inversion, the backness of the word's vowels flip. ex. pou "spirit" > pout > pöür

Examples of mass nouns would be hhomrau "hatred" and ixilh "defenses".



All verbs end in /A/, /O/, or /i/.

Present tenseEdit

sg pl
1 ex -s -As
in -wit
2 -p -rOp
3 -0 -rh
  • In the A conjugation, the 1p.ex ending becomes -Us.
  • In the O conjugation, the 2p ending becomes -rAp.

Nonfinite formsEdit

  • infinitive: -tA, -tU in the A conjugation
  • active participle: -yh
  • passive participle: -lh
  • contemporary transgressive: -Ag, -Ug in the A conjugation
  • anterior transgressive: -mbO, -mbA in the O conjugation


The passive is formed by using the passive participle plus the conjugated copula. ex. Dir lherdi ex ksunolh! "My tongue is burned!"


biyetü "to trek, hike" (biyeyh, biyelh, biyeüg, biyembö)

sg pl
1 ex biyes biyeüs
in biyewit
2 biyep biyeröp
3 biye biyerh

ksunota "to scald, burn"

sg pl
1 ex ksunos ksunoas
in ksunowit
2 ksunop ksunorap
3 ksuno ksunorh

hhaidita "to love"

sg pl
1 ex hhaidis hhaidias
in hhaidiwit
2 hhaidip hhaidirop
3 hhaidi hhaidirh


lötö "to be" (löyh, lülh, löeg, lömbe)

sg pl
1 ex leks luas
in luwit
2 ünöp nurap
3 ex nurh



  1. nai
  2. kemk
  3. kwharh
  4. leg
  5. lugal
  6. düs
  7. krhia
  8. dulha
  9. whit
  10. raso
  11. renö
  12. wölh

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