Standard Shax

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Shax – Morráni
Morphological Type: Synthetic
Morphosyntactic Alignment: Nominative-Accusative
Linguistic Head: Head Initial
Word Order: SVO, SOV*
Tonal? No
Made by: Maxseptillion77

General InformationEdit

This is the long lost North African romance language. It manifested in the Maghreb: specifically in modern-day Morocco, the Roman Empire's Mauritania. Shax's country is of the same name, Mauritania, in Shax, Morráni ([mɐrˈrani]). The East Roman Empire's side of North Africa was influenced by Greek and gave birth to coptic and other such languages. Though, influence from Western Romance languages, namely Iberian, have made it closer to those such languages phonetically. It's sister language, Vandalic , followed a much different path, though is still highly respected among the inhabitants of Mauritania.

(*) Look at Word Order under Verbial in Syntax

Romlang Romworld

Morrania, Xarràña, Vandal King., Cirtania

In the photo, Morráni (Shax's constate) is in blue taking the place of modern day Morocco and parts of western Algeria. The Vandal Kingdom (Vandalic's constate) in purple is taking the place of Tunisia, coastal Algeria, Sicily, the Balearic Islands, Corsica, and Sardinia. Xarràña (Xarrano's constate) is in yellow taking the place of a conland around a volcano called Ezgo. Cirtania (Cirtanian's constate) is in dark blue next to Greece and is a fictional island that had been heavily influenced by Greece and Italy.

Sound Changes for Shax are here

The lexicon is found here .



Bilabial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive p b t d k g
Fricative ɸ β s z h
Liquid w ʍ l r j
​All phonemes except [w], [j], and [ʍ] can be geminate. [ŋ] is only geminate as an allophone to [n] 
[wː] > [βː], [jː] > [jz], [ʍː] > [ɸʍ]

Note that [β], [ɸ], and [ʍ] are very unstable. [β] may also be [b] or [w] allophonically (usuallly [b] starting a word or before another consonant and [w] elsewhere). [ɸ] and [ʍ] also occasionally turn into [h] allophonically. Remember that these allophone are not considard standard and are phonemically their original/standard phoneme.


Front Central Back
Close i u
Open-Mid ɛ ɔ
Near-Low ɐ
Low a


Stress falls on primarily on the closed syllable (except if it's ultimate) or a pre-rhotic syllable; if there isn't one of those conditions, the stress falls on the penultimate. Note that stress on the ultimate syllable is on an open syllable followed by a closed syllable in a two syllable word.



Letter Sound Letter Sound
A a [ɐ], [a] B b [b]
C c [k] D d [d]
E e [ɛ] F f [ɸ]
G g [g] H h [h]
I i [i], [j] J j [j]
K k [k] L l [l]
M m [m] N n [n], [ŋ]
O o [ɔ], [ɐ] P p [p]
Q q [k] Ų ų [ʍ]
R r [r] S s [s]
T t [t] U u [u], [w]
V v [v] X x [ks]
Y y [i], [j] Z z [z]
  • (*) Ų looks more like a ɥ written (U with descender). Basically the written Armenian Z, զ. 
  • I and U are [j] and [w] respectially before and after another vowel except with an acute on it. 
  • Stressed A and O are [a] and [ɔ] respectivally
  • N is [ŋ] before C, K, Q, and X
  • K, Q, and W are purely etymological (W isn't considard part of the alphabet but a foreign letter; to type it on a keyboard in Shax, one would press control+shift+grave V. Q is replaced by Ų on the keyboard; to write Q, one would press control+shift+grave Ų).


Letters Sound
double letter geminate
ng [ŋ(g)]
  • NG is [ng] intervocallically 
  • QÛ is used for etymological purposes


Letter Sound
acute stress
grave homophone
Á á [ˈa]
Ó ó [ˈɔ]
 â [a]
Ô ô [ɔ]
Û û [ɐ]
  • Very important to note that the acute is used on every word to mark stress except those with only one vowel since the stress is obvious :) ; Also, in cursive and unofficial works, the stress mark is usually left out unless it could be confused

Grammar Edit

Nouns and ModifiersEdit

Noun DeclensionEdit

Noun cases simplified very quickly: they were standardized quickly based gender where the feminine 1st and 5th merged and the masculine 3st, 2nd, and 4th merged. There are two cases: base and obliqe. The base case is used in the nominative, most prepositional cases, and accusative, and oblique in most other cases. Sometimes a certain preposition will require the oblique case.


V - vowel base. The vowel base can be (base-oblique): e-o, i-a, o-u, u-a, i-u, a-o. The vowel base comes from the original latin forms in the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th declensions. There is no standard way of knowing the vowel base just from the word itself, but most will follow the i-u structure. The stem and vowel are seperated by either or j (for after or i, and elsewhere) if the stem already ends in a vowel.

A common irregularity is nouns that end in -s: in the oblique, the consonant that preceeds the S becomes geminite, or the S becomes geminite if it stands alone (e.g., pats, father, in the singular oblique becomes patts). Another irregularity is with L which, before a consonant, becomes u (as a /w/). Because it happened before certain vowel combinations merged, it may appear as a U, O, or AU, as the old sound change was /ɛw > u/, /ɔw > aw/, and /aw > ɔ/ (e.g., cel, sky, in the singular oblique becomes cus).


Base Oblique
Singular - -s
Plural -V -Vr


V - vowel base. The seperation of stem vowel to affix vowel is the same as in the masculine. 

Base Oblique
Singular - -e
Plural -e -er

Adjective DeclensionEdit

Adjectives have been heavily simplified. Feminine adjectives follow the first declension nouns. Masculine nouns follow the structure of stem for singular and stem-s for plural. Though, there are a relatively good amount of irregulars. The basic declension:

Masculine Feminine
Base Oblique Base Oblique
Positive Singular - -s - -e
Plural -i -ur -e -er
Comparative Singular -ue -ie
Plural -ôs -ues -âs -ies
Superlative Singular -éssm -éssmu -éssm -éssme
Plural -éssmi -éssme -éssmâ


  • -ins: demonym 
  • -ans: makes an adjective from latin and greek nouns 
  • -(û)s: makes an adjective from the gerund of a verb; makes a gerundive 
  • -í: makes an adjective from Arabic nouns
  • -phón: identifies a language or area/people that speak[s] the specific language 
  • -tór: makes a "doer" noun
  • See others in the lexicon


Pronouns are unique in Shax as they take the nominative, accusative, dative, genitive, emphatic, and possessive cases. They are placed before the verb rather than after.


Emphatic corralates to the Latin vocative, the English marked-nominative, and the French stressed pronouns
Singular Plural
Nom. Acc. Dat. Gen. Emph. Nom. Acc. Dat. Gen. Emph.
First ju mi mej, maj nos nov notts nós
Second tu ti tiv ti, ta vos vov vetts bós
Third Masculine es jun ej si és ji jor jis jor éj
Feminine as jan aj sa ás je jar jar
Reflexive se sev sem sevûm


Owner ↓ Owned → Singular Plural
Mas Fem Mas Fem
First Singular mus ma mej me
Plural notts nottsi
Second Singular tus ta toj te
Plural votts vottsi
Third Singular sus sa soj se
Plural jor jar jor jar


In the indicative, the past tense was formed from the Latin perfect tense. The future, as most Romance Languages, was formed from the indicative + HABĒRE construction.

The subjunctive in Shax is used in hypothetical situations, if statements, that clauses (that are subordinant to must, shall, can, wish, want, and occasionally need), and various other phrases. The future is made through a paraphrastic phrase. The optative was formed in a similar way to the future. The subjunctive was growing to be less "optative" semantically, therefore the requirement for copér, to wish, to go before the main verb in the 3rd singular person (the main verb is still conjugated) was developed. Eventually, they mixed semantically and syntactually and like the future in Shax, became a new conjugation. This developed into two prefixes: co- before consonants where the consonant in geminate, and cop- before vowels. Note that these prefixes can never be stressed. 

The imperitive is identified by how it does not use a pronoun (where the other moods do). The subjunctive imperitive, or jussive, came about by the conjugating divér, must, in the subjunctive present and the imperitive.

The origininal Latin 3rd conjugation merged into the 2nd, 4th, or Irregular Class depending of the verb. Note that arabic loan verbs will use the Class II conjugation usually.

Paraphrastic Phrases

The subjunctive and optative futures are formed by to go in the present of either subjunctive or optative and the future participle. The passive is formed by a paraphrastic phrase of to be in the desired tense and the present participle.


Class IEdit
potar [pɐˈtar]
Indicative Present Past Future
Singular 1st pot potáu potarávu
2nd potás potást potarávis
3rd potát potád potarávit
Plural 1st potáms potávims potarvéms
2nd potáts potávits potaréts
3rd potánt potavént potarvén
Singular 1st pot potuér

to go + future


2nd pots potuéz
3rd pott potuétt
Plural 1st potéms potuémms
2nd potéts potuétts
3rd potént potuénnt
Singular 1st coppót coppotuér

to go + future


2nd coppóts coppotuéz
3rd coppótt coppotuétt
Plural 1st coppotéms coppotuémms
2nd coppotéts coppotuétts
3rd coppotént coppotuénnt
Participle potáns potáts potatúz
Imperative 2nd Singular potá
Plural potát
Class IIEdit
timér [tiˈmɛr] - to fear
Indicative Present Past Future
Singular 1st tímu tim timerávu
2nd timés timuést timerávis
3rd timét timuéd timerávit
Plural 1st timéms timuéms timervéms
2nd timéts timuéts timervéts
3rd timént timuént timervén
Singular 1st tim timuér

to go + future


2nd tims timuéz
3rd timt timuétt
Plural 1st timáms timuémms
2nd timáts timuétts
3rd timánt timuénnt
Singular 1st cottim cottimuér

to go + future


2nd cottims cottimuéz
3rd cottimt cottimuétt
Plural 1st cottimáms cottimuémms
2nd cottimáts cottimuétts
3rd cottimánt cottimuénnt
Participle timéns timíts timitúz
Imperitive 2nd Sing timé
Plur timét
Class IIIEdit
dommiár [dɐmˈmjar] - to sleep
Indicative Present Past Future
Singular 1st dómmi dommíu dommirávu
2nd dommís dommíst dommirávis
3rd dommít dommíd dommirávit
Plural 1st dommíms dommívims dommirvéms
2nd dommíts dommívits dommirvéts
3rd dommiónt dommivúnt dommirvén
Singular 1st dómmi dommuír

to go + future


2nd dommiás dommuíz
3rd dommiát dommuítt
Plural 1st dommiáms dommuímms
2nd dommiáts dommuítts
3rd dommiánt dommuínnt
Singular 1st coddommi coddommuír

to go + future


2nd coddommiás coddommuíz
3rd coddommiát coddommuítt
Plural 1st coddommiáms coddommuímms
2nd coddommiáts coddommuítts
3rd coddommiánt coddommuínnt
Participle dommiéns dommíts dommitúz
Imperative 2nd Sing dommí
Plur dommít
estiár - to beEdit
estiár [ɛsˈtjar] - to sleep
Indicative Present Past Future
Singular 1st su fúi sirávu
2nd es fúis sirávis
3rd é fúit sirávit
Plural 1st sums fúims sirvéms
2nd esti fúisti sirvéts
3rd sun fuirúnt sirvén
Singular 1st se fúissi

to go + future


2nd ses fúissis
3rd set fúissit
Plural 1st sems fuisséms
2nd seti fuisséts
3rd sen fuissént
Singular 1st cossé coffúissi

to go + future


2nd cossés coffúissis
3rd cossét coffúissit
Plural 1st cosséms coffuisséms
2nd cosséti coffuisséts
3rd cossén coffuissént
Participle istiéns istíts istitúz
Imperative 2nd Sing és
Plur isté



To make the gerund, you take the present participle, and change the -n- to -d- (ex: dommiéns > dommiénd). The gerund declines like any other noun. The vowel stem in gerunds is a-ee-i, and i-ia for Classes I, II, and III respectivally.


Reflexives are made with the corresponding pronoun to the subject of the verb in the accusative. In the third person, there are special reflexive pronouns.  

T-V DistinctionEdit

Note that when speaking to one's god, one would use the respectful form.

  • T: use the singular form without the pronoun
  • V:
    • ​Respectful: use the singular form with the pronoun (note that emphasis of the pronoun is pejorative)
    • Professional: use the plural form without the pronoun
    • Formal: use the plural form with the pronoun (this is also used to those of higher social rank and by children to adults)
    • Very Formal: use the plural form with the pronoun and the honorific before the pronoun (this may be sir or ma'am to your highness or even Mr./Mrs. President anything that mentions the rank or social status of the adressee)




Being a head initial language, Shax puts its prepositions before the noun. Usually, the nominative case will be taken, but some prepositions use the oblique case historically. In all prepositional phrases however, 


Nouns with adjectivesEdit

A nominal phrase has the noun at the head with adjectives following it. Adjectives follow it in a logical order of which descibes the noun best or which is the most important quality. Therefore, a change in the adjective can also change the semantic of the noun. Though in colloquial speech, the order is irrelevant and one would simply list to their whim.

Genitive NounsEdit

The owner takes the oblique case and turns into a modifier, but it is placed before the owned noun. (mus patts lop - "my father's wolf"). A more uncommon and overall formal way of making genitive phrases is with the preposition di which means "of", coming from Latin  (lop di mus pats - "the wolf of my father").


Personal Pronouns and PejorativeEdit

Personal pronouns are rarely used in the nominative with verbs because the conjugation reveils this information already. As mentioned in T-V Distinction above, the emphasis of a pronoun in any T-V form is pejorative. This gets more and more pejorative as you get father from the particular T-V form: for example, using the basic T form to a king would be the ultimate pejorative in terms of morphology while using the Very Formal V form in a sarcastic tone to one of the same or lower social status would represent the same kind of offense. 


The general negation marker is a non before the main verb and after the main pronoun. Though, specific types of negation may be placed by using non as a prefix (i.e.: nobody, never, nobody ever, no where).

Word OrderEdit

Pronouns and reflexives go before the verb (ex: I'm doing it = «le fáci»).

  • Supine: ųer + gerund (ex: I went down to the pool to swim = «Cemav ad piscín ųer natáns»)


For certain instances, you would make a question different ways: for simple questions with a noun and a verb, invert the noun and verb or change your intonation to a rising tone, [˩˥] (note that most questions like this would simply use the rising tone); for questions requiring an explination (using why, how, what, etc), use the given phrase and the verb normally. More complex questions just use the rising intonation. 


Conditional ClausesEdit

There are various conditional clauses (where X = the first verb and Y = the second verb seperated by ~̣̇):

  • if X is true, Y will happen (indicative.present ~̣̇ indicative.future)
  • if X is true, Y would happen (indicative.present ~̣̇ subjunctive.present)
  • if X will be true, Y will also happen (indicative.future ~̣̇ indicative.future)
  • if X was true, Y would happen (indicative.past ~̣̇ subjunctive.present)
  • if X was true, Y would have happended as well (indicative.past ~̣̇ subjunctive.past)
  • if X be true, Y would happen (subjunctive.present ~̣̇ subjunctive.future)
  • if X were true, Y would happen (subjunctive.past ~̣̇ subjunctive.present)
  • if X will be true, Y would also happen (subjunctive.future ~̣̇ subjunctive.future)
  • if X would have been true, Y would have happened (subjunctive.past ~̣̇ subjunctive.past)
  • if X would have been true, Y will have heppended (subjunctvie.past ~̣̇ subjunctive.present)

In sentences where there is only a condition (like I'd do that), the verb would be in the subjunctive.

Note that all conditional phrases begin with if, «si». 

Subordinate ClausesEdit

These are introduced with either ųi (if it's a conjunction) or hod (if it's a pronoun)The introductory words are necessary and almost never omitted except in very informal or uneducated speech. Subordinate clauses go after independent clauses and are separated by a comma before ųi or hod. The verb conjugates to the person taking the nominative in the independent clause. Subjunctives can only happen after these words and si. Note that nouns in a subordinate clause take the base case.


There are two auxillary verbs used for a copula: to be and to have. These generally work in the same way as French.

Lexicon and TextsEdit

The Lord's PrayerEdit

Our Father, who art in heaven,
Hallowed be thy Name.
Thy Kingdom come.
Thy will be done on earth,
As it is in heaven.
Give us this day our daily bread.
And forgive us our trespasses,
As we forgive those who trespasses against us;
And lead us not into temptation,
But deliver us from evil.
Notts pats ųi é en cel,
Ųi tos nom cossét senctifhás.
Ųi ta renn covveniát.
Ųi ta vuents cossét faciéns en Tér sic cus. 

Don nov pen di dés.
Literal Translation

our father.BASE.SING that be.SING.3rd.INDIC.PRES in sky.BASE.SING, that your.SING.MAS name.BASE.SING be.SING.3rd.OPT.PRES sanctify.PART.PAST . that your.SING.FEM Kingdom.BASE.SING come.SING.3rd.OPT.PRES . that your.SING.FEM will.BASE.SING be.SING.3rd.OPT.PRES done.PART.PAST in Earth.BASE.SING as sky.OBL.SING . give.SING.2nd.IMP we.DAT bread.BASE.SING of day.BASE-SING


The Tower of BabelEdit

Exerpt: Genesis 11
  1. Now the whole world had one language and a common speech. 
  2. As the men moved eastward, they found a plain in Shinar and settled there. 
  3. They said to each other, "Come, let's make bricks and bake them thoroughly." They used brick instead of stone, and tar for mortar. 
  4. Then they said, "Come, let us build ourselves a city, with a tower that reaches to the heavens, so that we may make a name for ourselves and not be scattered over the face of the whole earth." 
  5. But the Lord came down to see the city and the tower that the men were building. 
  6. The Lord said, "If as one people speaking the same language they have begun to do this, then nothing they plan to do will be impossible for them. 
  7. Come, let us go down and confuse their language so they will not understand each other." 
  8. So the Lord scattered them from there over all the earth, and they stopped building the city. 
  9. That is why it was called Babel – because there, the Lord confused the language of the whole world. From there, the Lord scattered them over the face of the whole earth.
Literal Translation
Lit. 1
Lit. 2

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