Sound ChangesEdit

Some words will not follow this exact pattern.

V = vowels; C = consonants (not [j] and [w]); P = plosives; F = fricative; G = glide ([j], [w]); O = open syllable; Ɵ = closed syllable; U = vowels and liquids; L = liquid ([j], [w], [r], [l]); Lˢ = liquid ([r], [l]); S = plosives and fricatives; N = nasal

acutes = stressed; graves = unstressed

Geminates are written twice. All changes affect nasal vowels too unless otherwise stated.

Classic Latin > Vulgar Latin

Here, the language was still very close to Classic Latin. These sound changes occured from the ≈2nd-4th centuries 

yː, ʏ > iː, ɪ
pʰ > pː; tʰ > tː; kʰ > kː
h > ∅
(w, b) > β/V_V; w > β/#_, _#
V(n, m, ŋ) > Ṽ!V_V
ɪ, ʊ > e, o
Vː > V
oi > u; ai > ɛ; au > ɔ
(i, e) > j/_V
(u, o) > w/_V
Syncope - Applies to unstressed vowels only. Syncope can only happen once per two syllables.
lV̀S > wS
FV̀P, PV̀F > FP, PF (voicing matches the fricative)
SV̀G > SG!#_

Vulgar Latin > Maghrebi Romance

Here, the language was growing apart from Latin. Arabic loans also came into the language. These sound changes take place from the 4th to the early 7th centuries. Maghrebi romance was very conservative. 

é > ɛ; è > i!(_r, Ɵ) > ɛ
ó > u; ò > u!(_r, Ɵ) > ɔ
pt > pː/_C
kʷ > k/_(u, ɔ)
β > w
V > ∅/C_#!kʷ_ (this rule is occasionally broken)
á > ɛ/Ɵ
Ṽ > Vn*(nasal assimilates)
ɔr > ɔ́r; ɛr > ɛ́r; ir > jar
ɔ̀, à > ɐ; ɔ̀, à > ∅/Ɵ
rs > z
k > h/C_
Arabic to Shax
 q > kː
ɫ > lː
ā, ī, ū > æ, i, u
χ > h
ʕ, ħ, ʁ, ʔ > ∅ (represented orthographically with a comma)
wː > βː
note that sometimes [ʔ] can become [k]
tˤ, dˤ, sˤ, zˤ~ðˤ > tː, dː, sː, zː

Semitic Romance > Shax

During this time, influence came and is coming from French, English, Spanish. These sound changes took place from the 7th century to the present. 

Stress fell on primarily on the closed syllable or a pre-rhotic syllable; if there isn't one of those conditions, the stress falls on the penultimate. Note that the stress in never on the ultimate syllable (disregarding the closed syllable preference) unless it is a open syllable followed by a closed syllable in a two syllable word where stress would always fall of the ultimate.

w > β / _V
rP > rː
rN > Nː
r > ∅/V̀_V
ɛá, ɛɐ > a; ɔw > aw; ɛw > u; ɔj, ɔɛ > wɛ; ɛj > i; wɛj > jɛ; aw > ɔ (the latter most, aw > ɔ, is different in development than ɔw > aw, so the ɔw > aw change is unaffected by the earlier change of aw > ɔ)
f > ɸ
tr, dr > ts, dz (sometimes it will be [t:s] or [ts:] because of the specific environment; for example: PĂTRĬS > [pat:s])
us > s/C_!CC_ > ɐs
kʷ > ʍ (may assimilate to [w] near a voiced consonant)


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