These tables show the sound changes from Proto-Indo-European (PIE) to Proto-Germanic (PGmc) to Old Shondran (OShnd).

Consonants Edit

Proto-Indo-European to Modern Marterian
PIE PGmc OShnd
*p > *f [ɸ] > f [f]
*t *þ [θ] þ [θ]
*k *h [x] h [χ]
*kʷ *hw [xʷ] hw [χʷ]; h [χ]1
*b > *p [p] > p [p]
*d *t [t] t [t]
*g *k [k] c [k]
*gʷ kw [kʷ] cw [kʷ]; c [k]1
*bʰ > *b [b]/[β] > b [b]; v [β]3
*dʰ *d [d]/[ð] d [d]; đ [ð]3
*gʰ *g [ɡ]/[ɣ] g [g]; ğ [ɣ]3
*gʷʰ *gw [ɡʷ] gw [ɡʷ]; g [g]1
*u̯ > *w [w] > w [w]; Ø1
*i̯ *j [j] j [j]; Ø2
*s > *s [s] > s [s]
*z [z] s [s]; z [z]4
*n > *n [n] > n
*l *l [l] l
*r *r [r] r


  • 1 At the beginning of the word, if followed by rounded vowels ([u], [o]): and at the end of the word.
  • 2 At the beginning of the word, if followed by front vowels ([i], [e])
  • 3 Between original vowels
  • 4 Before original vowels or after /d/ at the end of syllables.

Vowels Edit

Proto-Germanic Old Shondran
i > i
> ei
u > o
e > a
εː > ε
εːː > εː
ɔː > ɔ
ɔːː > ɔː
ɑ > a
ɑː >
ɑu̯ > au̯
ɑi̯ > ai̯
eu̯ > eo̯

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