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Old Vrnallian

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Old Vrnallian
Ynažad
Type
Agglutinative
Alignment
Tripartite
Head direction
Final
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
Yes
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

Old Vrnallian is the parent language of modern Vrnallian, spoken on the four islands constituting the United Insular States of Vrnallia around 500-900al at the earliest. However, the earliest written evidence of the language dates back only to 1217al. The language is commonly believed to be an isolate, primarily because it is very heavily inflecting and has tripartite alignment.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive p b t d k g ʔ
Ejective tʼ tsʼ tɕʼ
Fricative f v s z ɕ ʑ ɦ
Affricate ts dz tɕ dʑ
Approximant j
Flap or tap ɾ
Lateral l

The glottal stop occured as an allophone of word-final /p t k/.

VowelsEdit

Front Central Back
Close i ɨ u
Mid e ə o
Open a

The schwa occured as the reduced (unstressed) form of the lax vowels: /ɨ a/.

StressEdit

Stress landed on the second-to-final syllable. If the last syllable of a word was open, and the last two had lax vowels, then stress moved to the third-to-last syllable: tárzik 'to charge at,' ǯúkʼaly 'O Gael!' As it is regular, stress is not shown orthographically.

PhonotacticsEdit

(Consonant)-Vowel-(Consonant)-(s, z)

TransliterationEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive p b t d k g *
Ejective tʼ cʼ čʼ
Fricative f v s z š ž h
Affricate c ʒ č ǯ
Approximant j
Flap or tap r
Lateral l


Front Central Back
Close i y u
Mid e * o
Open a

MorphologyEdit

CasesEdit

First (Masculine) Declension (čore = man)

Singular Plural
Instransitive čore čorape
Ergative čorun čorapun
Accusative čorer čoraper
Genitive čoraks čorapaks
Dative čoryše čorapyše
Vocative čoraly čorapaly
Inessive čorit čorapit
Illative čorazek čorapazek
Elative čoresko čorapesko
Adessive čoraʒ čorapaʒ
Ablative čoryčen čorapyčen
Spatial čoralar čorapalar
Proximate čorigi čorapigi
Distant čorozo čorapozo
Instructive čoraš čorapaš
Causal čoramei čorapamei

Second (Feminine) Declension (seŋu = woman)

Singular Plural
Instransitive seŋu seŋapu
Ergative seŋem seŋapem
Accusative seŋur seŋapur
Genitive seŋaks seŋapaks
Dative seŋyšu seŋapyšu
Vocative seŋaly seŋapaly
Inessive seŋit seŋapit
Illative seŋazuk seŋapazuk
Elative seŋuši seŋapuši
Adessive seŋakʼu seŋapakʼu
Ablative seŋyčum seŋapyčum
Spatial seŋalar seŋapalar
Proximate seŋigi seŋapigi
Distant seŋozo seŋapozo
Instructive seŋaŋ seŋapaŋ
Causal seŋamuo seŋapamuo

Nouns had gender of either masculine and feminine type. This consistently corresponded to the declension of the noun and was important when using both verbs and adjectives.

Possessive Enclitics

These could replace an entire genitive argument and, like pronouns, also had a neuter form. For emphasis, a genitive argument could be used in conjunction with enclitics but then the neuter form cannot be used. That was otherwise completely semantic. These followed case inflections.

Singular Plural
Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
1 -ke -ku -čeu -keb -kub -čeub
2 -mes -mus -veu -meps -mups -veub
3 -teg -tug -seu -tegbi -tugbi -seub


Verbal TemplateEdit

Prefixes Core Ergative Accusative Dative Voice Mood Tense Negation
Prefixes Core Intransitive Dative Voice Mood Tense Negation

The core, or stem, held the meaning of the verb e.g. from tarzik the core tarz- means 'charge at.' The citation form is the simple infinitve of core + -ik. This could be combined with other morphemes e.g. tarzaoik 'to be charged at,' tarzifečik 'to have charged at.'

Verbal MorphemesEdit

Polypersonal agreement morphemes follow:

Intransitive Ergative Accusative Dative
1 Singular Masculine -ke- -i- -ber- -šet-
Feminine -ku- -o- -bur- -šut-
Plural Masculine -yŋke- -api- -ymber- -apšet-
Feminine -yŋku- -apo- -ymbur- -apšut-
2 Singular Masculine -de- -iN- -epse- -ged-
Feminine -du- -oN- -upsu- -gud-
Plural Masculine -ynde- -apiN- -ymepse- -apked-
Feminine -yndu- -apoN- -ymupsu- -apkud-
3 Singular Masculine -aš- -ihi- -aš- -eli-
Feminine -oc- -oho- -oc- -ulo-
Plural Masculine -ymaš- -apihi- -ymaš- -apeli-
Feminine -ymoc- -apoho- -ymoc- -apulo-

As the above table shows, the tripartite system was dropped in the third person and an ergative agreement system used in its stead. In the 2nd person ergative, -N- refers to a nasal homogenous with the following consonant with an underlying /m/. Vowel sequences between the above were broken up with /j/, e.g. k'enapijaš 'we mock him' (k'enik = to mock).

Voices in Old Vrnallian were active, passive and antipassive:

Active -/-
Passive -ao-
Antipassive -uc'e-

In the passive voice, the ergative argument was dropped and the accusative argument promoted to intransitive. Any agentive nouns took the causal case. The antipassive caused the accusative to be dropped and the ergative to be promoted to intransitive, with any patient nouns taking the dative case.

Moods:

Indicative -/-
Subjunctive -zen-
Conditional -kul-
Volitive -šov-
Imperative -ele-
Prohibitive -ukče-
Necessitative -darma-
Interrogative -siǯ-
Inferential -oŋ-

Tenses:

Present -/-
Future -kna-
Past -feč-
Remote Past -yž-

Lastly, the negating morpheme was -oʒal. Between all illegal clusters a 'helping vowel' /i/ would appear. Notably, with a cluster of -Ckna- the vowel always appeared as -Cikna- and never *-Ckina.

With many morphemes used some verbs could be very formidable, for example:

tarzyŋkejapkudaodarmafečoʒal. It was not necessary for us to have been charged at on your behalf.

Participles were formed with suffix -at' and gerunds with -loŋe.

Personal PronounsEdit

Masculine Feminine Neuter
1 seke seku seleče
2 lame lamu lareve
3 vete vetu velese

The neuter pronouns were used in a completely semantic manner. Used in conjunction with verbal agreement, agreement morphemes were used in accordance with the gender of the referent.

Adjectives and AdverbsEdit

Adjectives declined like nouns, agreeing in both gender (declension) and case, but optionally number.They preceded the head noun. Adverbs were derived from nouns with the masculine spatial suffix -alar, excepting 'free' adverbs. They preceded the verb:

kohuše čore. The happy man.

kohušigi čorigi. Near to the happy man.

kohušu seŋu. The happy woman.

kohušalar k'enapijaš. We mock him happily.

SyntaxEdit

Case UsageEdit

As a tripartite language, Old Vrnallia distinguished the subject of an intransitive sentence from that of a transitive one, and then from the object of a transitive sentence. The subject of an intransitive sentence (including 'be' sentences) took the intransitive case marker, and verbs took intransitive morphemes also:

(seke) likefeč. I went. (lik = to go)

c'u daluke dasku. That is my house.

The subject of a transitive sentence took the ergative case; the direct object took the accusative:

(sekun) dalur č'ačijocikna. I will buy a house.

Any indirect objects took the dative case:

zinur vetyšu hemijoculofeč. I gave the money to her. (hemik = to give)

Possession was shown with the genitive case marked on the possessor:

dalu vetaks. His/her house.

The vocative was used for direct adress. In informal situations the accusative could be used:

oksnaly! O friend (formal)!

oksner! O (specifically male) friend (informal)!

The inessive was used for designating location inside:

dasitke. Inside my house.

The illative for motion into:

dasazukke. Into my house.

The elative for motion out from:

dasušike. Out of my house.

The adessive for position on top of:

mylečezaʒ. On Mlekiezej.

And the ablative for motion away from:

dasyčumke (note: [dəsəˈtɕuŋke]). Away from my house.

The spatial case shows presence in the general area of:

dasalarke. Around my house.

This should not be confused with the proximate, showing nearness to:

dasigike. Near to my house.

The distant case shows, predictably, distance from:

dasozoke. Far from my house.

The instructive case shows the means of completing an action:

dasur zin č'ačijocfeč. I bought the house with (lit. by means of) money.

Finally, the causal case marks the reason for an action:

vetamei č'ačijocfeč. I bought it because of him (he asked, etc.).

Syntactical OrderEdit

Old Vrnallian was pro-drop, so pronouns were optional and primarily used for emphasis. The syntactical order was SOV due to the head-final nature of the language. However, for topicalisation this could be altered, aided by the high amount of inflection:

čorun moharerke k'enihijaš. The man is mocking my farm.

moharerke čorun k'enihijaš. It is my farm that the man is mocking.

k'enihijaš moharerke čorun. Mocking my farm is what the man is doing.

Any indirect objects would normally follow the accusative (SOIV (I = indirect object)):

čorun moharerke seŋyšk'enihijašulo. the man is mocking my farm on the woman's behalf.

Existentials simply used the verb 'to be' (dasik), often with a preposition like c'alar 'there:'

čore daske c'alar. There is a man (lit. a man is there).

TransformationsEdit

Questions were formed with the interrogative mood of a verb (-siǯ-), a direct tranormation from statement to question:

k'enimber. You are mocking me.

k'enimbersiǯ? Are you mocking me?

Verbs could be negated using the negating suffix -oʒal:

k'enijepseoʒal. I am not mocking you.

RelativisationEdit

Relative clauses tended to not be used, with a relative clause being given a separate (non-pro-drop) clause:

čorer tarzijašfeč; vete k'enijepseyž. I charged at the man who had mocked you.

In rare cases, a participle could be used:

k'enepseyžat' čorer tarzijašfeč. I charged at the man who had mocked you (lit. the having-mocked-you man).

Sentential ArgumentsEdit

Sentential arguments used the connective particle san between clauses. Usually the initial clause required that the antipassive voice be used:

giskeuc'e san k'enimber. I know that you are mocking me.

Conditional StatementsEdit

Conditional statements used rak 'if' with the subjunctive and conditional form of verbs:

rak zinur t'ijupsuzen dalur č'ačijupsukulikna. If I had money I would buy a house.

Gloss: if money-acc have-1sm>3sf-subj house-acc buy-1sm>3sf-cond-fut

However, deductions tended to use the inferential mood rather than conditional:

rak c'e yne mylečeze dasašzen, c'e dyvrieske dasašoŋ. If that island is Mlekiezej, that one is Dvrieska.

Gloss: if that-int.m island.int mlekiezej-int be-3sm.int-subj that-int.m dvrieske-int be-3sm.int-infer

(Also note that dasašzen = /dasaɕˑzen/)

CausativesEdit

Causative were formed with the verbal prefix b-. Uniquely, the helping vowel here matched that of the vowel in the following syllable. Transitive verbs placed the former accusative into the dative:

lapur itijoc. I learn the word.

> lapyšu bitijoculo. I make her learn (to) the word, i.e. I teach her the word.

ConjunctionEdit

Old Vrnallian had a few ways of forming conjunctions. One conjunction was a 'unifying' conjunction, useable with all parts of speech (pals). The other conjunctions were suffixes and useable only to connect certain parts of speech: -ǯe for nouns, -me for verbs and -ve for adjuncts:

mabrapu gelapeǯe. Cats and dogs.

OR mabrapu pals gelape. Cats and dogs.

fehkefeč ʒukeuc'efečme. I came and I saw. (fehik = to come)

rapse kohuševe. Free and happy.

In later texts we see some innovations in the usage of suffixing conjunctions to tell things apart as:

rapsape kohušapeve čorape. The men both free and happy. (using the adjunct conjunction)

rapsape kohušapeǯe čorape. The free men and happy men. (using the noun conjunction)

VocabularyEdit


No. English Old Vrnallian
1Isek- seleče
2you (singular)lam- lareve
3hevete
4wesekap- selečape
5you (plural)lamap- larevape
6theyvetap- velesape
7this
8thatc'-
9here
10therec'alar
11who
12what
13where
14when
15how
16not-oʒal
17all
18many
19some
20few
21other
22one
23two
24three
25four
26five
27big
28long
29wide
30thick
31heavy
32small
33short
34narrow
35thin
36womanseŋu
37man (adult male)čore
38man (human being)
39child
40wife
41husband
42mother
43father
44animal
45fish
46bird
47dog
48louse
49snake
50worm
51tree
52forest
53stick
54fruit
55seed
56leaf
57root
58bark
59flower
60grass
61rope
62skin
63meat
64blood
65bone
66fat
67egg
68horn
69tail
70feather
71hair
72head
73ear
74eye
75nose
76mouth
77tooth
78tongue
79fingernail
80foot
81leg
82knee
83hand
84wing
85belly
86guts
87neck
88back
89breast
90heart
91liver
92drink
93eat
94bite
95suck
96spit
97vomit
98blow
99breathe
100laugh
101see
102hear
103know
104think
105smell
106fear
107sleep
108live
109die
110kill
111fight
112hunt
113hit
114cut
115split
116stab
117scratch
118dig
119swim
120fly
121walk
122come
123lie
124sit
125stand
126turn
127fall
128give
129hold
130squeeze
131rub
132wash
133wipe
134pull
135push
136throw
137tie
138sew
139count
140say
141sing
142play
143float
144flow
145freeze
146swell
147sun
148moon
149star
150water
151rain
152river
153lake
154sea
155salt
156stone
157sand
158dust
159earth
160cloud
161fog
162sky
163wind
164snow
165ice
166smoke
167fire
168ash
169burn
170road
171mountain
172red
173green
174yellow
175white
176black
177night
178day
179year
180warm
181cold
182full
183new
184old
185good
186bad
187rotten
188dirty
189straight
190round
191sharp
192dull
193smooth
194wet
195dry
196correct
197near
198far
199right
200left
201at
202in
203with
204andpals, -ǯe, -me, -ve
205ifrak
206because
207name


Example textEdit

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