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Old Vrnallian

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Progress 78%
Old Vrnallian
Ynažad
Type
Agglutinative
Alignment
Tripartite
Head direction
Final
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
Yes
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

Old Vrnallian is the parent language of modern Vrnallian, spoken on the four islands constituting the United Insular States of Vrnallia around 500-900al at the earliest. However, the earliest written evidence of the language dates back only to 1217al. The language is commonly believed to be an isolate, primarily because it is very heavily inflecting and has tripartite alignment.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive p b t d k g ʔ
Ejective tʼ tsʼ tɕʼ
Fricative f v s z ɕ ʑ ɦ
Affricate ts dz tɕ dʑ
Approximant j
Flap or tap ɾ
Lateral l

The glottal stop occured as an allophone of word-final /p t k/.

VowelsEdit

Front Central Back
Close i ɨ u
Mid e ə o
Open a

The schwa occured as the reduced (unstressed) form of the lax vowels: /ɨ a/.

StressEdit

Stress landed on the second-to-final syllable. If the last syllable of a word was open, and the last two had lax vowels, then stress moved to the third-to-last syllable: tárzik 'to charge at,' ǯúkʼaly 'O Gael!' As it is regular, stress is not shown orthographically.

PhonotacticsEdit

(Consonant)-Vowel-(Consonant)-(s, z)

TransliterationEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive p b t d k g *
Ejective tʼ cʼ čʼ
Fricative f v s z š ž h
Affricate c ʒ č ǯ
Approximant j
Flap or tap r
Lateral l


Front Central Back
Close i y u
Mid e * o
Open a

MorphologyEdit

CasesEdit

First (Masculine) Declension (čore = man)

Singular Plural
Instransitive čore čorape
Ergative čorun čorapun
Accusative čorer čoraper
Genitive čoraks čorapaks
Dative čoryše čorapyše
Vocative čoraly čorapaly
Inessive čorit čorapit
Illative čorazek čorapazek
Elative čoresko čorapesko
Adessive čoraʒ čorapaʒ
Ablative čoryčen čorapyčen
Spatial čoralar čorapalar
Proximate čorigi čorapigi
Distant čorozo čorapozo
Instructive čoraš čorapaš
Causal čoramei čorapamei

Second (Feminine) Declension (seŋu = woman)

Singular Plural
Instransitive seŋu seŋapu
Ergative seŋem seŋapem
Accusative seŋur seŋapur
Genitive seŋaks seŋapaks
Dative seŋyšu seŋapyšu
Vocative seŋaly seŋapaly
Inessive seŋit seŋapit
Illative seŋazuk seŋapazuk
Elative seŋuši seŋapuši
Adessive seŋakʼu seŋapakʼu
Ablative seŋyčum seŋapyčum
Spatial seŋalar seŋapalar
Proximate seŋigi seŋapigi
Distant seŋozo seŋapozo
Instructive seŋaŋ seŋapaŋ
Causal seŋamuo seŋapamuo

Nouns had gender of either masculine and feminine type. This consistently corresponded to the declension of the noun and was important when using both verbs and adjectives.

Possessive Enclitics

These could replace an entire genitive argument and, like pronouns, also had a neuter form. For emphasis, a genitive argument could be used in conjunction with enclitics but then the neuter form cannot be used. That was otherwise completely semantic. These followed case inflections.

Singular Plural
Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
1 -ke -ku -čeu -keb -kub -čeub
2 -mes -mus -veu -meps -mups -veub
3 -teg -tug -seu -tegbi -tugbi -seub


Verbal TemplateEdit

Prefixes Core Ergative Accusative Dative Voice Mood Tense Negation
Prefixes Core Intransitive Dative Voice Mood Tense Negation

The core, or stem, held the meaning of the verb e.g. from tarzik the core tarz- means 'charge at.' The citation form is the simple infinitve of core + -ik. This could be combined with other morphemes e.g. tarzaoik 'to be charged at,' tarzifečik 'to have charged at.'

Verbal MorphemesEdit

Polypersonal agreement morphemes follow:

Intransitive Ergative Accusative Dative
1 Singular Masculine -ke- -i- -ber- -šet-
Feminine -ku- -o- -bur- -šut-
Plural Masculine -yŋke- -api- -ymber- -apšet-
Feminine -yŋku- -apo- -ymbur- -apšut-
2 Singular Masculine -de- -iN- -epse- -ged-
Feminine -du- -oN- -upsu- -gud-
Plural Masculine -ynde- -apiN- -ymepse- -apked-
Feminine -yndu- -apoN- -ymupsu- -apkud-
3 Singular Masculine -aš- -ihi- -aš- -eli-
Feminine -oc- -oho- -oc- -ulo-
Plural Masculine -ymaš- -apihi- -ymaš- -apeli-
Feminine -ymoc- -apoho- -ymoc- -apulo-

As the above table shows, the tripartite system was dropped in the third person and an ergative agreement system used in its stead. In the 2nd person ergative, -N- refers to a nasal homogenous with the following consonant with an underlying /m/. Vowel sequences between the above were broken up with /j/, e.g. k'enapijaš 'we mock him' (k'enik = to mock).

Voices in Old Vrnallian were active, passive and antipassive:

Active -/-
Passive -ao-
Antipassive -uc'e-

In the passive voice, the ergative argument was dropped and the accusative argument promoted to intransitive. Any agentive nouns took the causal case. The antipassive caused the accusative to be dropped and the ergative to be promoted to intransitive, with any patient nouns taking the dative case.

Moods:

Indicative -/-
Subjunctive -zen-
Conditional -kul-
Volitive -šov-
Imperative -ele-
Prohibitive -ukče-
Necessitative -darma-
Interrogative -siǯ-
Inferential -oŋ-

Tenses:

Present -/-
Future -kna-
Past -feč-
Remote Past -yž-

Lastly, the negating morpheme was -oʒal. Between all illegal clusters a 'helping vowel' /i/ would appear. Notably, with a cluster of -Ckna- the vowel always appeared as -Cikna- and never *-Ckina.

With many morphemes used some verbs could be very formidable, for example:

tarzyŋkejapkudaodarmafečoʒal. It was not necessary for us to have been charged at on your behalf.

Participles were formed with suffix -at' and gerunds with -loŋe.

Personal PronounsEdit

Masculine Feminine Neuter
1 seke seku seleče
2 lame lamu lareve
3 vete vetu velese

The neuter pronouns were used in a completely semantic manner. Used in conjunction with verbal agreement, agreement morphemes were used in accordance with the gender of the referent.

Adjectives and AdverbsEdit

Adjectives declined like nouns, agreeing in both gender (declension) and case, but optionally number.They preceded the head noun. Adverbs were derived from nouns with the masculine spatial suffix -alar, excepting 'free' adverbs. They preceded the verb:

kohuše čore. The happy man.

kohušigi čorigi. Near to the happy man.

kohušu seŋu. The happy woman.

kohušalar k'enapijaš. We mock him happily.

SyntaxEdit

Case UsageEdit

As a tripartite language, Old Vrnallia distinguished the subject of an intransitive sentence from that of a transitive one, and then from the object of a transitive sentence. The subject of an intransitive sentence (including 'be' sentences) took the intransitive case marker, and verbs took intransitive morphemes also:

(seke) likefeč. I went. (lik = to go)

c'u daluke dasku. That is my house.

The subject of a transitive sentence took the ergative case; the direct object took the accusative:

(sekun) dalur č'ačijocikna. I will buy a house.

Any indirect objects took the dative case:

zinur vetyšu hemijoculofeč. I gave the money to her. (hemik = to give)

Possession was shown with the genitive case marked on the possessor:

dalu vetaks. His/her house.

The vocative was used for direct adress. In informal situations the accusative could be used:

oksnaly! O friend (formal)!

oksner! O (specifically male) friend (informal)!

The inessive was used for designating location inside:

dasitke. Inside my house.

The illative for motion into:

dasazukke. Into my house.

The elative for motion out from:

dasušike. Out of my house.

The adessive for position on top of:

mylečezaʒ. On Mlekiezej.

And the ablative for motion away from:

dasyčumke (note: [dəsəˈtɕuŋke]). Away from my house.

The spatial case shows presence in the general area of:

dasalarke. Around my house.

This should not be confused with the proximate, showing nearness to:

dasigike. Near to my house.

The distant case shows, predictably, distance from:

dasozoke. Far from my house.

The instructive case shows the means of completing an action:

dasur zin č'ačijocfeč. I bought the house with (lit. by means of) money.

Finally, the causal case marks the reason for an action:

vetamei č'ačijocfeč. I bought it because of him (he asked, etc.).

Syntactical OrderEdit

Old Vrnallian was pro-drop, so pronouns were optional and primarily used for emphasis. The syntactical order was SOV due to the head-final nature of the language. However, for topicalisation this could be altered, aided by the high amount of inflection:

čorun moharerke k'enihijaš. The man is mocking my farm.

moharerke čorun k'enihijaš. It is my farm that the man is mocking.

k'enihijaš moharerke čorun. Mocking my farm is what the man is doing.

Any indirect objects would normally follow the accusative (SOIV (I = indirect object)):

čorun moharerke seŋyšk'enihijašulo. the man is mocking my farm on the woman's behalf.

Existentials simply used the verb 'to be' (dasik), often with a preposition like c'alar 'there:'

čore daske c'alar. There is a man (lit. a man is there).

TransformationsEdit

Questions were formed with the interrogative mood of a verb (-siǯ-), a direct tranormation from statement to question:

k'enimber. You are mocking me.

k'enimbersiǯ? Are you mocking me?

Verbs could be negated using the negating suffix -oʒal:

k'enijepseoʒal. I am not mocking you.

RelativisationEdit

Relative clauses tended to not be used, with a relative clause being given a separate (non-pro-drop) clause:

čorer tarzijašfeč; vete k'enijepseyž. I charged at the man who had mocked you.

In rare cases, a participle could be used:

k'enepseyžat' čorer tarzijašfeč. I charged at the man who had mocked you (lit. the having-mocked-you man).

Sentential ArgumentsEdit

Sentential arguments used the connective particle san between clauses. Usually the initial clause required that the antipassive voice be used:

giskeuc'e san k'enimber. I know that you are mocking me.

Conditional StatementsEdit

Conditional statements used rak 'if' with the subjunctive and conditional form of verbs:

rak zinur t'ijupsuzen dalur č'ačijupsukulikna. If I had money I would buy a house.

Gloss: if money-acc have-1sm>3sf-subj house-acc buy-1sm>3sf-cond-fut

However, deductions tended to use the inferential mood rather than conditional:

rak c'e yne mylečeze dasašzen, c'e dyvrieske dasašoŋ. If that island is Mlekiezej, that one is Dvrieska.

Gloss: if that-int.m island.int mlekiezej-int be-3sm.int-subj that-int.m dvrieske-int be-3sm.int-infer

(Also note that dasašzen = /dasaɕˑzen/)

CausativesEdit

Causative were formed with the verbal prefix b-. Uniquely, the helping vowel here matched that of the vowel in the following syllable. Transitive verbs placed the former accusative into the dative:

lapur itijoc. I learn the word.

> lapyšu bitijoculo. I make her learn (to) the word, i.e. I teach her the word.

ConjunctionEdit

Old Vrnallian had a few ways of forming conjunctions. One conjunction was a 'unifying' conjunction, useable with all parts of speech (pals). The other conjunctions were suffixes and useable only to connect certain parts of speech: -ǯe for nouns, -me for verbs and -ve for adjuncts:

mabrapu gelapeǯe. Cats and dogs.

OR mabrapu pals gelape. Cats and dogs.

fehkefeč ʒukeuc'efečme. I came and I saw. (fehik = to come)

rapse kohuševe. Free and happy.

In later texts we see some innovations in the usage of suffixing conjunctions to tell things apart as:

rapsape kohušapeve čorape. The men both free and happy. (using the adjunct conjunction)

rapsape kohušapeǯe čorape. The free men and happy men. (using the noun conjunction)

VocabularyEdit


No. English Old Vrnallian
1Isek- seleče
2you (singular)lam- lareve
3hevete
4wesekap- selečape
5you (plural)lamap- larevape
6theyvetap- velesape
7thisContionary_Wiki
8thatc'-
9hereContionary_Wiki
10therec'alar
11whoContionary_Wiki
12whatContionary_Wiki
13whereContionary_Wiki
14whenContionary_Wiki
15howContionary_Wiki
16not-oʒal
17allContionary_Wiki
18manyContionary_Wiki
19someContionary_Wiki
20fewContionary_Wiki
21otherContionary_Wiki
22oneContionary_Wiki
23twoContionary_Wiki
24threeContionary_Wiki
25fourContionary_Wiki
26fiveContionary_Wiki
27bigContionary_Wiki
28longContionary_Wiki
29wideContionary_Wiki
30thickContionary_Wiki
31heavyContionary_Wiki
32smallContionary_Wiki
33shortContionary_Wiki
34narrowContionary_Wiki
35thinContionary_Wiki
36womanseŋu
37man (adult male)čore
38man (human being)Contionary_Wiki
39childContionary_Wiki
40wifeContionary_Wiki
41husbandContionary_Wiki
42motherContionary_Wiki
43fatherContionary_Wiki
44animalContionary_Wiki
45fishContionary_Wiki
46birdContionary_Wiki
47dogContionary_Wiki
48louseContionary_Wiki
49snakeContionary_Wiki
50wormContionary_Wiki
51treeContionary_Wiki
52forestContionary_Wiki
53stickContionary_Wiki
54fruitContionary_Wiki
55seedContionary_Wiki
56leafContionary_Wiki
57rootContionary_Wiki
58barkContionary_Wiki
59flowerContionary_Wiki
60grassContionary_Wiki
61ropeContionary_Wiki
62skinContionary_Wiki
63meatContionary_Wiki
64bloodContionary_Wiki
65boneContionary_Wiki
66fatContionary_Wiki
67eggContionary_Wiki
68hornContionary_Wiki
69tailContionary_Wiki
70featherContionary_Wiki
71hairContionary_Wiki
72headContionary_Wiki
73earContionary_Wiki
74eyeContionary_Wiki
75noseContionary_Wiki
76mouthContionary_Wiki
77toothContionary_Wiki
78tongueContionary_Wiki
79fingernailContionary_Wiki
80footContionary_Wiki
81legContionary_Wiki
82kneeContionary_Wiki
83handContionary_Wiki
84wingContionary_Wiki
85bellyContionary_Wiki
86gutsContionary_Wiki
87neckContionary_Wiki
88backContionary_Wiki
89breastContionary_Wiki
90heartContionary_Wiki
91liverContionary_Wiki
92drinkContionary_Wiki
93eatContionary_Wiki
94biteContionary_Wiki
95suckContionary_Wiki
96spitContionary_Wiki
97vomitContionary_Wiki
98blowContionary_Wiki
99breatheContionary_Wiki
100laughContionary_Wiki
101seeContionary_Wiki
102hearContionary_Wiki
103knowContionary_Wiki
104thinkContionary_Wiki
105smellContionary_Wiki
106fearContionary_Wiki
107sleepContionary_Wiki
108liveContionary_Wiki
109dieContionary_Wiki
110killContionary_Wiki
111fightContionary_Wiki
112huntContionary_Wiki
113hitContionary_Wiki
114cutContionary_Wiki
115splitContionary_Wiki
116stabContionary_Wiki
117scratchContionary_Wiki
118digContionary_Wiki
119swimContionary_Wiki
120flyContionary_Wiki
121walkContionary_Wiki
122comeContionary_Wiki
123lieContionary_Wiki
124sitContionary_Wiki
125standContionary_Wiki
126turnContionary_Wiki
127fallContionary_Wiki
128giveContionary_Wiki
129holdContionary_Wiki
130squeezeContionary_Wiki
131rubContionary_Wiki
132washContionary_Wiki
133wipeContionary_Wiki
134pullContionary_Wiki
135pushContionary_Wiki
136throwContionary_Wiki
137tieContionary_Wiki
138sewContionary_Wiki
139countContionary_Wiki
140sayContionary_Wiki
141singContionary_Wiki
142playContionary_Wiki
143floatContionary_Wiki
144flowContionary_Wiki
145freezeContionary_Wiki
146swellContionary_Wiki
147sunContionary_Wiki
148moonContionary_Wiki
149starContionary_Wiki
150waterContionary_Wiki
151rainContionary_Wiki
152riverContionary_Wiki
153lakeContionary_Wiki
154seaContionary_Wiki
155saltContionary_Wiki
156stoneContionary_Wiki
157sandContionary_Wiki
158dustContionary_Wiki
159earthContionary_Wiki
160cloudContionary_Wiki
161fogContionary_Wiki
162skyContionary_Wiki
163windContionary_Wiki
164snowContionary_Wiki
165iceContionary_Wiki
166smokeContionary_Wiki
167fireContionary_Wiki
168ashContionary_Wiki
169burnContionary_Wiki
170roadContionary_Wiki
171mountainContionary_Wiki
172redContionary_Wiki
173greenContionary_Wiki
174yellowContionary_Wiki
175whiteContionary_Wiki
176blackContionary_Wiki
177nightContionary_Wiki
178dayContionary_Wiki
179yearContionary_Wiki
180warmContionary_Wiki
181coldContionary_Wiki
182fullContionary_Wiki
183newContionary_Wiki
184oldContionary_Wiki
185goodContionary_Wiki
186badContionary_Wiki
187rottenContionary_Wiki
188dirtyContionary_Wiki
189straightContionary_Wiki
190roundContionary_Wiki
191sharpContionary_Wiki
192dullContionary_Wiki
193smoothContionary_Wiki
194wetContionary_Wiki
195dryContionary_Wiki
196correctContionary_Wiki
197nearContionary_Wiki
198farContionary_Wiki
199rightContionary_Wiki
200leftContionary_Wiki
201atContionary_Wiki
202inContionary_Wiki
203withContionary_Wiki
204andpals, -ǯe, -me, -ve
205ifrak
206becauseContionary_Wiki
207nameContionary_Wiki


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