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Oran

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Name: Oran

Type: agglutinating; incorporating

Alignment: ergative-active

Head Direction: final

Number of genders: 2

Declensions: Yes

Conjugations: Yes

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Nouns Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No No
Adjectives Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Numbers No Yes No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No


SettingEdit

      • Island Laan (IL)

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

IPA:

Syllable initial:

Labio-dental Bilab. Dental Alv. Alveo-palatal Velar Glottal
Plosives b p' d t' g k'
Affricates tsʰ dz ts' tɕʰ tɕ'
Fricatives θ s ɕ h
Approx. w j
Nasals m n
Flap ɾ

Syllable final:

Labio-dental Dental Alv. Alveo-palatal Velar
Plosives p t k
Affricates
Fricatives θ s
Approx.
Nasals n
Flap r

Practical romanization:

Labio-dental Bilab. Dental Alv. Alveo-palatal Velar Glottal
Plosives p b bb t d dd k g gg
Affricates ts z zz ch j j
Fricatives th s sh h
Approx. w l y
Nasals m n
Flap r

VowelsEdit

Vowel IPA Romanized Compatible
Front close /i/, /i:/ i, ii all
Front close compressed /y/, /y:/ ü/y, üü/yy i, e, ö, ä
Front middle /ε/, /ε:/ e/ä, ee/ei/ää all
Front middle rounded /œ/, /œ:/ ö, öö/öy i, e, ü, ä
Back close compressed /ɯ̥/, /ɯ̥:/ u, uu i, e, o, a, ê
Back close-mid rounded /o/, /o:/ o, oo/ou i, e, u, a
Back middle unrounded /ʌ/, /ʌ:/ ê, êê/êo i, e, ä, a
Center open /a/, /a:/ a, aa i, e, u, o, ê

Basic GrammarEdit

NounEdit

.PHONY

Noun morphologyEdit

Oran nouns can have up to four components which normally appear in the following order:

Slots stem possessor marker plural marker case marker
Sample ggela- -zi- -nara- -ni
Translation house my many to
ggelazinarani 'To my houses'
  • When plurality is unmarked, the noun may denote both singular and plural objects, depending on context.
  • When case is unmarked, the noun is in absoluitve case and may be a subject of intransitive inacative verb or an object of transitive active verb.
  • Possessor marker, in general, has same meaning as corresponding personal pronoun in genetive case.

Noun case suffixesEdit

N Neutral P Polite C Casual

Noun cases
Suffix Reference name Roles Samples
ki sep an
Core
unmarked Absolutive Patient agent
Nominative verb adjunct
(C) Nominative verb agent
ki sep an
-ga Ergative Active agent
(C) Possessor
kiga sepka anga
-k (C) Active agent
(C) Possessor
kik ank
-i Dative Receiving agent
Indirect agent
(C) Active agent
(C) Possessor
kii sepi ani
-na Nominative Nominative verb agent
Thematic marker
kina semma anna
-nen kinen sepnen annen
-sa Genetive (N, P) Possessor kisa sepsa ansa
Relation
-te, -tte Partitive kitte septe ande
-wa, -u Adessive kiwa sepu anu
Comitative
-suta Abessive kisuta sepsuta ansuta
-sta kista sepusta anusta
Location
-de Locative kide sende ande
-ni Allative kini semmi anni
-so, -sso Ablative kisso sepso anso
Inessive
Illative
Elative
Superessive
-la Superlative kila sepla alla
Delative
Noun case samples
Case Sample Translation
Core cases
Absolutive kii 'tree' kii Kii hogikai. The tree is thick.
Ergative anonara 'we' anonaraga Anonaraga kii kelanta. We're looking at the tree.
Nominative kotu 'he' kotunen Notu kotunen abisa da. That person is my father.
Dative kotu 'he' kotui Kotui yaka ita. He has a fish.
Genetive anonara 'we' anonarasa Anonarasa kkela shekai. Our house is big.
Abessive itsari 'star' itsarisuta Asa yeomiku itsarisuta da. This night is starless.

Noun Plural AffixesEdit

.PHONY

Personal AffixesEdit

Personal Affixes
Person Male Female Polite Polite+
First singular -sa- -shi-
Second singular -ta- -chi- -datta- -jira-, -tajira-
Third singular -ka- -ji- -gakka- -geso-, -kageso-
First plural exclusive -ma- -suya-
First plural inclusive -wata- -yata-
Second plural -tu- -chiya- -jira- -wajira-
Third plural -ka- -ji- -ge- -wageso-

Personal PronounsEdit

Personal Pronouns
Pronoun Person Gender Speech Level
ano first sg both plain, polite
au first sg mostly male informal
ai first sg female informal
anosa first sg male plain
anoshi first sg female plain
asshi first, second sg female very informal
wanari second both plain, polite
wanarinara second pl both plain, polite
ta second both informal
wanta second both informal
wanna second both very informal
wannara second pl both very informal
acchi second female informal
ka third both plain
katu third male polite
katunara third pl male polite
kaji third female plain
kajinara third pl female plain

VerbEdit

Verb morphologyEdit

Final form of present series template:

  • verb root
  • [passive voice marker]
  • [applicative voice marker]
  • [causative voice marker]
  • [transitive versb: ergative agrument]
  • absolutive agrument
  • [present series marker]
  • [applicative postfix]
  • tense/aspect suffix group
  • [dative argument]

Verb classesEdit

Verb classes summary
Type Direct Arguments Oblique argument English sample
Primary Secondary Tertiary
Transitive Ergative Absolutive Dative
Indirect Absolutive Dative It looks good for me
Passive Absolutive

DictionaryEdit


No. English Oran
1Iano
2you (singular)wanari
3hekatu
4weanonara
5you (plural)wanarinara
6theykatunara
7thisatu
8thatnotu
9hereakami
10therenokami
11whosetu
12whataje
13wheresekami
14whenmat
15howContionary_Wiki
16notêku (verb), eru (verb)
17allContionary_Wiki
18manyContionary_Wiki
19someContionary_Wiki
20fewContionary_Wiki
21otherContionary_Wiki
22oneshi
23twoju
24threemek
25fourtal
26fivewan
27bigsheku
28longnorowu
29wideabaku
30thickhogiku
31heavywashu
32smallchêwu
33shortContionary_Wiki
34narrowContionary_Wiki
35thinContionary_Wiki
36womanContionary_Wiki
37man (adult male)an
38man (human being)an
39childyksi
40wifeContionary_Wiki
41husbandContionary_Wiki
42motherati
43fatherabi
44animalContionary_Wiki
45fishyaka
46birdniji
47dogContionary_Wiki
48louseContionary_Wiki
49snakeContionary_Wiki
50wormContionary_Wiki
51treekii
52forestshira
53stickContionary_Wiki
54fruitContionary_Wiki
55seedContionary_Wiki
56leafContionary_Wiki
57rootContionary_Wiki
58barkContionary_Wiki
59flowershiin
60grassContionary_Wiki
61ropeContionary_Wiki
62skinContionary_Wiki
63meatContionary_Wiki
64bloodContionary_Wiki
65boneContionary_Wiki
66fatContionary_Wiki
67eggContionary_Wiki
68hornContionary_Wiki
69tailContionary_Wiki
70featherContionary_Wiki
71hairkkagi
72headheke
73earContionary_Wiki
74eyeki
75noseune
76mouthman
77toothöchü
78tonguekoshi
79fingernailContionary_Wiki
80footnei
81legyan
82kneeikki
83handsep
84winghase
85bellykawaa
86gutsContionary_Wiki
87neckmeshi
88backkatta
89breastwotzi
90heartöjö
91liverContionary_Wiki
92drinkContionary_Wiki
93eatContionary_Wiki
94biteContionary_Wiki
95suckContionary_Wiki
96spitContionary_Wiki
97vomitContionary_Wiki
98blowContionary_Wiki
99breatheContionary_Wiki
100laughContionary_Wiki
101seeContionary_Wiki
102hearContionary_Wiki
103knowContionary_Wiki
104thinkContionary_Wiki
105smellContionary_Wiki
106fearContionary_Wiki
107sleepContionary_Wiki
108liveContionary_Wiki
109dieContionary_Wiki
110killContionary_Wiki
111fightContionary_Wiki
112huntContionary_Wiki
113hitContionary_Wiki
114cutContionary_Wiki
115splitContionary_Wiki
116stabContionary_Wiki
117scratchContionary_Wiki
118digContionary_Wiki
119swimContionary_Wiki
120flyContionary_Wiki
121walkContionary_Wiki
122comeContionary_Wiki
123lieContionary_Wiki
124sitContionary_Wiki
125standContionary_Wiki
126turnContionary_Wiki
127fallContionary_Wiki
128giveContionary_Wiki
129holdContionary_Wiki
130squeezeContionary_Wiki
131rubContionary_Wiki
132washContionary_Wiki
133wipeContionary_Wiki
134pullContionary_Wiki
135pushContionary_Wiki
136throwContionary_Wiki
137tieContionary_Wiki
138sewContionary_Wiki
139countContionary_Wiki
140sayContionary_Wiki
141singContionary_Wiki
142playContionary_Wiki
143floatContionary_Wiki
144flowContionary_Wiki
145freezeContionary_Wiki
146swellContionary_Wiki
147sunContionary_Wiki
148moonContionary_Wiki
149staritsari
150waterContionary_Wiki
151rainContionary_Wiki
152riverContionary_Wiki
153lakeContionary_Wiki
154seaContionary_Wiki
155saltContionary_Wiki
156stoneContionary_Wiki
157sandContionary_Wiki
158dustContionary_Wiki
159earthContionary_Wiki
160cloudContionary_Wiki
161fogContionary_Wiki
162skyContionary_Wiki
163windContionary_Wiki
164snowContionary_Wiki
165iceContionary_Wiki
166smokeContionary_Wiki
167fireContionary_Wiki
168ashContionary_Wiki
169burnContionary_Wiki
170roadContionary_Wiki
171mountainContionary_Wiki
172redContionary_Wiki
173greenContionary_Wiki
174yellowContionary_Wiki
175whiteContionary_Wiki
176blackContionary_Wiki
177nightyêmu
178daynola
179yearContionary_Wiki
180warmContionary_Wiki
181coldContionary_Wiki
182fullContionary_Wiki
183newContionary_Wiki
184oldContionary_Wiki
185goodContionary_Wiki
186badContionary_Wiki
187rottenContionary_Wiki
188dirtyContionary_Wiki
189straightContionary_Wiki
190roundContionary_Wiki
191sharpContionary_Wiki
192dullContionary_Wiki
193smoothContionary_Wiki
194wetContionary_Wiki
195dryContionary_Wiki
196correctContionary_Wiki
197nearContionary_Wiki
198farContionary_Wiki
199rightContionary_Wiki
200leftContionary_Wiki
201atContionary_Wiki
202inContionary_Wiki
203withContionary_Wiki
204andContionary_Wiki
205ifContionary_Wiki
206becauseContionary_Wiki
207namehizen


Example textEdit


No. English
1IContionary_Wiki
2you (singular)Contionary_Wiki
3heContionary_Wiki
4weContionary_Wiki
5you (plural)Contionary_Wiki
6theyContionary_Wiki
7thisContionary_Wiki
8thatContionary_Wiki
9hereContionary_Wiki
10thereContionary_Wiki
11whoContionary_Wiki
12whatContionary_Wiki
13whereContionary_Wiki
14whenContionary_Wiki
15howContionary_Wiki
16notContionary_Wiki
17allContionary_Wiki
18manyContionary_Wiki
19someContionary_Wiki
20fewContionary_Wiki
21otherContionary_Wiki
22oneContionary_Wiki
23twoContionary_Wiki
24threeContionary_Wiki
25fourContionary_Wiki
26fiveContionary_Wiki
27bigContionary_Wiki
28longContionary_Wiki
29wideContionary_Wiki
30thickContionary_Wiki
31heavyContionary_Wiki
32smallContionary_Wiki
33shortContionary_Wiki
34narrowContionary_Wiki
35thinContionary_Wiki
36womanContionary_Wiki
37man (adult male)Contionary_Wiki
38man (human being)Contionary_Wiki
39childContionary_Wiki
40wifeContionary_Wiki
41husbandContionary_Wiki
42motherContionary_Wiki
43fatherContionary_Wiki
44animalContionary_Wiki
45fishContionary_Wiki
46birdContionary_Wiki
47dogContionary_Wiki
48louseContionary_Wiki
49snakeContionary_Wiki
50wormContionary_Wiki
51treeContionary_Wiki
52forestContionary_Wiki
53stickContionary_Wiki
54fruitContionary_Wiki
55seedContionary_Wiki
56leafContionary_Wiki
57rootContionary_Wiki
58barkContionary_Wiki
59flowerContionary_Wiki
60grassContionary_Wiki
61ropeContionary_Wiki
62skinContionary_Wiki
63meatContionary_Wiki
64bloodContionary_Wiki
65boneContionary_Wiki
66fatContionary_Wiki
67eggContionary_Wiki
68hornContionary_Wiki
69tailContionary_Wiki
70featherContionary_Wiki
71hairContionary_Wiki
72headContionary_Wiki
73earContionary_Wiki
74eyeContionary_Wiki
75noseContionary_Wiki
76mouthContionary_Wiki
77toothContionary_Wiki
78tongueContionary_Wiki
79fingernailContionary_Wiki
80footContionary_Wiki
81legContionary_Wiki
82kneeContionary_Wiki
83handContionary_Wiki
84wingContionary_Wiki
85bellyContionary_Wiki
86gutsContionary_Wiki
87neckContionary_Wiki
88backContionary_Wiki
89breastContionary_Wiki
90heartContionary_Wiki
91liverContionary_Wiki
92drinkContionary_Wiki
93eatContionary_Wiki
94biteContionary_Wiki
95suckContionary_Wiki
96spitContionary_Wiki
97vomitContionary_Wiki
98blowContionary_Wiki
99breatheContionary_Wiki
100laughContionary_Wiki
101seeContionary_Wiki
102hearContionary_Wiki
103knowContionary_Wiki
104thinkContionary_Wiki
105smellContionary_Wiki
106fearContionary_Wiki
107sleepContionary_Wiki
108liveContionary_Wiki
109dieContionary_Wiki
110killContionary_Wiki
111fightContionary_Wiki
112huntContionary_Wiki
113hitContionary_Wiki
114cutContionary_Wiki
115splitContionary_Wiki
116stabContionary_Wiki
117scratchContionary_Wiki
118digContionary_Wiki
119swimContionary_Wiki
120flyContionary_Wiki
121walkContionary_Wiki
122comeContionary_Wiki
123lieContionary_Wiki
124sitContionary_Wiki
125standContionary_Wiki
126turnContionary_Wiki
127fallContionary_Wiki
128giveContionary_Wiki
129holdContionary_Wiki
130squeezeContionary_Wiki
131rubContionary_Wiki
132washContionary_Wiki
133wipeContionary_Wiki
134pullContionary_Wiki
135pushContionary_Wiki
136throwContionary_Wiki
137tieContionary_Wiki
138sewContionary_Wiki
139countContionary_Wiki
140sayContionary_Wiki
141singContionary_Wiki
142playContionary_Wiki
143floatContionary_Wiki
144flowContionary_Wiki
145freezeContionary_Wiki
146swellContionary_Wiki
147sunContionary_Wiki
148moonContionary_Wiki
149starContionary_Wiki
150waterContionary_Wiki
151rainContionary_Wiki
152riverContionary_Wiki
153lakeContionary_Wiki
154seaContionary_Wiki
155saltContionary_Wiki
156stoneContionary_Wiki
157sandContionary_Wiki
158dustContionary_Wiki
159earthContionary_Wiki
160cloudContionary_Wiki
161fogContionary_Wiki
162skyContionary_Wiki
163windContionary_Wiki
164snowContionary_Wiki
165iceContionary_Wiki
166smokeContionary_Wiki
167fireContionary_Wiki
168ashContionary_Wiki
169burnContionary_Wiki
170roadContionary_Wiki
171mountainContionary_Wiki
172redContionary_Wiki
173greenContionary_Wiki
174yellowContionary_Wiki
175whiteContionary_Wiki
176blackContionary_Wiki
177nightContionary_Wiki
178dayContionary_Wiki
179yearContionary_Wiki
180warmContionary_Wiki
181coldContionary_Wiki
182fullContionary_Wiki
183newContionary_Wiki
184oldContionary_Wiki
185goodContionary_Wiki
186badContionary_Wiki
187rottenContionary_Wiki
188dirtyContionary_Wiki
189straightContionary_Wiki
190roundContionary_Wiki
191sharpContionary_Wiki
192dullContionary_Wiki
193smoothContionary_Wiki
194wetContionary_Wiki
195dryContionary_Wiki
196correctContionary_Wiki
197nearContionary_Wiki
198farContionary_Wiki
199rightContionary_Wiki
200leftContionary_Wiki
201atContionary_Wiki
202inContionary_Wiki
203withContionary_Wiki
204andContionary_Wiki
205ifContionary_Wiki
206becauseContionary_Wiki
207nameContionary_Wiki

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