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Oran

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Name: Oran

Type: agglutinating; incorporating

Alignment: ergative-active

Head Direction: final

Number of genders: 2

Declensions: Yes

Conjugations: Yes

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Nouns Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No No
Adjectives Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Numbers No Yes No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No


SettingEdit

      • Island Laan (IL)

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

IPA:

Syllable initial:

Labio-dental Bilab. Dental Alv. Alveo-palatal Velar Glottal
Plosives b p' d t' g k'
Affricates tsʰ dz ts' tɕʰ tɕ'
Fricatives θ s ɕ h
Approx. w j
Nasals m n
Flap ɾ

Syllable final:

Labio-dental Dental Alv. Alveo-palatal Velar
Plosives p t k
Affricates
Fricatives θ s
Approx.
Nasals n
Flap r

Practical romanization:

Labio-dental Bilab. Dental Alv. Alveo-palatal Velar Glottal
Plosives p b bb t d dd k g gg
Affricates ts z zz ch j j
Fricatives th s sh h
Approx. w l y
Nasals m n
Flap r

VowelsEdit

Vowel IPA Romanized Compatible
Front close /i/, /i:/ i, ii all
Front close compressed /y/, /y:/ ü/y, üü/yy i, e, ö, ä
Front middle /ε/, /ε:/ e/ä, ee/ei/ää all
Front middle rounded /œ/, /œ:/ ö, öö/öy i, e, ü, ä
Back close compressed /ɯ̥/, /ɯ̥:/ u, uu i, e, o, a, ê
Back close-mid rounded /o/, /o:/ o, oo/ou i, e, u, a
Back middle unrounded /ʌ/, /ʌ:/ ê, êê/êo i, e, ä, a
Center open /a/, /a:/ a, aa i, e, u, o, ê

Basic GrammarEdit

NounEdit

.PHONY

Noun morphologyEdit

Oran nouns can have up to four components which normally appear in the following order:

Slots stem possessor marker plural marker case marker
Sample ggela- -zi- -nara- -ni
Translation house my many to
ggelazinarani 'To my houses'
  • When plurality is unmarked, the noun may denote both singular and plural objects, depending on context.
  • When case is unmarked, the noun is in absoluitve case and may be a subject of intransitive inacative verb or an object of transitive active verb.
  • Possessor marker, in general, has same meaning as corresponding personal pronoun in genetive case.

Noun case suffixesEdit

N Neutral P Polite C Casual

Noun cases
Suffix Reference name Roles Samples
ki sep an
Core
unmarked Absolutive Patient agent
Nominative verb adjunct
(C) Nominative verb agent
ki sep an
-ga Ergative Active agent
(C) Possessor
kiga sepka anga
-k (C) Active agent
(C) Possessor
kik ank
-i Dative Receiving agent
Indirect agent
(C) Active agent
(C) Possessor
kii sepi ani
-na Nominative Nominative verb agent
Thematic marker
kina semma anna
-nen kinen sepnen annen
-sa Genetive (N, P) Possessor kisa sepsa ansa
Relation
-te, -tte Partitive kitte septe ande
-wa, -u Adessive kiwa sepu anu
Comitative
-suta Abessive kisuta sepsuta ansuta
-sta kista sepusta anusta
Location
-de Locative kide sende ande
-ni Allative kini semmi anni
-so, -sso Ablative kisso sepso anso
Inessive
Illative
Elative
Superessive
-la Superlative kila sepla alla
Delative
Noun case samples
Case Sample Translation
Core cases
Absolutive kii 'tree' kii Kii hogikai. The tree is thick.
Ergative anonara 'we' anonaraga Anonaraga kii kelanta. We're looking at the tree.
Nominative kotu 'he' kotunen Notu kotunen abisa da. That person is my father.
Dative kotu 'he' kotui Kotui yaka ita. He has a fish.
Genetive anonara 'we' anonarasa Anonarasa kkela shekai. Our house is big.
Abessive itsari 'star' itsarisuta Asa yeomiku itsarisuta da. This night is starless.

Noun Plural AffixesEdit

.PHONY

Personal AffixesEdit

Personal Affixes
Person Male Female Polite Polite+
First singular -sa- -shi-
Second singular -ta- -chi- -datta- -jira-, -tajira-
Third singular -ka- -ji- -gakka- -geso-, -kageso-
First plural exclusive -ma- -suya-
First plural inclusive -wata- -yata-
Second plural -tu- -chiya- -jira- -wajira-
Third plural -ka- -ji- -ge- -wageso-

Personal PronounsEdit

Personal Pronouns
Pronoun Person Gender Speech Level
ano first sg both plain, polite
au first sg mostly male informal
ai first sg female informal
anosa first sg male plain
anoshi first sg female plain
asshi first, second sg female very informal
wanari second both plain, polite
wanarinara second pl both plain, polite
ta second both informal
wanta second both informal
wanna second both very informal
wannara second pl both very informal
acchi second female informal
ka third both plain
katu third male polite
katunara third pl male polite
kaji third female plain
kajinara third pl female plain

VerbEdit

Verb morphologyEdit

Final form of present series template:

  • verb root
  • [passive voice marker]
  • [applicative voice marker]
  • [causative voice marker]
  • [transitive versb: ergative agrument]
  • absolutive agrument
  • [present series marker]
  • [applicative postfix]
  • tense/aspect suffix group
  • [dative argument]

Verb classesEdit

Verb classes summary
Type Direct Arguments Oblique argument English sample
Primary Secondary Tertiary
Transitive Ergative Absolutive Dative
Indirect Absolutive Dative It looks good for me
Passive Absolutive

DictionaryEdit


No. English Oran
1Iano
2you (singular)wanari
3hekatu
4weanonara
5you (plural)wanarinara
6theykatunara
7thisatu
8thatnotu
9hereakami
10therenokami
11whosetu
12whataje
13wheresekami
14whenmat
15how
16notêku (verb), eru (verb)
17all
18many
19some
20few
21other
22oneshi
23twoju
24threemek
25fourtal
26fivewan
27bigsheku
28longnorowu
29wideabaku
30thickhogiku
31heavywashu
32smallchêwu
33short
34narrow
35thin
36woman
37man (adult male)an
38man (human being)an
39childyksi
40wife
41husband
42motherati
43fatherabi
44animal
45fishyaka
46birdniji
47dog
48louse
49snake
50worm
51treekii
52forestshira
53stick
54fruit
55seed
56leaf
57root
58bark
59flowershiin
60grass
61rope
62skin
63meat
64blood
65bone
66fat
67egg
68horn
69tail
70feather
71hairkkagi
72headheke
73ear
74eyeki
75noseune
76mouthman
77toothöchü
78tonguekoshi
79fingernail
80footnei
81legyan
82kneeikki
83handsep
84winghase
85bellykawaa
86guts
87neckmeshi
88backkatta
89breastwotzi
90heartöjö
91liver
92drink
93eat
94bite
95suck
96spit
97vomit
98blow
99breathe
100laugh
101see
102hear
103know
104think
105smell
106fear
107sleep
108live
109die
110kill
111fight
112hunt
113hit
114cut
115split
116stab
117scratch
118dig
119swim
120fly
121walk
122come
123lie
124sit
125stand
126turn
127fall
128give
129hold
130squeeze
131rub
132wash
133wipe
134pull
135push
136throw
137tie
138sew
139count
140say
141sing
142play
143float
144flow
145freeze
146swell
147sun
148moon
149staritsari
150water
151rain
152river
153lake
154sea
155salt
156stone
157sand
158dust
159earth
160cloud
161fog
162sky
163wind
164snow
165ice
166smoke
167fire
168ash
169burn
170road
171mountain
172red
173green
174yellow
175white
176black
177nightyêmu
178daynola
179year
180warm
181cold
182full
183new
184old
185good
186bad
187rotten
188dirty
189straight
190round
191sharp
192dull
193smooth
194wet
195dry
196correct
197near
198far
199right
200left
201at
202in
203with
204and
205if
206because
207namehizen


Example textEdit


No. English
1I
2you (singular)
3he
4we
5you (plural)
6they
7this
8that
9here
10there
11who
12what
13where
14when
15how
16not
17all
18many
19some
20few
21other
22one
23two
24three
25four
26five
27big
28long
29wide
30thick
31heavy
32small
33short
34narrow
35thin
36woman
37man (adult male)
38man (human being)
39child
40wife
41husband
42mother
43father
44animal
45fish
46bird
47dog
48louse
49snake
50worm
51tree
52forest
53stick
54fruit
55seed
56leaf
57root
58bark
59flower
60grass
61rope
62skin
63meat
64blood
65bone
66fat
67egg
68horn
69tail
70feather
71hair
72head
73ear
74eye
75nose
76mouth
77tooth
78tongue
79fingernail
80foot
81leg
82knee
83hand
84wing
85belly
86guts
87neck
88back
89breast
90heart
91liver
92drink
93eat
94bite
95suck
96spit
97vomit
98blow
99breathe
100laugh
101see
102hear
103know
104think
105smell
106fear
107sleep
108live
109die
110kill
111fight
112hunt
113hit
114cut
115split
116stab
117scratch
118dig
119swim
120fly
121walk
122come
123lie
124sit
125stand
126turn
127fall
128give
129hold
130squeeze
131rub
132wash
133wipe
134pull
135push
136throw
137tie
138sew
139count
140say
141sing
142play
143float
144flow
145freeze
146swell
147sun
148moon
149star
150water
151rain
152river
153lake
154sea
155salt
156stone
157sand
158dust
159earth
160cloud
161fog
162sky
163wind
164snow
165ice
166smoke
167fire
168ash
169burn
170road
171mountain
172red
173green
174yellow
175white
176black
177night
178day
179year
180warm
181cold
182full
183new
184old
185good
186bad
187rotten
188dirty
189straight
190round
191sharp
192dull
193smooth
194wet
195dry
196correct
197near
198far
199right
200left
201at
202in
203with
204and
205if
206because
207name

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