In this lesson, you will learn some basic vocabulary required for having a simple conversation. You'll also be taught how to use the personal pronouns in their nominative case and I will tell you how to use the many different verbs that all translate to 'to be' as well as how to say 'to have'. Let's get started on that, shall we?
PERSONAL PRONOUNS - NOMINATIVE
Personal pronouns are very important in every language, although some languages have found ways to partially eliminate them. In Oregian, it is mandatory to use the personal pronouns wherever possible (although there are a few exceptional cases that we won't be discussing in here, yet). Just like in English, there's a distinction between singular and plural pronouns. Here's a list of all the personal pronouns that are up for mentioning:
Singular First Person (I): ore, boku, tse
Singular Second Person (you): doshe/boshe, dou
Singular Third Person (he/she/it): yu, yuwa
Plural First Person (we): core
Plural Second Person (you): boshenakeisu, dou
Plural Third Person (they): yukeku
As you have probably noticed, especially the singular pronouns have multiple translations. This is due to the rich history of the language. Anyways, as for the singular first person, ore is used in neutral situations, boku is used to indicate that the person you're adressing yourself to has a higher social position than you do and tse can be used in any case; in other words, it's just as neutral as ore is, but it's more commonly used by girls. Doshe and boshe both mean the same thing (obviously), but what sets both of them apart is the b-/d- distinction. People from the Nothern Oregian Islands usually say boshe, whereas those who are from the Southern Oregian Islands say doshe. Dou can be used either to be formal or to be informal (more on that later on). Yu and yuwa are interchangeable and you get to use them whenever you like.
- I wish to help - ore wa yesu begite
- I intend to help you, boss - boku wa cofute su dou begite, cheff!
- He is a friend - yu(wa) aigou desu.
- We love our mothers - core wa cubo otou!
- You are a friend - boshe aigou dai!
- They need school - yukeku deshdo ecula de.
TO BE AND TO HAVE
Let's kick this section off with the easiest of the above-mentioned verbs: to have. To have has two different translations into Oregian, both of which use a different construction. You could decide to use 'bare' (to have) in the same manner as the English language does. You simply translate your sentence word by word, keeping the grammar in mind. For instance, 'I have a brother' would be ore wa bare chedu. Those who have studied Latin and Greek grammar might recognize the second possible translation. This one is a lot more difficult, but you should use this formula:
Object (the thing that you have) + aru + tso + subject (the person/thing that's having)
- We have friends - core wa bare aigou | aigou wa aru tso coyiite ('there are friends for us')
- The boy has a story - riyaku wa bare hebsute | hebsute wa aru tso riyaku ('there is a story for the boy')
- The dog has fears - kiku wa bare iumega | iumega wa aru tso kiku ('there are fears for the dog')
To be is on the more complicated side of the Oregian language. In totality, it's got about seven translations (desu, tosu, aru, wa, dewa, dawai, sosu) but none of them are used in quite the same way. Right now, I'm going to tell you how to use all of these verbs; of course, you will get some examples to clarify stuff. Please keep in mind that all verbs will be discussed more effectively when need arises (that is, in another lesson). Here's how to use all of the seven verbs:
Desu: links together two different nouns
Tosu: links together two words (never two nouns!)
Wa: often used as a substitute for desu or tosu in short phrases; you can always add desu/tosu to your sentence to eliminate the possibility of using this one
Dewa: used in the passive voice only (!); it's never conjugated
Dawai: very informal verb which can replace desu and tosu.
Sosu: used in a more factual way than desu; it often replaces desu and tosu, but only in formal writing.
Aru: you can get by quite well just translating this verb as 'there is/there are', but it's got some special uses.
- That is a hand - hite wa desu moiru. (hite and moiru are both considered nouns)
- That hand is beautiful - hite moiru wa yoroshke tosu. (hite moiru is a noun, but yoroshke is an adjective)
- We are friends! - core wa aigou (desu).
- It is being made right now - yuwa fibsiyo dewa hocuite.
- This music is insane - hite musico wa motenai dai!
- The show is very good - lunito wa uchimo sosu.
- There is a boy in this room - riyaku wa aru su hite neta.
In the next lesson, you will learn some more about word order. You might have noticed that some of the verbs stand somewhere in the middle of the sentence (desu/wa/aru), whereas the others stand either near or directly at the end. Keep in mind that all of the above-mentioned verbs will be discussed one more time and more thoroughly in a new lesson, but this is all you need to know for now.
I: ore, boku, tse
You: dou, doshe, boshe, boshenakeisu
He: yu, yuwa
Father: uchois, laike, chikeku, pateru
Boy: riyaku, iugo
To be: desu, sosu, aru, wa, dewa, dawai, tosu
To have: bare
Cat: chatsu, deruma
House: domu, isor
To wish, to want: yesu
To help: begite