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Osar

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General informationEdit

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

PulmonicEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Palato-alveolar Retroflex Alveolopalatal Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal
Nasal ḿ m /m̥ m/ m̌ /ɱ/ ń n /n̥ n/ ṋ ṉ /ɳ̊ ɳ/ ň ñ /ɲ̊ ɲ/ ŋ́ ŋ /ŋ̊ ŋ/ ņ /ɴ/
Stop p b /p b/ p̌ b̌ /p̪ b̪/ t d /t d/ ŧ đ /ʈ ɖ/ c ĵ /c ɟ/ k g /k ɡ/ q q́ /q ɢ/ g̀ /ʡ/ ǹ /ʔ/
Sibilant fricative s z /s z/ ś ź /ʃ ʒ/ š ž /ʂ ʐ/ /ɕ ʑ/
Non-sibilant fricative f̌ v̌ /ɸ β/ f v /f v/ /θ ð/ /θ̱ ð̠/ /ɹ̠̊˔ ɹ̠˔/ /ç ʝ/ x ğ /x ɣ/ ẍ ŕ /χ ʁ/ ħ ř /ħ ʕ/ ĥ r̀ /ʜ ʢ/ h ȟ /h ɦ/
Approximant ẅ /ʋ/ ȑ /ɹ/ /ɻ̊ ɻ/ j /j̊ j/ /ɰ̊ ɰ/
Flap or tap /ⱱ̟/ /ⱱ/ ȓ ŗ /ɾ̥ ɾ/ /ɽ̊ ɽ/ /ɢ̆/ /ʡ̯/
Trill ḇ /ʙ/ ŕ r /r̥ r/ /ɽ͡r̥ ɽ͡r/ /ʀ̥ ʀ/ /ᴙ */
Lateral fricative ł /ɬ ɮ/ /ꞎ */ /ʎ̥˔ ʎ̝/ /ʟ̝̊ ʟ̝/
Lateral approximant ĺ l /l̥ l/ /ɭ̊ ɭ/ /ʎ̥ ʎ/ /ʟ/ /ʟ̠/
Lateral flap /ɺ/ /ɺ̢ */ /ʎ̯/ /ʟ̆/

Non-pulmonicEdit

Clicks ṗ /ʘ/ ṫ /ǀ/ ċ /ǃ/ ġ /ǂ/ ŀ /ǁ/ ḋ /‼/ ḳ /ʞ/
ṅ /ʘ̃/ ḣ /ʘ̃ˀ/ q̇ /ʘ͡q/ q̣ /ʘ͡qʼ/
Implosives /ɓ̥/ /ɓ/ /ɗ̥/ /ɗ/ /ᶑ/ /ʄ̊ ʄ/ /ɠ/ /ʛ/
Ejectives /pʼ/ /t̪ʼ/ /tʼ/ /ʈʼ/ /cʼ/ /kʼ/ /qʼ/ /fʼ/ /θʼ/
/sʼ/ /ɬʼ/ /ʃʼ/ /ʂʼ/ /ɕʼ/ /xʼ/ /χʼ/ /tsʼ/ /tɬʼ/
/cʎ̝̥ʼ/ /tʃʼ/ /ʈʂʼ/ /kxʼ/ /kʟ̝̊ʼ/ /qχʼ/

AffricatesEdit

/p̪f b̪v/ /ts dz/ /tθ dð/ /tʃ dʒ/
/tɕ dʑ/ /ʈʂ ɖʐ/ /tɬ dɮ/ /cç ɟʝ/
/cʎ̝̥/ /kx/ /kʟ̝̊ ɡʟ̝/ /qχ/

Co-articulatedEdit

Continuants ŵ w /ʍ w/ /ɥ/ /ɧ/
Occlusives /k͡p ɡ͡b/ /ŋ͡m/

VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close i y /i y/ ị ọ /ɨ ʉ/ ụ u /ɯ u/
Near-close ḭ ṵ /ɪ ʏ/ į ų /ɪ̈ ʊ̈/ ǫ /ʊ/
Close-mid e ø /e ø/ ư ơ /ɘ ɵ/ ḛ o /ɤ o/
Mid ę u̬ /e̞ ø̞/ ẹ u̗ /ə ɵ̞/ u̥ o̥ /ɤ̞ o̞/
Open-mid ḙ œ /ɛ œ/ ṷ ṳ /ɜ ɞ/ a̱ o̱ /ʌ ɔ/
Near-open æ /æ/ ḁ /ɐ/
Open a œ̭ /a ɶ/ a̰ a̭ /ä ɒ̈/ ą a̬ /ɑ ɒ/

DiacriticsEdit

An acute accent is used to indicate a high vowel tone and a grave a low vowel tone. Where there is neither accent, a neutral vowel tone is assumed. In practice, vowels are mostly neutral.

PhonotacticsEdit

The syllable formula is: (C)VC, with V a vowel and C a consonant.

Verbs, a considerable proportion of nouns and some adjectives have roots which are characterized as a sequence of vowel radicals, which are used to form words by the addition of consonants. This morphology is similar to Semitic roots, but the radicals are vowels instead. A small number of radicals include a consonant preceding a vowel.

GrammarEdit

VocabularyEdit

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