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Owaex

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Owaex is a conlang I made up, having a relitively small amount of rules, charaters, and words to deal with.

The basics are the characters:

  • n
  • h
  • H (huffing sound; can be prononced like an h)
  • t
  • T (retroflex t)
  • a (ah)
  • u (oo)
  • e (eh)
Name: Owaex

Type:

Alignment:

Head Direction:

Number of genders: 0

Declensions: No

Conjugations: No

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect

General informationEdit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No No No No No No No
Nouns No No Yes No No No No No
Adjectives No No No No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns Yes No Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No


I'm not an expert at IPA or understanding all the grammer, but, I do love to make languages.

PhonologyEdit

Consonants Edit

The following are phonemic transcriptions of Rangyan consonants.

Bilabial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal n
Plosive plain t
aspirated t
Fricative s z2 h
Affricate plain ts dz4
aspirated tsʰ4
Liquid ɾ~l5
Approximant w j
  1. /ŋ/ appears only in the syllable coda.
  2. /s, z/ are palatalised [ɕ, ʑ] before /i, j/
  3. /h/ is palatalised [ç] before /i, j/; and is bi­la­bialised [ɸ] before /u, w/
  4. /ts, dz, tsʰ/ are palatalised [tɕ, dʑ, tɕʰ] before /i, j/
  5. /ɾ/ is an alveolar flap [ɾ] in the syllable onset; and is [l] in the syllable coda.

VowelsEdit

MonophthongsEdit

Front Central Back
Close i1 ʉ u2
Open-mid ɛ ɔ
Open a
  1. /i/ is pronounced /ɪ/ before velar codas /ŋ, k̚/
  2. /u/ is /ʊ/ before velar codas /ŋ, k̚/

DiphthongsEdit

In the Rangyan language, because semivowels /j/ and /w/ may follow consonants in initial position in a word, which no other consonant can do, and perhaps due also to yenmun orthography, which transcribes them as vowels, they are sometimes considered to be elements of diphthongs and triphthongs rather than separate consonant phonemes.

j- w- -i
ja wa
ɔɪ
ju1 uɪ~wi2
  1. /ju/ is pronounced /jʊ/ before velar codas /ŋ, k̚/
  2. /uɪ/ is a falling diphthong [uɪ] after a consonant in an open syllable; and is a rising diphthong [wi] when it is a syllable of its own or in a closed syllable.

TriphthongsEdit

j- w-
jaɪ waɪ
jeɪ weɪ

Positional allophones Edit

Rangyan consonants have two principal positional allophones: initial and final. The initial form is found at the beginning of a syllable and the final form is found at the end of a syllable.

Phoneme p t k ɾ
Initial allophone p t k ɾ
Final allophone l

All plosives [p, t, k] are unreleased [p̚, t̚, k̚] at the end of a syllable. Final [ɾ] is a liquid [l].

Phonotactics Edit

Rangyan syllable structure is maximally CgVC, where the first C is the initial consonant; g is a semivowel glide /j/ or /w/; V is a vowel; the second C is a coda. Any consonant but /ŋ/ may occur initially, whereas only /m, n, ŋ, p, t, k, s, l/ may occur finally.

Below is the table of all syllable finals (gVC) in Rangyan.

Finals Codas
(none) m n ŋ p t k s l
Monophthong
nuclei
a a am an ap at ak as al
ɛ ɛ ɛm ɛn ɛŋ ɛp ɛt ɛk ɛs ɛl
ɔ ɔ ɔm ɔn ɔŋ ɔp ɔt ɔk ɔs ɔl
u u um un ʊŋ up ut ʊk us ul
ʉ ʉ ʉm ʉn əŋ ʉp ʉt ək ʉs ʉl
i i im in ɪŋ ip it ɪk is il
Diphthong
nuclei
ja ja jam jan jaŋ jap jat jak jas jal
jɛm jɛn jɛŋ jɛp jɛt jɛk jɛs jɛl
jɔm jɔn jɔŋ jɔp jɔt jɔk jɔs jɔl
ju ju jum jun jʊŋ jup jut jʊk jus jul
wa wa wan waŋ wat wak was wal
wɛn wɛŋ wɛt wɛk wɛs wɛl
wi wi1 wim win wɪŋ wip wit wɪk wis wil
ɔɪ ɔɪ
2
Triphthong
nuclei
jaɪ jaɪ
jeɪ jeɪ
waɪ waɪ
weɪ weɪ
  1. pronounced [wi] when it is a syllable of its own or before codas /n, t̚, s, l/; and pronounced [wɪ] before codas /ŋ, k̚/
  2. pronounced [uɪ] after an onset in an open syllable.

Additional finals /wam/, /wɛm/, /wap/, /wɛp/ can be found in foreign loanwords.

Vowel harmonyEdit

Traditionally, the Rangyan language has had strong vowel harmony; that is, in pre-modern Rangyan, not only did the inflectional and derivational affixes change in accordance to the main root vowel, but native words also adhered to vowel harmony. However, this rule is no longer observed strictly in modern Rangyan. In modern Rangyan, it is only applied in certain cases such as onomatopoeia and interjections.

There are three classes of vowels in Rangyan: positive, negative and neutral. The vowel classes loosely follow the vowel heights. Exchanging positive vowels with negative vowels usually creates different nuances of meaning, with positive vowels sounding fast, hot, dry, hard, solid, focused or aggressive, and negative vowels sounding slow, cold, wet, soft, insubstantial, diffuse or tranquil.

Monophthongs Diphthongs Triphthongs
Positive a, ɔ ja, wa, aɪ, jɔ, ɔɪ jaɪ, waɪ
Negative ɛ, u jɛ, wɛ, eɪ, ju, uɪ~wɪ jeɪ, weɪ
Neutral i, ʉ

Pitch accentEdit

Rangyan pitch accent can be presented with a two-pitch-level model. In this representation, each syllable is either high (H) or low (L) in pitch.

  1. If the accent is on the first syllable, then the first syllable is high-pitched and the others are low: HLL...
  2. If the accent is on a syllable other than the first, then the first syllable is low, the following syllables up to and including the accented one are high, and the rest are low: LHLL..., LHHLL..., LHHHLL...
  3. If the word does not have an accent, the first syllable is low and the others are high: LHH... This high pitch spreads to unaccented grammatical particles that attach to the end of the word, whereas these would have a low pitch when attached to an accented word.

Examples are given in the table below. The number before each pitch pattern tells you the syllable where the last high pitch is.

Pitch pattern Sample word Meaning
(0) LHH... kigomi I
(1) HLL... khophi coffee
(2) LHLL... jin'ai dust
(3) LHHLL... asobeda he/she/it
(4) LHHHLL... aneruminun you

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