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Pøplish

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Pøplish
The language of the people with the expressive name
Type
Analytic / Isolating
Alignment
Nominative–accusative

/ Direct

Head direction
Mixed
Tonal
No
Declensions
No
Conjugations
No
Genders
2
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

SettingEdit

Pøplish is language spoken by a poor tribe which is ruled by a despotic queen. There is a myth that the language was ordered by the queen and designed by the ancient ministry of language. The Pøplish people are very polite in a strange way. They respect each others and strangers, but they do not hesitate to give orders to strangers and beloved ones. In adition they like to sing and dance, to play games and to listen to music. Some might see a childish nuance in this, but their earnestness is rather fascinating.

Recent sound changesEdit

There were some recent sound changes which reduced the phonetic inventory of the language.

  • ä [ɛ] -> e [ɛ] ; e.g. jä -> je
  • e [e] -> e [ɛ] ;
  • w [ʋ] -> v [v] ; e.g. wo -> vo

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m [m] n [n]
Plosive p [p] b [b] t [t] d [d] k [k] g [g] [ʔ]
Fricative f [f] v [v] s [s] s [z] sh [ʃ] h [h]
Affricate ts [ts] tsh [tʃ] x [ks]
Approximant j [j]
Trill r [r]
Lateral app. l [l]

VowelsEdit

Front Central Back
Close i [i] y [y] u [u]
Close-mid ø [ø]
Open-mid e [ɛ] o [ɔ]
Open a [a]

DipthongsEdit

ao [ɑo̯]
oy [ɔʏ̯]

Syllabic ConsonantsEdit

[l] and [r] can act as Vowels in some situations.

AlphabetEdit

AB(C)DEFGHIJKLMNOØP(Q)RSTUV(W)XY(Z) ab(c)dfghijklmnoøp(q)rstuv(w)xy(z)

All letters are pronounced according to their IPA equivalents except for:

x [ks]; e [ɛ], o [ɔ], s [z]/[s]

The glottal stop [ʔ] is not written, but automatically pronounced before a word beginning with a vowel.

C, Q, W, Z are used only for foreign names.

Digraphs and Trigraphs:Edit

ts [ts], tsh [tʃ], ao [ɑo̯], oy [ɔʏ̯]

PhonotacticsEdit

C: Any Consonant except for [l], [r], [v], [n] or [m]

W: Vowel or Diphthong

V: Vowel, [r̩] or [l̩]

L: [l], [r] or [v]

G: [l], [r], [v], [n] or [m]

(C)(L)W(G)(C)(V)(C)

So there are possibilities like:

CLWGCWC, CWCV, CLWC, WCVC, CW, WC, CWNP, CWCVC

but never:

WGCC, or CLWGCC

GrammarEdit

Pøplish grammar is very analytic, although some compunds exist.

VerbsEdit

TensesEdit

Verbs are not conjugated in the "normal" way. Particles indicate the tenses:

"je" - past; e.g. "Ne je nol. " means: "I went. "

"jo" - present; e.g. "Alar jo tosh. " means: "The king sings"

"vo" - future; e.g. "Ak vo gram (ta ne). " means: "You will thank (me). "

The use of this particles is not mandatory.

MoodEdit

A polite imperative mood is formed using reduplication:

"Nol-nol" means: "Please, go away" or "Good bye"

Some forms are slightly irregular; e.g.:

"gram" - to thank -> "gram-"gram" - I thank you.

"klun" - to be sorry -> "klun-klun" - I am sorry.

NegationEdit

A verbs meaning is changed from positive to negative by inserting the particle "tship", e.g.:

"Ne fush ta ak" means: "I understand you"

"Ne tship fush ta ak" means: I don't understand you"

VoiceEdit

A possible substitution for the passive voice is formed with the 3rd person singular personal pronoun "trosh".

"Trosh je trao ta ne. " means: "I was found. " (lit: "He/She/It found me. ")

NounsEdit

Nouns are not declined.

NumerusEdit

If necessary the plural can be indicated by the particle "suk", eg:

"alar suk" means: "The kings"

SexusEdit

If necessary the sexus can be indicated by the following particles.

"ma" - feminime; e.g. "ma alar" means: "the queen"

"pa" - masculine; e.g. "pa Alar" means:"the (male) king"

CasesEdit

The object can be indicated by the particle "ta" meaning "to". e.g.

"Ne gram ta ak. " means: "I thank you. "

"Ne tship fush ta ak" means: "I don't understand you"

The genitive or possesive case can be indicated by the particle "fad" meaning "of" e.g.

"Ma alar fad ne. " meand " My queen" (lit: "The queen of me. ")

Compound nounsEdit

Phonotacticly compunds are treated as three separate words. Pöplish uses two kinds of compunds:

Compounds of the first kindEdit

These compounds are formed by the following scheme:

Agent/Verb - "ta" - Patient/Object; e.g.:

"Rø-ta-trale" means "Barbeque" (lit: Fire-to-meat.)

Compounds of the second kindEdit

These compound are much less used and formed by the following scheme:

"Noun - "fad" - Attribut"; e.g.

"Pøpl-fad-alar" means "The kings people"

PronounsEdit

Pöplish pronouns are rarely used. Repetition is found much more often.

Personal pronounsEdit

Personal Pronouns
Pronoun (english) Pronoun (pøplish)
I ne
you ak
he/she/it trosh
we nuk
you kuk
they

truk

Adjectives and AdverbsEdit

There are only very few Adjectives and Adverbs in Pøplish. An Adjective can change to an Adverb by changing it's position. Adjectives stand in front of the noun they modify, Adverbs always appear at the end of the sentence.

SyntaxEdit

The Pøplish syntax is vey strict: SV(dOiO). Adverbial modifiers always go at the end of the sentence.

Infinitive ClausesEdit

There are two kinds of infinitive clauses. The direct one, e.g.:

"Ne raut tosh. " means "I want to sing" (lit: "I want sing. ")

and the indirect one, marked with "ta" e.g.:

"Ak je var ta shlipa. " means "You came to speak" (lit: "You was come to speak. ")

There is a slight difference in meaning. A direct infinitive clause does not state any specific relation between the verbs. An indirect infinitive clause states that the second verb is the purpose of the first verb.

VocabularyEdit

Swadesh ListEdit


No. English Pøplish
1Ine
2you (singular)ak
3hetrosh
4wenuk
5you (plural)kuk
6theytruk
7thised
8thata lid
9herevaos
10therea
11whooike
12whatkuts
13whereore
14whenaoke
15howaoki
16nottship
17all
18many
19some
20few
21other
22onejats
23twotup
24threejet
25fourbet
26fivevaf
27bigboyl
28longga
29widelush
30thickdrog
31heavygish
32smallbak
33shorttsosh
34narrowao
35thinpe
36womanma osh
37man (adult male)pa osh
38man (human being)osh
39childklatshof
40wifema sas
41husbandpa sas
42motherma laon
43fatherpa laon
44animalrat
45fish
46bird
47dog
48louse
49snake
50worm
51tree
52forest
53stick
54fruit
55seed
56leaf
57root
58bark
59flower
60grass
61rope
62skin
63meattrale
64blood
65bone
66fat
67egg
68horn
69tail
70feather
71hair
72head
73ear
74eye
75nose
76mouth
77tooth
78tongue
79fingernail
80foottsip
81leg
82knee
83hand
84wing
85belly
86guts
87neck
88back
89breast
90heart
91liver
92drink
93eat
94bite
95suck
96spit
97vomit
98blow
99breathe
100laugh
101see
102hear
103knownib
104thinkkig
105smell
106fear
107sleep
108live
109die
110kill
111fight
112hunt
113hit
114cut
115split
116stab
117scratch
118dig
119swim
120fly
121walknol
122comevar
123lie
124sit
125stand
126turn
127fall
128give
129hold
130squeeze
131rub
132wash
133wipe
134pull
135push
136throw
137tie
138sew
139count
140saygard
141singtosh
142playsan
143float
144flow
145freeze
146swell
147sun
148moon
149star
150water
151rain
152river
153lake
154sea
155salt
156stone
157sand
158dust
159earth
160cloud
161fog
162sky
163wind
164snow
165ice
166smoke
167fire
168ash
169burn
170road
171mountain
172red
173green
174yellow
175white
176black
177night
178day
179year
180warm
181cold
182full
183new
184old
185gooddot
186badshvob
187rotten
188dirty
189straight
190round
191sharp
192dull
193smooth
194wet
195dry
196correct
197near
198far
199right
200left
201atdent
202indent
203with
204andtis
205ifal
206because
207namerob


Additional VocabularyEdit

nation pøpl
..., please! Fur-fur
to beg, to request fur
Thank you! Gram-gram
to thank gram
You're welcome! Hem-hem
to accept one's thanks hem
Excuse me! Jy-jy
to forgive jy
Sorry! Klun-klun
to be sorry klun
that over there a lid
king, leader Alar
yes shø
no va
Good day!, Hello! Abu-abu
to greet abu
to be ex
My name is... Rob ex ....
I am ... Ne ex ....
Good bye! Nol-nol
to leave, to go nol
I don't understand. Ne thsip fush.
I don't understand you. Ne thsip fush ta ak.
understand fush
I don't know. Ne thsip nib.
know nib
Cheers! Kep-kep
to raise glasses kep
cool, fantastic morp
I think ne kig
against kors
to play against someone san kors trosh
to give dobi
room boshi
to ta
during, while, when tum
evening, night resid
afternoon gufip
barbeque rø-ta-trale
football, soccer tsip-ta-kruf
foot tsip
ball, sphere kruf
karaoke tosh-ta-mao
to sing tosh
friend mao
to want raut
number, count klas
to speak shlipa
equal, same vøk
the east enoy
eastwards ta enoy
to find trao
flat, thin pe
land, country, landscape plek
to settle, to live, to dwell bola
Let's go! Var-var!

Example textEdit

Beginning of the Babel TextEdit

Pøpl suk je shlipa vøk.
Tum truk je var ta enoy, truk je trao ta pe plek dent plek "Shinear" tis truk je bola dent trosh.
Truk shlipa ta truk: "Var-var,

Once all people spoke equally.
When they came to the East, they found a flat landscape in the country "Shinear" and they settled down there.
They spoke to each other:"Let's go ....

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