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Name: pab taed

Type: Fusional-Agglutinative

Alignment: Nominative-Accusative

Head Direction: Mixed

Number of genders: 3

Declensions: Yes

Conjugations: Yes

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect


Classification and DialectsEdit

Pab taed name

pab taed in script form

A small group of steppes nomads used this language long before the mongol empire had appeared, they write in a special script that is read from top to bottom and right to left in the respective order, like in Japanese, it bears resemblance to the mongol ancient scripts.

The vowels are read in the right of the script and the consonants in the left of the script.

The name of the language pab taed /pab taed / means "to speak clearly".

pa(speak present simple)+b(infinitive suffix) ta(clear)+ed(adjective suffix)

Pab Taed

iol rumube blezon'om'ol err jonaladam'al err mizidim'il

Proto-Pab Taed

yol rumube bleson'om'ol er þþonalaþam'al er misiþim'il

English Praise the sun and the storms and the waters!

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

The language includes 16 consonants including the ' letter plus the proto characters.

p t b d h ' m n r l k g s x z j + y þ

Alphabet pab taed
Bilabial Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n
Plosive p b t d k g ʔ
Fricative h
Affricate θ ð s z t͡ʃ ʃ ʤ ʒ
Approximant j
Trill r
Flap or tap ɾ
Lateral app. l

VowelsEdit

In the formal script there are only 5(+1) vowels but it encompasses 9(+1) vowel sounds, the proto letter æ is in the informal writting for some regions.

a e i o u + æ

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
High i u
Near-high
High-mid e o
Mid ə
Low-mid ɛ ɔ
Near-low æ ɐ
Low a

PhonotacticsEdit

The language is a (C)(C)V(V)(C) type language.

Proto-pab taed Edit

The Proto form of the language (PPT - Proto Pab taed) had little diferences in terms of grammar, it did have a writting system but it was phonetically diferent.

PPT IPA Pab Taed IPA Notes
æ æ ae ae In some words like "paed" it can be both ways depending on the region.
ae æ
y j i j The only joining of diferent sounds in the same letter.
i i i
þ θ t t
ð d d
j ʤ In the proto combination "þþ" would be the sound for the "j" letter today. /ðəʒ/ => /ʤ/
ʒ In proto only used when two "þ" met.
s s s s
x ʃ
tx t͡ʃ Same as "þs" in the proto language.
ts t͡s
z z z
dz d͡z Same as "þs" in the proto language.
k k k In various words like gamus(God of - suffix), kamus(God - noun) it is possible to see the separation.
g g
r ʀ r(begin) / rr r / ɹ r / ɹ can be used interchangeably.
r(middle/end) ɾ

Example:

  • Pab Taed : matxanu'olodo'ol xuxe matxalamadam'am'ox nu'olodo'ol
    • /mat͡ʃanuʔɔlɔdɔʔɔl ʃuʃe mat͡ʃalamadamʔamʔɔʃ nuʔɔlɔdɔʔɔl/
  • Proto - Pab Taed : maþsanu'oloþo'ol suse maþsalamaþam'am'os nu'oloþo'ol
    • /maθsanuʔɔlɔðɔʔɔl suse maθsalamaðamʔamʔɔs nuʔɔlɔðɔʔɔl/
  • Pab Taed: kulaged jonux'am (a curved breeze)
    • /kulaged ʤɔnuʃʔam/
  • Proto - Pab Taed: kulakeþ þþonus'am
    • /kʼulakʼeð ðəʒɔnusʔam/

Writing SystemEdit

The people write in the pab taed script, written from top to bottom, a simple romanization can be seen in the image on the right.

An example of how to write the vowels into the consonants in the script is below. The main line of the vowel disappears and is pushed to the consonant that is before it.

Example pab tead
Letter a e i o u i / y * p t b d h '
Sound a / ɐ ɛ / e i ɔ / o u / w j p t b d h ʔ
Letter m n r(begin) l k g s x z j rr r(middle/end)
Sound m n r / ɹ l k g s ʃ z ʤ r / ɹ ɾ
Letter tx ts dz ae / æ** þ*** ku[Vowel]
Sound t͡ʃ t͡s d͡z æ / ae ð / θ

* "i" changes from /i/ to /j/ if followed by a vowel or if it follows a vowel, "y" is still used in several regions.

**Used in several regions still as a replacement for "ae".

***Used in the proto system, it is used now only to transcribe foreign words, "the world"=> "þe uorled"

Proto Writting System Edit

Letter a e i y o u p b h '
Sound a / ɐ ɛ / e i j ɔ / o u / w p b h ʔ
Letter m n r l k s

æ

þ

þþ

ku[Vowel]

Sound m n ʀ l k' s / z æ ð / θ ðəʒ

With t/kʷ/ combination we can start to see the change from /k'/ to /k/ and /g/.

GrammarEdit

NounsEdit

Nouns can be varied in four ways, Definiteness, Number, Gender and Case.

Most names start has neutral like, "ba" (world) but can already have gender like "gue" (King).

Definiteness Edit

A noun is definite when the suffix '[]l is used. The World would be "ba'al"; The King "gue'el"

A noun is indefinite when the suffix '[]m is used. A world would be "ba'am"; A King "gue'em"

The [] are for the anterior vowel of the word in order to follow harmony.

This is added at the end before Genitive Case.

Gender/Number Edit

The gender of a noun is defined by a syllabic end, j[] for male, l[] for female, j[]z[] for plural male, l[]g[] for plural female, when a word ends in consonant the last vowel is repeated at the end. For neutral plural we use d[].

Example Neutral Male Female
Child mon monojo monolo
Children monodo monojozo monologo
Horse huma humaja humala
Horses humada humajaza humalaga

Case Edit

There are 12 cases, that are attached before all the gender/number and definiteness, except Genitive which is attached at the end of all changes.

CASE Construction
Subessive - WORD uku
Superessive - WORD aki
Nominative deafult
Accusative /

Accusative + Dative

- WORD []m/ m
Dative - WORD []n / n
Vocative o WORD(not attached) -
Locative gen WORD(not attached) -
Instrumental ji WORD(not attached) -
Illative (general into) guutar WORD(not attached) -
Ablative (general from) klier WORD(not attached) -
Genitive 1 Object e Possessor(not attached)
Genitive 2 Possessor 'ox Object(not attached)

Syntax of the Noun Edit

Cases+Noun+Cases+Gender/Number+Definitiveness+Genitive Case

  • He cleaned the room with a branch(no word for broom exists)
  • he(He) tamnig(clean + FUT SIMPLE) murlakem'al( room ACC Definite) ji(INS) tak'am(branch Indefinite)
  • he tamnig murlakem'al ji tak'am

Personal PronounsEdit

In this language the subject and object personal pronouns are different from each other, in total there is 20 usable personal pronouns. Since the Us stem is not used.

Person Number Case kaso
Subject suje Object obele
First Singular I eu Me mae
Plural stem( not used) We pe Us pae
Plural

(exclusive)

peulum paelum
Plural

(inclusive)

petlum paetlum
Second Singular You tul You tael
Plural bul bael
Third Singular Male He he Him hem
Singular Female She lou Her loum / lom
Singular Genderless It dei It deim
Plural Male They helum Them laem
Plural Female loulum
Plural Genderless deilum

Verbs Edit

The verbs have 9 tenses in total, in cases a tense may be used in conjunction with another to form a passive or change the time of the tense.

Tense Infinitive Mode Present Simple Present Routine Past Simple Past Routine Future Simple Future Routine Conditional Mode Imperative Mode
to speak (pab) pab pa pabe par pare pag page bei pa iol pa
to be (xu) xub xux xuxe xul xule xug xume bai xux

(in present)

ios xux

(in present)

to have (gae) gaeb gael gaele gaek gaeke gaed gaede bai gael

(in present)

ios gael

(in present)

The routine version of the tenses is used to describe routines in a certain period of time (they add an "e" to the end), Conditional and Imperatives can be joined by another tense to alter the time.

The auxiliary verb "to have" and "to be" are also used to make more complex time spans. They also are the only irregular verbs in the language.

Auxiliaries here aren't a servant of the main verb, the main verb still must carry the main tense while the auxiliary carries the secondary tense.

SyntaxEdit

Affirmative syntax follows SVO rules, Subject + Verb + (Time expressions) + (Space expressions) + Object, the subject cannot be omitted, except in Imperative sentences which are normally VO or SVO if the is dubious meaning.

Interrogatives are (Aux)VS(V)O, in which if a auxiliary verb is used it becames ASVO, if it isn't used it becomes VSO, also the cases of INS, LOC, ILL, ABL and VOC are put at the end non-attached instead of the beginning of the word non-attached.

  • He cleaned the room with a branch
  • he tamnig murlakem'al ji tak'am
  • Did(has) he clean(cleaned) the room with a branch?
  • gael he tamnir murlakem'al tak'am ji
  • God?(VOC)
  • kamus o

In certian cases the Subject can be omitted when no subject is doing the action, in those cases you use a question format for yes/no like (V not V) that is seen in many languages around the world, or the word "niua" to the beginning of the sentence, which literally means question.

Conversion Noun / Verb / Adjective Edit

The language has a very simple conversion between the three classes, this is put as a suffix.

For Nouns:

  • To adjective – ed
  • To verb - []mnib

For Verbs:

  • To noun:
    • formation - for e i endings - []lem
    • formation - for a  u o endings -[]lam
  • To adjective:
    • formation - for a  u o endings - []lamad 
    • formation - for e i endings - []lemed 

For Adjectives:

  • To verb - idimnib
  • To noun - id

LexiconEdit

Char me at for the lexicon(WeSay) files it has at the moment.

File with words : http://conlang.wikia.com/wiki/File:Pab_Tead.odt

File of font (uses Kerning, orientation left to right) : http://conlang.wikia.com/wiki/File:Pab_taed.ttf

Example textEdit

Example Idiom PAB TAED
  • matxanu'olodo'ol xuxe matxalamadam'am'ox nu'olodo'ol
    • matxanu'olodo'ol(Blood[Defense+Tear] Plural Definite NOM)
    • xuxe(to be + Present Routine / to be always + Present)
    • matxalamadam'am'ox(Defense Plural ACC Indefinite GEN2 )
    • nu'olodo'ol(Tear Plural Definite)
  • The Blood(s) is (always) the tears of defenses. (idiom)

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