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Panora

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[This is one of my first conlangs, which I haven't used for a long time. I try to remake this language now by using earlier documents. Because of discovering newer things and making its grammar more professional there can be temporary notes on this page, sorry.]



Progress 52%
Name: Panora

Type: Fusional

Alignment: Nominative-accusative

Head Direction:

Number of genders: 0

Declensions: Yes

Conjugations: Yes

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No Yes No Yes Yes Yes No No
Nouns No Yes Yes No Yes No No No
Adjectives No No No No No No No No
Numbers No Yes No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns No Yes Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No

HistoryEdit

Panora is a language of a fictional world.

Panora is a language of the planet Oart. Imagine our Earth with the same age, same attributes, similar continents, same flora and fauna. But a big group of the first human beings did not speak an indo-european language. They spoke the Euny language.

This language family is younger than our indo-european one.

Euny is really different from Panora. We can say, that Panora is the most different language in the whole language family. After the first changes in Euny, another language started being alive: the Europine. In the middle time of Europine a new language variant appeared; this was the Panorka (today it's died). But there are two languages evolved. I. a. Panora.

Wait for the whole history later. It'll be interesting...




PhonologyEdit

a, ä [ɛ], b, c [ʃ], d, e, f, g, h, i, j [ʒ], k, l, m, n, ɲ, ŋ o, ö [ø], p, q [k], r [ʁ], s, t, u, ü [y], ů [-], ū [-], v, w [v], x [çjs], y [çj], z

Letters not followed by bracket are pronounced as the corresponding IPA symbols.

k and q represents the same sound [k]. You use the letter q after vowels.

In general the stress and the lengh is in the end of the word (see Stress and Lengh). ů and ū do not correspond to sounds. ů makes the syllabe long and stressed while ū short and unstressed. We use them, if the stress and the lengh are not on the last syllabe.

v and w represents the same sound [v]. You use w in the beginning and in the end of a world.

The two tables below show IPA symbols with the corresponding letter(s) of the alphabet in parentheses beside them.

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal m (m) n (n) ɲ (ɲ) ŋ (ŋ)
Plosive p (p) b (b) t (t) d (d) k (k, q) g (g)
Fricative f (f) v (v, w) s (s) z (z) ʃ (c) ʒ (j) ç ʁ (r) h (h)
Affricate
Approximant l (l)
Trill

VowelsEdit

Front Back
Close i (i) ü (y) u (u)
Close-mid e (e) ø (ö) o (o)
Open-mid ɛ (ä)
Open a (a)

StressEdit

The one-syllabe words have no stress in general.

In other cases the stress is always on the last syllabe..

LengthEdit

One syllabe words are basicly short.

The vowel in a stressed syllabe is always long and the others in the same word are short.

In general the stress and the lengh is in the end of the word. ů and ū do not correspond to sounds. ů makes the syllabe long and stressed while ū short and unstressed. We use them, if the stress and the lengh are not on the last syllabe.


GrammarEdit

ArticlesEdit

DefiniteEdit

The definite article is ca. It does not change according to number or case. Use it when something is supposed to be known or a concrete thing by the person who you speak with. Do not use before personal names.

haze - house; ca haze the house

IndefiniteEdit

The indefinite article is ün. It does not change according to number or case.

ün finie - a cat


NounsEdit

Nouns have three genders. Natural gender which ends in -e, masculine gender which ends in -o and feminine which ends in -a. We use the mascinline and feminine forms just for creatures: finie, finio, finia. The natural ending for a creature does not show its sex.

You use plural when you speak about more then one thing (and they are not one pair). You use it even if something other shows the plurality (for example a number before). The plural ending is -s.

There no cases. Also accusative is expressed by preposition.

Oct’ey qa ün haze. – I see a house.

Oct’ey qa hazes. – I see houses.

ca dade auū ca haze / ca haze uaū ca dade - the house of the dad

Sös’ey fo ca dade. – I help the father.


AdjetivesEdit

Adjetives have four gendres according to their sense. We can classify them by the vowels and the endings. Positive adjectives can caontain: ä, e, ö and ü and they finish in -is. If the word have negative sense, then it contains a, o, u and the ending -us. If the sense of a word is natural, but can have positive and negative derivants, then it will contain a, o, u with the ending -ityi. And the last class when a word have natural sense and cannot have positive or negative derivants. Then it can contain any vowels without ending or with the ending -ill. In comparative forms –is will change to –im, -us to -um, –ityi to -imyi, zero ending and –ili to imi. We use the expression ca pox in front of the comparative form to express the superlative. "qeyy" means as, "mit" means than.

We can form these words. Root changes are often:

ä, e, <--> a

ö <--> o

i, ü, <--> u

comparative superlative
vowels ending example ending change example ending change example
Positive ä, e, i, ö, ü, -is gresis (fast) -im gresim ca pox + -im ca pox gresim
Negative a, o, u, -us grasus (slow) -um grasum ca pox + -um ca pox grasum
Changable a, o, u, -ityi grasityi ("medium-fast") -imyi grasimyi ca pox + -imyi ca pox grasimyi
Natural a, ä, e, i, o, ö, u, ü, -ø/ -ill öblü / huŋarill (blue / Hungarian) -imi öblüimi / huŋarimi ca pox + -imi ca pox öblüimi / ca pox huŋarimi

NumeralsEdit

The cardinals from one to ten are: ün, dün, thoa, foren, früůjn, sis, siůben, yut, nün, ill


General and posessive personal affixesEdit

General and posessive (adjetive) personal affixes Predicate adjectives Reflexive
I 'y ca'y yora'y
you (unformal) 't ca't yora't
you (formal) 'w/ 'v ca'w yora'w
he 'co c'oů yor'o
she 'ca c'aů yor'a
he/ she (general form) 'j c'eů yor'e
we 'm ca'm yora'm
you (unformal) 'tes ca'tes yora'tes
you (formal) 'wes ca'ves yora'wes
they 'ces ca'ces yora'ces
you, the poele (general pronoun) 'll ca'll yora'll

VerbsEdit

Verb conjugationEdit

You have to use the infinitive form of the verb, then add an apostrof and then the ending of the time and mood. Endings

Present Past Future
Active 'e' 'u' 'ö'
Imperative/ Conjunctive 'o' - -
Conditional 'a 'i

For make a passive form you have to use the particle aväūk before the conjugated verb.

For make the factitive you have to use the particle (?)

The verb "to be"Edit

We can say that the verb "to be" is irregular. It's infinitive form is ni. The verb to be has their own forms. You simply have to use the ending of the time and the mood and add the general personal affix. These two grammatical things make together the conjugated forms of to be. Use it as separate words. The conjugation of the verb to be in Active present tense:

ni
I ey
you (unformal) et
you (formal) ew
he eco
she eca
he/ she (general form) ej
we em
you (unformal) etes
you (formal) eves
they eces
you, the poele (general pronoun) ell

ParticiplesEdit

You have to use one of the next endings to make a participle from a verb.


Present

Non-personal

Personal
Active -üs' ' '-sör-
Passive -aväk' ' '-qamär-


The non-personal endings first will be added to the verb, it will fallow between apostrophes the active time ending, and then the ending, whoch shows whether is it an adjetive -ill, a noun or an adverb.

Fut - to run

futüs'e'o - a male non-human or object being which is running now (f. e. a dog)

fut'esöro - a male person who is running now

wid (?)- to see

widaväk'ö'e - that thing, which will be seen

wid'eqamära - that female human being, who will be seen


AdverbsEdit

We make adverbs from adjectives. We have to change the vowels in the adjetive ending.

Ca böde can'ej methüs. - The bird sings on a nice way.

i -> ü

u -> a

PrepositionsEdit

tyük– instead of

el – in fron of, before

nelt– next to

ö – at

irod– at about

ey/ye – of (quantity)

auū/uaū– of (possessive)

pavü – while, during

atpu– besides

däset – from

et – in

früů – till

böůn – bewtween

genan – against

nüj – out of

soaū – with

tyümi – according to

weůäc – in spite of

söů – by, with

fo – for

al – behind, after

rimtö – away

ada– about

däsa – from the top of

biqoz – because of

nas – without

tapp – under

tepp – above

a – on

guriŋ – through

teyvol – beyond

Word connectionsEdit

We can simple connect the words and write them with a streek (-). In the middle of the words, the ending -e and -ill you do not have to use.

TransitivityEdit

The verbs basicly are untransitive. If a verb can have a transitive and an untransitive form too, then we have to add the ä- particle to the begin of the world.

to turn - prepp/ ä'prepp

I turn - Prepp'ey

He turns the book. - Ä-prepp'ej qa ca bükne.

Example textEdit


No. English
1IContionary_Wiki
2you (singular)Contionary_Wiki
3heContionary_Wiki
4weContionary_Wiki
5you (plural)Contionary_Wiki
6theyContionary_Wiki
7thisContionary_Wiki
8thatContionary_Wiki
9hereContionary_Wiki
10thereContionary_Wiki
11whoContionary_Wiki
12whatContionary_Wiki
13whereContionary_Wiki
14whenContionary_Wiki
15howContionary_Wiki
16notContionary_Wiki
17allContionary_Wiki
18manyContionary_Wiki
19someContionary_Wiki
20fewContionary_Wiki
21otherContionary_Wiki
22oneContionary_Wiki
23twoContionary_Wiki
24threeContionary_Wiki
25fourContionary_Wiki
26fiveContionary_Wiki
27bigContionary_Wiki
28longContionary_Wiki
29wideContionary_Wiki
30thickContionary_Wiki
31heavyContionary_Wiki
32smallContionary_Wiki
33shortContionary_Wiki
34narrowContionary_Wiki
35thinContionary_Wiki
36womanContionary_Wiki
37man (adult male)Contionary_Wiki
38man (human being)Contionary_Wiki
39childContionary_Wiki
40wifeContionary_Wiki
41husbandContionary_Wiki
42motherContionary_Wiki
43fatherContionary_Wiki
44animalContionary_Wiki
45fishContionary_Wiki
46birdContionary_Wiki
47dogContionary_Wiki
48louseContionary_Wiki
49snakeContionary_Wiki
50wormContionary_Wiki
51treeContionary_Wiki
52forestContionary_Wiki
53stickContionary_Wiki
54fruitContionary_Wiki
55seedContionary_Wiki
56leafContionary_Wiki
57rootContionary_Wiki
58barkContionary_Wiki
59flowerContionary_Wiki
60grassContionary_Wiki
61ropeContionary_Wiki
62skinContionary_Wiki
63meatContionary_Wiki
64bloodContionary_Wiki
65boneContionary_Wiki
66fatContionary_Wiki
67eggContionary_Wiki
68hornContionary_Wiki
69tailContionary_Wiki
70featherContionary_Wiki
71hairContionary_Wiki
72headContionary_Wiki
73earContionary_Wiki
74eyeContionary_Wiki
75noseContionary_Wiki
76mouthContionary_Wiki
77toothContionary_Wiki
78tongueContionary_Wiki
79fingernailContionary_Wiki
80footContionary_Wiki
81legContionary_Wiki
82kneeContionary_Wiki
83handContionary_Wiki
84wingContionary_Wiki
85bellyContionary_Wiki
86gutsContionary_Wiki
87neckContionary_Wiki
88backContionary_Wiki
89breastContionary_Wiki
90heartContionary_Wiki
91liverContionary_Wiki
92drinkContionary_Wiki
93eatContionary_Wiki
94biteContionary_Wiki
95suckContionary_Wiki
96spitContionary_Wiki
97vomitContionary_Wiki
98blowContionary_Wiki
99breatheContionary_Wiki
100laughContionary_Wiki
101seeContionary_Wiki
102hearContionary_Wiki
103knowContionary_Wiki
104thinkContionary_Wiki
105smellContionary_Wiki
106fearContionary_Wiki
107sleepContionary_Wiki
108liveContionary_Wiki
109dieContionary_Wiki
110killContionary_Wiki
111fightContionary_Wiki
112huntContionary_Wiki
113hitContionary_Wiki
114cutContionary_Wiki
115splitContionary_Wiki
116stabContionary_Wiki
117scratchContionary_Wiki
118digContionary_Wiki
119swimContionary_Wiki
120flyContionary_Wiki
121walkContionary_Wiki
122comeContionary_Wiki
123lieContionary_Wiki
124sitContionary_Wiki
125standContionary_Wiki
126turnContionary_Wiki
127fallContionary_Wiki
128giveContionary_Wiki
129holdContionary_Wiki
130squeezeContionary_Wiki
131rubContionary_Wiki
132washContionary_Wiki
133wipeContionary_Wiki
134pullContionary_Wiki
135pushContionary_Wiki
136throwContionary_Wiki
137tieContionary_Wiki
138sewContionary_Wiki
139countContionary_Wiki
140sayContionary_Wiki
141singContionary_Wiki
142playContionary_Wiki
143floatContionary_Wiki
144flowContionary_Wiki
145freezeContionary_Wiki
146swellContionary_Wiki
147sunContionary_Wiki
148moonContionary_Wiki
149starContionary_Wiki
150waterContionary_Wiki
151rainContionary_Wiki
152riverContionary_Wiki
153lakeContionary_Wiki
154seaContionary_Wiki
155saltContionary_Wiki
156stoneContionary_Wiki
157sandContionary_Wiki
158dustContionary_Wiki
159earthContionary_Wiki
160cloudContionary_Wiki
161fogContionary_Wiki
162skyContionary_Wiki
163windContionary_Wiki
164snowContionary_Wiki
165iceContionary_Wiki
166smokeContionary_Wiki
167fireContionary_Wiki
168ashContionary_Wiki
169burnContionary_Wiki
170roadContionary_Wiki
171mountainContionary_Wiki
172redContionary_Wiki
173greenContionary_Wiki
174yellowContionary_Wiki
175whiteContionary_Wiki
176blackContionary_Wiki
177nightContionary_Wiki
178dayContionary_Wiki
179yearContionary_Wiki
180warmContionary_Wiki
181coldContionary_Wiki
182fullContionary_Wiki
183newContionary_Wiki
184oldContionary_Wiki
185goodContionary_Wiki
186badContionary_Wiki
187rottenContionary_Wiki
188dirtyContionary_Wiki
189straightContionary_Wiki
190roundContionary_Wiki
191sharpContionary_Wiki
192dullContionary_Wiki
193smoothContionary_Wiki
194wetContionary_Wiki
195dryContionary_Wiki
196correctContionary_Wiki
197nearContionary_Wiki
198farContionary_Wiki
199rightContionary_Wiki
200leftContionary_Wiki
201atContionary_Wiki
202inContionary_Wiki
203withContionary_Wiki
204andContionary_Wiki
205ifContionary_Wiki
206becauseContionary_Wiki
207nameContionary_Wiki

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