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Panora

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[This is one of my first conlangs, which I haven't used for a long time. I try to remake this language now by using earlier documents. Because of discovering newer things and making its grammar more professional there can be temporary notes on this page, sorry.]



Progress 52%
Name: Panora

Type: Fusional

Alignment: Nominative-accusative

Head Direction:

Number of genders: 0

Declensions: Yes

Conjugations: Yes

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No Yes No Yes Yes Yes No No
Nouns No Yes Yes No Yes No No No
Adjectives No No No No No No No No
Numbers No Yes No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns No Yes Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No

HistoryEdit

Panora is a language of a fictional world.

Panora is a language of the planet Oart. Imagine our Earth with the same age, same attributes, similar continents, same flora and fauna. But a big group of the first human beings did not speak an indo-european language. They spoke the Euny language.

This language family is younger than our indo-european one.

Euny is really different from Panora. We can say, that Panora is the most different language in the whole language family. After the first changes in Euny, another language started being alive: the Europine. In the middle time of Europine a new language variant appeared; this was the Panorka (today it's died). But there are two languages evolved. I. a. Panora.

Wait for the whole history later. It'll be interesting...




PhonologyEdit

a, ä [ɛ], b, c [ʃ], d, e, f, g, h, i, j [ʒ], k, l, m, n, ɲ, ŋ o, ö [ø], p, q [k], r [ʁ], s, t, u, ü [y], ů [-], ū [-], v, w [v], x [çjs], y [çj], z

Letters not followed by bracket are pronounced as the corresponding IPA symbols.

k and q represents the same sound [k]. You use the letter q after vowels.

In general the stress and the lengh is in the end of the word (see Stress and Lengh). ů and ū do not correspond to sounds. ů makes the syllabe long and stressed while ū short and unstressed. We use them, if the stress and the lengh are not on the last syllabe.

v and w represents the same sound [v]. You use w in the beginning and in the end of a world.

The two tables below show IPA symbols with the corresponding letter(s) of the alphabet in parentheses beside them.

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal m (m) n (n) ɲ (ɲ) ŋ (ŋ)
Plosive p (p) b (b) t (t) d (d) k (k, q) g (g)
Fricative f (f) v (v, w) s (s) z (z) ʃ (c) ʒ (j) ç ʁ (r) h (h)
Affricate
Approximant l (l)
Trill

VowelsEdit

Front Back
Close i (i) ü (y) u (u)
Close-mid e (e) ø (ö) o (o)
Open-mid ɛ (ä)
Open a (a)

StressEdit

The one-syllabe words have no stress in general.

In other cases the stress is always on the last syllabe..

LengthEdit

One syllabe words are basicly short.

The vowel in a stressed syllabe is always long and the others in the same word are short.

In general the stress and the lengh is in the end of the word. ů and ū do not correspond to sounds. ů makes the syllabe long and stressed while ū short and unstressed. We use them, if the stress and the lengh are not on the last syllabe.


GrammarEdit

ArticlesEdit

DefiniteEdit

The definite article is ca. It does not change according to number or case. Use it when something is supposed to be known or a concrete thing by the person who you speak with. Do not use before personal names.

haze - house; ca haze the house

IndefiniteEdit

The indefinite article is ün. It does not change according to number or case.

ün finie - a cat


NounsEdit

Nouns have three genders. Natural gender which ends in -e, masculine gender which ends in -o and feminine which ends in -a. We use the mascinline and feminine forms just for creatures: finie, finio, finia. The natural ending for a creature does not show its sex.

You use plural when you speak about more then one thing (and they are not one pair). You use it even if something other shows the plurality (for example a number before). The plural ending is -s.

There no cases. Also accusative is expressed by preposition.

Oct’ey qa ün haze. – I see a house.

Oct’ey qa hazes. – I see houses.

ca dade auū ca haze / ca haze uaū ca dade - the house of the dad

Sös’ey fo ca dade. – I help the father.


AdjetivesEdit

Adjetives have four gendres according to their sense. We can classify them by the vowels and the endings. Positive adjectives can caontain: ä, e, ö and ü and they finish in -is. If the word have negative sense, then it contains a, o, u and the ending -us. If the sense of a word is natural, but can have positive and negative derivants, then it will contain a, o, u with the ending -ityi. And the last class when a word have natural sense and cannot have positive or negative derivants. Then it can contain any vowels without ending or with the ending -ill. In comparative forms –is will change to –im, -us to -um, –ityi to -imyi, zero ending and –ili to imi. We use the expression ca pox in front of the comparative form to express the superlative. "qeyy" means as, "mit" means than.

We can form these words. Root changes are often:

ä, e, <--> a

ö <--> o

i, ü, <--> u

comparative superlative
vowels ending example ending change example ending change example
Positive ä, e, i, ö, ü, -is gresis (fast) -im gresim ca pox + -im ca pox gresim
Negative a, o, u, -us grasus (slow) -um grasum ca pox + -um ca pox grasum
Changable a, o, u, -ityi grasityi ("medium-fast") -imyi grasimyi ca pox + -imyi ca pox grasimyi
Natural a, ä, e, i, o, ö, u, ü, -ø/ -ill öblü / huŋarill (blue / Hungarian) -imi öblüimi / huŋarimi ca pox + -imi ca pox öblüimi / ca pox huŋarimi

NumeralsEdit

The cardinals from one to ten are: ün, dün, thoa, foren, früůjn, sis, siůben, yut, nün, ill


General and posessive personal affixesEdit

General and posessive (adjetive) personal affixes Predicate adjectives Reflexive
I 'y ca'y yora'y
you (unformal) 't ca't yora't
you (formal) 'w/ 'v ca'w yora'w
he 'co c'oů yor'o
she 'ca c'aů yor'a
he/ she (general form) 'j c'eů yor'e
we 'm ca'm yora'm
you (unformal) 'tes ca'tes yora'tes
you (formal) 'wes ca'ves yora'wes
they 'ces ca'ces yora'ces
you, the poele (general pronoun) 'll ca'll yora'll

VerbsEdit

Verb conjugationEdit

You have to use the infinitive form of the verb, then add an apostrof and then the ending of the time and mood. Endings

Present Past Future
Active 'e' 'u' 'ö'
Imperative/ Conjunctive 'o' - -
Conditional 'a 'i

For make a passive form you have to use the particle aväūk before the conjugated verb.

For make the factitive you have to use the particle (?)

The verb "to be"Edit

We can say that the verb "to be" is irregular. It's infinitive form is ni. The verb to be has their own forms. You simply have to use the ending of the time and the mood and add the general personal affix. These two grammatical things make together the conjugated forms of to be. Use it as separate words. The conjugation of the verb to be in Active present tense:

ni
I ey
you (unformal) et
you (formal) ew
he eco
she eca
he/ she (general form) ej
we em
you (unformal) etes
you (formal) eves
they eces
you, the poele (general pronoun) ell

ParticiplesEdit

You have to use one of the next endings to make a participle from a verb.


Present

Non-personal

Personal
Active -üs' ' '-sör-
Passive -aväk' ' '-qamär-


The non-personal endings first will be added to the verb, it will fallow between apostrophes the active time ending, and then the ending, whoch shows whether is it an adjetive -ill, a noun or an adverb.

Fut - to run

futüs'e'o - a male non-human or object being which is running now (f. e. a dog)

fut'esöro - a male person who is running now

wid (?)- to see

widaväk'ö'e - that thing, which will be seen

wid'eqamära - that female human being, who will be seen


AdverbsEdit

We make adverbs from adjectives. We have to change the vowels in the adjetive ending.

Ca böde can'ej methüs. - The bird sings on a nice way.

i -> ü

u -> a

PrepositionsEdit

tyük– instead of

el – in fron of, before

nelt– next to

ö – at

irod– at about

ey/ye – of (quantity)

auū/uaū– of (possessive)

pavü – while, during

atpu– besides

däset – from

et – in

früů – till

böůn – bewtween

genan – against

nüj – out of

soaū – with

tyümi – according to

weůäc – in spite of

söů – by, with

fo – for

al – behind, after

rimtö – away

ada– about

däsa – from the top of

biqoz – because of

nas – without

tapp – under

tepp – above

a – on

guriŋ – through

teyvol – beyond

Word connectionsEdit

We can simple connect the words and write them with a streek (-). In the middle of the words, the ending -e and -ill you do not have to use.

TransitivityEdit

The verbs basicly are untransitive. If a verb can have a transitive and an untransitive form too, then we have to add the ä- particle to the begin of the world.

to turn - prepp/ ä'prepp

I turn - Prepp'ey

He turns the book. - Ä-prepp'ej qa ca bükne.

Example textEdit


No. English
1I
2you (singular)
3he
4we
5you (plural)
6they
7this
8that
9here
10there
11who
12what
13where
14when
15how
16not
17all
18many
19some
20few
21other
22one
23two
24three
25four
26five
27big
28long
29wide
30thick
31heavy
32small
33short
34narrow
35thin
36woman
37man (adult male)
38man (human being)
39child
40wife
41husband
42mother
43father
44animal
45fish
46bird
47dog
48louse
49snake
50worm
51tree
52forest
53stick
54fruit
55seed
56leaf
57root
58bark
59flower
60grass
61rope
62skin
63meat
64blood
65bone
66fat
67egg
68horn
69tail
70feather
71hair
72head
73ear
74eye
75nose
76mouth
77tooth
78tongue
79fingernail
80foot
81leg
82knee
83hand
84wing
85belly
86guts
87neck
88back
89breast
90heart
91liver
92drink
93eat
94bite
95suck
96spit
97vomit
98blow
99breathe
100laugh
101see
102hear
103know
104think
105smell
106fear
107sleep
108live
109die
110kill
111fight
112hunt
113hit
114cut
115split
116stab
117scratch
118dig
119swim
120fly
121walk
122come
123lie
124sit
125stand
126turn
127fall
128give
129hold
130squeeze
131rub
132wash
133wipe
134pull
135push
136throw
137tie
138sew
139count
140say
141sing
142play
143float
144flow
145freeze
146swell
147sun
148moon
149star
150water
151rain
152river
153lake
154sea
155salt
156stone
157sand
158dust
159earth
160cloud
161fog
162sky
163wind
164snow
165ice
166smoke
167fire
168ash
169burn
170road
171mountain
172red
173green
174yellow
175white
176black
177night
178day
179year
180warm
181cold
182full
183new
184old
185good
186bad
187rotten
188dirty
189straight
190round
191sharp
192dull
193smooth
194wet
195dry
196correct
197near
198far
199right
200left
201at
202in
203with
204and
205if
206because
207name

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