[This is one of my first conlangs, which I haven't used for a long time. I try to remake this language now by using earlier documents. Because of discovering newer things and making its grammar more professional there can be temporary notes on this page, sorry.]
| Name: Panora
Number of genders: 0
Panora is a language of a fictional world.
Panora is a language of the planet Oart. Imagine our Earth with the same age, same attributes, similar continents, same flora and fauna. But a big group of the first human beings did not speak an indo-european language. They spoke the Euny language.
This language family is younger than our indo-european one.
Euny is really different from Panora. We can say, that Panora is the most different language in the whole language family. After the first changes in Euny, another language started being alive: the Europine. In the middle time of Europine a new language variant appeared; this was the Panorka (today it's died). But there are two languages evolved. I. a. Panora.
Wait for the whole history later. It'll be interesting...
a, ä [ɛ], b, c [ʃ], d, e, f, g, h, i, j [ʒ], k, l, m, n, ɲ, ŋ o, ö [ø], p, q [k], r [ʁ], s, t, u, ü [y], ů [-], ū [-], v, w [v], x [çjs], y [çj], z
Letters not followed by bracket are pronounced as the corresponding IPA symbols.
k and q represents the same sound [k]. You use the letter q after vowels.
In general the stress and the lengh is in the end of the word (see Stress and Lengh). ů and ū do not correspond to sounds. ů makes the syllabe long and stressed while ū short and unstressed. We use them, if the stress and the lengh are not on the last syllabe.
v and w represents the same sound [v]. You use w in the beginning and in the end of a world.
The two tables below show IPA symbols with the corresponding letter(s) of the alphabet in parentheses beside them.
|Nasal||m (m)||n (n)||ɲ (ɲ)||ŋ (ŋ)|
|Plosive||p (p) b (b)||t (t) d (d)||k (k, q) g (g)|
|Fricative||f (f) v (v, w)||s (s) z (z)||ʃ (c) ʒ (j)||ç||ʁ (r)||h (h)|
|Close||i (i) ü (y)||u (u)|
|Close-mid||e (e) ø (ö)||o (o)|
The one-syllabe words have no stress in general.
In other cases the stress is always on the last syllabe..
One syllabe words are basicly short.
The vowel in a stressed syllabe is always long and the others in the same word are short.
In general the stress and the lengh is in the end of the word. ů and ū do not correspond to sounds. ů makes the syllabe long and stressed while ū short and unstressed. We use them, if the stress and the lengh are not on the last syllabe.
The definite article is ca. It does not change according to number or case. Use it when something is supposed to be known or a concrete thing by the person who you speak with. Do not use before personal names.
haze - house; ca haze the house
The indefinite article is ün. It does not change according to number or case.
ün finie - a cat
Nouns have three genders. Natural gender which ends in -e, masculine gender which ends in -o and feminine which ends in -a. We use the mascinline and feminine forms just for creatures: finie, finio, finia. The natural ending for a creature does not show its sex.
You use plural when you speak about more then one thing (and they are not one pair). You use it even if something other shows the plurality (for example a number before). The plural ending is -s.
There no cases. Also accusative is expressed by preposition.
Oct’ey qa ün haze. – I see a house.
Oct’ey qa hazes. – I see houses.
ca dade auū ca haze / ca haze uaū ca dade - the house of the dad
Sös’ey fo ca dade. – I help the father.
Adjetives have four gendres according to their sense. We can classify them by the vowels and the endings. Positive adjectives can caontain: ä, e, ö and ü and they finish in -is. If the word have negative sense, then it contains a, o, u and the ending -us. If the sense of a word is natural, but can have positive and negative derivants, then it will contain a, o, u with the ending -ityi. And the last class when a word have natural sense and cannot have positive or negative derivants. Then it can contain any vowels without ending or with the ending -ill. In comparative forms –is will change to –im, -us to -um, –ityi to -imyi, zero ending and –ili to imi. We use the expression ca pox in front of the comparative form to express the superlative. "qeyy" means as, "mit" means than.
We can form these words. Root changes are often:
ä, e, <--> a
ö <--> o
i, ü, <--> u
|vowels||ending||example||ending change||example||ending change||example|
|Positive||ä, e, i, ö, ü,||-is||gresis (fast)||-im||gresim||ca pox + -im||ca pox gresim|
|Negative||a, o, u,||-us||grasus (slow)||-um||grasum||ca pox + -um||ca pox grasum|
|Changable||a, o, u,||-ityi||grasityi ("medium-fast")||-imyi||grasimyi||ca pox + -imyi||ca pox grasimyi|
|Natural||a, ä, e, i, o, ö, u, ü,||-ø/ -ill||öblü / huŋarill (blue / Hungarian)||-imi||öblüimi / huŋarimi||ca pox + -imi||ca pox öblüimi / ca pox huŋarimi|
The cardinals from one to ten are: ün, dün, thoa, foren, früůjn, sis, siůben, yut, nün, ill
General and posessive personal affixesEdit
|General and posessive (adjetive) personal affixes||Predicate adjectives||Reflexive|
|you (formal)||'w/ 'v||ca'w||yora'w|
|he/ she (general form)||'j||c'eů||yor'e|
|you, the poele (general pronoun)||'ll||ca'll||yora'll|
You have to use the infinitive form of the verb, then add an apostrof and then the ending of the time and mood. Endings
For make a passive form you have to use the particle aväūk before the conjugated verb.
For make the factitive you have to use the particle (?)
The verb "to be"Edit
We can say that the verb "to be" is irregular. It's infinitive form is ni. The verb to be has their own forms. You simply have to use the ending of the time and the mood and add the general personal affix. These two grammatical things make together the conjugated forms of to be. Use it as separate words. The conjugation of the verb to be in Active present tense:
|he/ she (general form)||ej|
|you, the poele (general pronoun)||ell|
You have to use one of the next endings to make a participle from a verb.
The non-personal endings first will be added to the verb, it will fallow between apostrophes the active time ending, and then the ending, whoch shows whether is it an adjetive -ill, a noun or an adverb.
Fut - to run
futüs'e'o - a male non-human or object being which is running now (f. e. a dog)
fut'esöro - a male person who is running now
wid (?)- to see
widaväk'ö'e - that thing, which will be seen
wid'eqamära - that female human being, who will be seen
We make adverbs from adjectives. We have to change the vowels in the adjetive ending.
Ca böde can'ej methüs. - The bird sings on a nice way.
i -> ü
u -> a
tyük– instead of
el – in fron of, before
nelt– next to
ö – at
irod– at about
ey/ye – of (quantity)
auū/uaū– of (possessive)
pavü – while, during
däset – from
et – in
früů – till
böůn – bewtween
genan – against
nüj – out of
soaū – with
tyümi – according to
weůäc – in spite of
söů – by, with
fo – for
al – behind, after
rimtö – away
däsa – from the top of
biqoz – because of
nas – without
tapp – under
tepp – above
a – on
guriŋ – through
teyvol – beyond
We can simple connect the words and write them with a streek (-). In the middle of the words, the ending -e and -ill you do not have to use.
The verbs basicly are untransitive. If a verb can have a transitive and an untransitive form too, then we have to add the ä- particle to the begin of the world.
to turn - prepp/ ä'prepp
I turn - Prepp'ey
He turns the book. - Ä-prepp'ej qa ca bükne.