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Paolon

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'
Type
Alignment
Head direction
Tonal
No
Declensions
No
Conjugations
No
Genders
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal
Nasal
Plosive
Fricative
Affricate
Approximant
Trill
Flap or tap
Lateral fric.
Lateral app.
Lateral flap

VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open

AlphabetEdit

PhonotacticsEdit

GrammarEdit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
Nouns No Yes Yes No No No No No
Adjectives No Yes Yes No No No No No
Numbers No Yes Yes No No No No No
Participles No Yes Yes Yes No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns No Yes Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No

VerbsEdit

Paolonese verbs are conjugated for ...

1. their person: 1., 2. and 3. person
2. their number: singular and plural
3. their tense: present, past and future as well as participle constructions
4. their voice: active and passive
5. their mood: indicative, subjunctive and imperative


Paolon has 4 different conjugations, based on the suffix vowel of the verbal stem. Because Paolon uses apophony to conjugate verbs, you have to know the verbal apophony row.

a conjugation i conjugation o conjugation u conjugation
1. sound a i o u
2. sound ä e ö ü
3. sound au ei ou ui

Note that only the 1. sound can be the suffix vowel of a verb - because of that, all verbs end in either a, i, o or u.

Being in a certain conjugation has nothing to do with the meaning of the verb. However, there are some basic rules for which verbs belong in which conjugation.

1. a conjugation: Usually, verbs of movement are in this group (to go, to walk, to swim ...).
2. i conjugation: Usually, verbs of feeling/perception are in this group (to love, to hate, to see ...).
3. o conjugation: Usually, verbs of "mental activity" are in this group (to think, to speak, to write ...).
4. u conjugation: Usually, verbs of change are in this group (to grow up, to die ...).


With these rows, we can form all infinitives of Paolon which are needed for the conjugations (VS stands for "verbal stem").

a conjugation i conjugation o conjugation u conjugation
Infinitive Present VSa VSi VSo VSu
Infinitive Past VSä VSe VSö VSü
Infinitive Future VSau VSei VSou VSui


With the 3 infinitives, we can now form all other verb forms.

1. For the present tense conjugation, the following prefixes have to be attached to the "Infinitive Present".
2. For the past tense conjugation, the following prefixes have to be attached to the "Infinitive Past".
3. For the future tense conjugation, the following prefixes have to be attached to the "Infinitive Past".
Active + indicative Personal Pronoun a conjugation i conjugation o conjugation u conjugation
1. Person Singular ler -r
2. Person Singular shuk -k
3. Person Singular thon -n
1. Person Plural aim -m
2. Person Plural dhool -l
3. Person Plural sudh -dh
Active + subjunctive Personal Pronoun a conjugation i conjugation o conjugation u conjugation
1. Person Singular lem -yar -yir -yor -yur
2. Person Singular shuk -yak -yik -yok -yuk
3. Person Singular thon -yan -yin -yon -yun
1. Person Plural ain -yam -yim -yom -yum
2. Person Plural dhool -yal -yil -yol -yul
3. Person Plural sudh -yadh -yidh -yodh -yudh
Passive + indicative Personal Pronoun a conjugation i conjugation o conjugation u conjugation
1. Person Singular lem -x
2. Person Singular shuk -g
3. Person Singular thon -s
1. Person Plural ain -p
2. Person Plural dhool -sh
3. Person Plural sudh -f
Passive + subjunctive Personal Pronoun a conjugation i conjugation o conjugation u conjugation
1. Person Singular lem -yax -yix -yox -yux
2. Person Singular shuk -yag -yig -yog -yug
3. Person Singular thon -yas -yis -yos -yus
1. Person Plural ain -yap -yip -yop -yup
2. Person Plural dhool -yash -yish -yosh -yush
3. Person Plural sudh -yaf -yif -yof -yuf


The "imperative" is somewhat different from the other moods. It can only be used in the present and in the future because it gives orders - and the past is already over and unchangeable. So, it would be stupid to try giving orders to something in the past.

The "imperative" is formed by adding the following suffixes to the corresponding infinitive.

a conjugation i conjugation o conjugation u conjugation
Imperative Present -zhye -luu
Imperative Future -pla -foun

Alternatively, the "subjunctive" can be used to give orders.


Participles are a way of giving more detailed information about different time stages - this is needed since Paolon only has 3 actual tenses.

Both the "Infinitive Past" and the "Infinitive Future" can build 3 participles by attaching the following suffixes to them. The "Infinitive Present" can only build the "Participle Present". The reason for this is the definitons of the participles.

The "Participle Past" expresses that something happens BEFORE the reference point (which is the tense of the infinitive).

The "Participle Present" expresses that something happens AT THE SAME TIME AS the reference point.

The "Participle Future" expresses that something happens AFTER the reference point.

It is crucial to understand that all participle information is within the reference tense - if we form participles from the "Infinitive Past", all actions described by the participles will be in the past. Even though something happened "after the past (tense)", it is still in the past. The same applies for the "Infinitive Future". This is the reason why these infinitves can form all participles as both the past and future are infinitly large. The present is not infinitly large like the past or the future. The present is only a point in time - we couldn't stay within the present when we use "before" or "after" because these words need additional time points (which don't exist in the present). In the case of the present, the actual past and future tense express the ideas of "before" and "after".

a conjugation i conjugation o conjugation u conjugation
Participle Past -rs -lt
Participle Present -rt -lk
Participle Future -rk -ls

Note that all participles are active and indicative. The participles can also be used as adjectives (#adjectives).


Here is a visualisation of the tense/participle system as the whole:

Past Participle Past Past AND Past Participle Present Past Participle Future Present AND Present Participle Present Future Participle Past Future AND Future Participle Present Future  Participle Future


NounsEdit

In Paolon, nouns are declined for ...

1. their number: singular and plural
2. their case: nominative, accusative, locative, temporative, adessive, ablative, genetive, comparative and instructive
3.1. Nominative: basic form of a noun, subject of the sentence, agent in active constructions, patient in passive constructions
3.2. Accusative: direct object which an action is done to, patient in active constructions
3.3. Locative: place
3.4. Temporative: time
3.5. Adessive: direction towards something (as in movement), indirect object (as the action is done in "its direction"), future goal (a future reason for ...)
3.6. Ablative: direction away from something (as in movement), agent in passive constructions, past reason (as in what you want to flee from)
3.7. Genetive: possession, quality
3.8. Comparative: comparison
3.9. Inctructive: means or instruments for an action


Just like verbs are in different conjugations, nouns also have different declinations depending on how the stem of a noun ends.

Singular

Short vowel Long vowel or Diphthong Consonant
Nominative -
Accusative -zh -a
Locative -l -o
Temporative -rf -u
Adessive -t
Ablative -s
Genetive -n -e
Comparative -v -i
Instructive -x

Plural

Short vowel Diphthong Consonant
Nominative -(V)m -m -au
Accusative -(V)k -k -iu
Locative -(V)sh -sh -oi
Temporative -(V)ft -ft -ai
Adessive -(V)lp -lp -ou
Ablative -(V)d -d -ao
Genetive -(V)rd -rd -aa
Comparative -(V)xt -xt -ie
Instructive -(V)st -st -ii


Adjectives

In Paolon, adjectives are declined for ...

1. their number: singular and plural
2. their case: nominative, accusative, locative, temporative, adessive, ablative, genetive, comparative and instructive
3. their grade of comparison: positive, positive comparative, positive superlative, negative comparative and negative superlative
3.1. Positive: qualitiy
3.2. Positive comparative: more of a quality
3.3. Positive superlative: most of a quality
3.4. Negative comparative: less of a quality
3.5. Negative superlative: least of a quality

The number/case declension of adjectives is identical to noun declension.

The grade of comparison is indicated by an infix which is put between the word stem and the number/case suffix.

Short vowel Diphthong Consonant
Positive -
Positive comparative -va- -rei- -us-
Positive superlative -vä- -roi- -ush-
Negative comparative -lo- -pau- -od-
Negative superlative -lö- -pai- -ort-

Note that an adjective in the positive/negative comparative usually demands a reference point in the comparative case. King Schnack (talk) 20:56, December 25, 2014 (UTC)


Numbers

In Paolon, numbers can behave in two different ways, namely ...

1. like a noun: In this case, the number is declined just like any other noun
2. like an adjective: In this case, the number is declined just like any other adjective. However, as numbers represent absolute ideas, you can't grade them.

Numbers are created in a similar way to the English system - small numbers are put together to form bigger numbers. However, in Paolon, the order of the digits is reversed - the ones are said first, then the tens, then the hundreds ...

Numbers from 0-9:

Paolon
0 Tus
1 Loon
2 Sha
3 Ven
4 Plom
5 Flux
6 Tüüt
7 Kaar
8 Kant
9 Suzh


Tens from 10-90:

Paolon
10 Loonidh
20 Shadh
30 Venidh
40 Plomidh
50 Fluxidh
60 Tüütidh
70 Kaaridh
80 Kantidh
90 Sushidh


Other important numbers:

Paolon
100 Kraa
1,000 Thoon
1,000,000 Yext


If a number is written in words and not in digits, the single numbers combine to one word. However, an "-" is added between the individual numbers.


Adverbs In Paolon, adverbs are used to describe everything but nouns.

Adverbs can have their own word stems or they can be derivid from adjectives or participles by adding the following suffixes to stem + grad of comparison infix:

Short vowel Diphthong Consonant
Suffix -he -he -ihe


Pronouns

In Paolon, pronouns can be used instead of nouns. As they function as nouns, they are declinated accordingly.

Paolon has different types of pronouns:

1. Personal pronouns
2. Possessive pronouns
3. Reflexive pronouns
4. Demonstrative pronouns




VocabularyEdit


No. English
1I
2you (singular)
3he
4we
5you (plural)
6they
7this
8that
9here
10there
11who
12what
13where
14when
15how
16not
17all
18many
19some
20few
21other
22one
23two
24three
25four
26five
27big
28long
29wide
30thick
31heavy
32small
33short
34narrow
35thin
36woman
37man (adult male)
38man (human being)
39child
40wife
41husband
42mother
43father
44animal
45fish
46bird
47dog
48louse
49snake
50worm
51tree
52forest
53stick
54fruit
55seed
56leaf
57root
58bark
59flower
60grass
61rope
62skin
63meat
64blood
65bone
66fat
67egg
68horn
69tail
70feather
71hair
72head
73ear
74eye
75nose
76mouth
77tooth
78tongue
79fingernail
80foot
81leg
82knee
83hand
84wing
85belly
86guts
87neck
88back
89breast
90heart
91liver
92drink
93eat
94bite
95suck
96spit
97vomit
98blow
99breathe
100laugh
101see
102hear
103know
104think
105smell
106fear
107sleep
108live
109die
110kill
111fight
112hunt
113hit
114cut
115split
116stab
117scratch
118dig
119swim
120fly
121walk
122come
123lie
124sit
125stand
126turn
127fall
128give
129hold
130squeeze
131rub
132wash
133wipe
134pull
135push
136throw
137tie
138sew
139count
140say
141sing
142play
143float
144flow
145freeze
146swell
147sun
148moon
149star
150water
151rain
152river
153lake
154sea
155salt
156stone
157sand
158dust
159earth
160cloud
161fog
162sky
163wind
164snow
165ice
166smoke
167fire
168ash
169burn
170road
171mountain
172red
173green
174yellow
175white
176black
177night
178day
179year
180warm
181cold
182full
183new
184old
185good
186bad
187rotten
188dirty
189straight
190round
191sharp
192dull
193smooth
194wet
195dry
196correct
197near
198far
199right
200left
201at
202in
203with
204and
205if
206because
207name


Example textEdit

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