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Conlang

Paolon

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Type
Alignment
Head direction
Tonal
No
Declensions
No
Conjugations
No
Genders
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal
Nasal
Plosive
Fricative
Affricate
Approximant
Trill
Flap or tap
Lateral fric.
Lateral app.
Lateral flap

VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open

AlphabetEdit

PhonotacticsEdit

GrammarEdit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
Nouns No Yes Yes No No No No No
Adjectives No Yes Yes No No No No No
Numbers No Yes Yes No No No No No
Participles No Yes Yes Yes No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns No Yes Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No

VerbsEdit

Paolonese verbs are conjugated for ...

1. their person: 1., 2. and 3. person
2. their number: singular and plural
3. their tense: present, past and future as well as participle constructions
4. their voice: active and passive
5. their mood: indicative, subjunctive and imperative


Paolon has 4 different conjugations, based on the suffix vowel of the verbal stem. Because Paolon uses apophony to conjugate verbs, you have to know the verbal apophony row.

a conjugation i conjugation o conjugation u conjugation
1. sound a i o u
2. sound ä e ö ü
3. sound au ei ou ui

Note that only the 1. sound can be the suffix vowel of a verb - because of that, all verbs end in either a, i, o or u.

Being in a certain conjugation has nothing to do with the meaning of the verb. However, there are some basic rules for which verbs belong in which conjugation.

1. a conjugation: Usually, verbs of movement are in this group (to go, to walk, to swim ...).
2. i conjugation: Usually, verbs of feeling/perception are in this group (to love, to hate, to see ...).
3. o conjugation: Usually, verbs of "mental activity" are in this group (to think, to speak, to write ...).
4. u conjugation: Usually, verbs of change are in this group (to grow up, to die ...).


With these rows, we can form all infinitives of Paolon which are needed for the conjugations (VS stands for "verbal stem").

a conjugation i conjugation o conjugation u conjugation
Infinitive Present VSa VSi VSo VSu
Infinitive Past VSä VSe VSö VSü
Infinitive Future VSau VSei VSou VSui


With the 3 infinitives, we can now form all other verb forms.

1. For the present tense conjugation, the following prefixes have to be attached to the "Infinitive Present".
2. For the past tense conjugation, the following prefixes have to be attached to the "Infinitive Past".
3. For the future tense conjugation, the following prefixes have to be attached to the "Infinitive Past".
Active + indicative Personal Pronoun a conjugation i conjugation o conjugation u conjugation
1. Person Singular ler -r
2. Person Singular shuk -k
3. Person Singular thon -n
1. Person Plural aim -m
2. Person Plural dhool -l
3. Person Plural sudh -dh
Active + subjunctive Personal Pronoun a conjugation i conjugation o conjugation u conjugation
1. Person Singular lem -yar -yir -yor -yur
2. Person Singular shuk -yak -yik -yok -yuk
3. Person Singular thon -yan -yin -yon -yun
1. Person Plural ain -yam -yim -yom -yum
2. Person Plural dhool -yal -yil -yol -yul
3. Person Plural sudh -yadh -yidh -yodh -yudh
Passive + indicative Personal Pronoun a conjugation i conjugation o conjugation u conjugation
1. Person Singular lem -x
2. Person Singular shuk -g
3. Person Singular thon -s
1. Person Plural ain -p
2. Person Plural dhool -sh
3. Person Plural sudh -f
Passive + subjunctive Personal Pronoun a conjugation i conjugation o conjugation u conjugation
1. Person Singular lem -yax -yix -yox -yux
2. Person Singular shuk -yag -yig -yog -yug
3. Person Singular thon -yas -yis -yos -yus
1. Person Plural ain -yap -yip -yop -yup
2. Person Plural dhool -yash -yish -yosh -yush
3. Person Plural sudh -yaf -yif -yof -yuf


The "imperative" is somewhat different from the other moods. It can only be used in the present and in the future because it gives orders - and the past is already over and unchangeable. So, it would be stupid to try giving orders to something in the past.

The "imperative" is formed by adding the following suffixes to the corresponding infinitive.

a conjugation i conjugation o conjugation u conjugation
Imperative Present -zhye -luu
Imperative Future -pla -foun

Alternatively, the "subjunctive" can be used to give orders.


Participles are a way of giving more detailed information about different time stages - this is needed since Paolon only has 3 actual tenses.

Both the "Infinitive Past" and the "Infinitive Future" can build 3 participles by attaching the following suffixes to them. The "Infinitive Present" can only build the "Participle Present". The reason for this is the definitons of the participles.

The "Participle Past" expresses that something happens BEFORE the reference point (which is the tense of the infinitive).

The "Participle Present" expresses that something happens AT THE SAME TIME AS the reference point.

The "Participle Future" expresses that something happens AFTER the reference point.

It is crucial to understand that all participle information is within the reference tense - if we form participles from the "Infinitive Past", all actions described by the participles will be in the past. Even though something happened "after the past (tense)", it is still in the past. The same applies for the "Infinitive Future". This is the reason why these infinitves can form all participles as both the past and future are infinitly large. The present is not infinitly large like the past or the future. The present is only a point in time - we couldn't stay within the present when we use "before" or "after" because these words need additional time points (which don't exist in the present). In the case of the present, the actual past and future tense express the ideas of "before" and "after".

a conjugation i conjugation o conjugation u conjugation
Participle Past -rs -lt
Participle Present -rt -lk
Participle Future -rk -ls

Note that all participles are active and indicative. The participles can also be used as adjectives (#adjectives).


Here is a visualisation of the tense/participle system as the whole:

Past Participle Past Past AND Past Participle Present Past Participle Future Present AND Present Participle Present Future Participle Past Future AND Future Participle Present Future  Participle Future


NounsEdit

In Paolon, nouns are declined for ...

1. their number: singular and plural
2. their case: nominative, accusative, locative, temporative, adessive, ablative, genetive, comparative and instructive
3.1. Nominative: basic form of a noun, subject of the sentence, agent in active constructions, patient in passive constructions
3.2. Accusative: direct object which an action is done to, patient in active constructions
3.3. Locative: place
3.4. Temporative: time
3.5. Adessive: direction towards something (as in movement), indirect object (as the action is done in "its direction"), future goal (a future reason for ...)
3.6. Ablative: direction away from something (as in movement), agent in passive constructions, past reason (as in what you want to flee from)
3.7. Genetive: possession, quality
3.8. Comparative: comparison
3.9. Inctructive: means or instruments for an action


Just like verbs are in different conjugations, nouns also have different declinations depending on how the stem of a noun ends.

Singular

Short vowel Long vowel or Diphthong Consonant
Nominative -
Accusative -zh -a
Locative -l -o
Temporative -rf -u
Adessive -t
Ablative -s
Genetive -n -e
Comparative -v -i
Instructive -x

Plural

Short vowel Diphthong Consonant
Nominative -(V)m -m -au
Accusative -(V)k -k -iu
Locative -(V)sh -sh -oi
Temporative -(V)ft -ft -ai
Adessive -(V)lp -lp -ou
Ablative -(V)d -d -ao
Genetive -(V)rd -rd -aa
Comparative -(V)xt -xt -ie
Instructive -(V)st -st -ii


Adjectives

In Paolon, adjectives are declined for ...

1. their number: singular and plural
2. their case: nominative, accusative, locative, temporative, adessive, ablative, genetive, comparative and instructive
3. their grade of comparison: positive, positive comparative, positive superlative, negative comparative and negative superlative
3.1. Positive: qualitiy
3.2. Positive comparative: more of a quality
3.3. Positive superlative: most of a quality
3.4. Negative comparative: less of a quality
3.5. Negative superlative: least of a quality

The number/case declension of adjectives is identical to noun declension.

The grade of comparison is indicated by an infix which is put between the word stem and the number/case suffix.

Short vowel Diphthong Consonant
Positive -
Positive comparative -va- -rei- -us-
Positive superlative -vä- -roi- -ush-
Negative comparative -lo- -pau- -od-
Negative superlative -lö- -pai- -ort-

Note that an adjective in the positive/negative comparative usually demands a reference point in the comparative case. King Schnack (talk) 20:56, December 25, 2014 (UTC)


Numbers

In Paolon, numbers can behave in two different ways, namely ...

1. like a noun: In this case, the number is declined just like any other noun
2. like an adjective: In this case, the number is declined just like any other adjective. However, as numbers represent absolute ideas, you can't grade them.

Numbers are created in a similar way to the English system - small numbers are put together to form bigger numbers. However, in Paolon, the order of the digits is reversed - the ones are said first, then the tens, then the hundreds ...

Numbers from 0-9:

Paolon
0 Tus
1 Loon
2 Sha
3 Ven
4 Plom
5 Flux
6 Tüüt
7 Kaar
8 Kant
9 Suzh


Tens from 10-90:

Paolon
10 Loonidh
20 Shadh
30 Venidh
40 Plomidh
50 Fluxidh
60 Tüütidh
70 Kaaridh
80 Kantidh
90 Sushidh


Other important numbers:

Paolon
100 Kraa
1,000 Thoon
1,000,000 Yext


If a number is written in words and not in digits, the single numbers combine to one word. However, an "-" is added between the individual numbers.


Adverbs In Paolon, adverbs are used to describe everything but nouns.

Adverbs can have their own word stems or they can be derivid from adjectives or participles by adding the following suffixes to stem + grad of comparison infix:

Short vowel Diphthong Consonant
Suffix -he -he -ihe


Pronouns

In Paolon, pronouns can be used instead of nouns. As they function as nouns, they are declinated accordingly.

Paolon has different types of pronouns:

1. Personal pronouns
2. Possessive pronouns
3. Reflexive pronouns
4. Demonstrative pronouns




VocabularyEdit


No. English
1IContionary_Wiki
2you (singular)Contionary_Wiki
3heContionary_Wiki
4weContionary_Wiki
5you (plural)Contionary_Wiki
6theyContionary_Wiki
7thisContionary_Wiki
8thatContionary_Wiki
9hereContionary_Wiki
10thereContionary_Wiki
11whoContionary_Wiki
12whatContionary_Wiki
13whereContionary_Wiki
14whenContionary_Wiki
15howContionary_Wiki
16notContionary_Wiki
17allContionary_Wiki
18manyContionary_Wiki
19someContionary_Wiki
20fewContionary_Wiki
21otherContionary_Wiki
22oneContionary_Wiki
23twoContionary_Wiki
24threeContionary_Wiki
25fourContionary_Wiki
26fiveContionary_Wiki
27bigContionary_Wiki
28longContionary_Wiki
29wideContionary_Wiki
30thickContionary_Wiki
31heavyContionary_Wiki
32smallContionary_Wiki
33shortContionary_Wiki
34narrowContionary_Wiki
35thinContionary_Wiki
36womanContionary_Wiki
37man (adult male)Contionary_Wiki
38man (human being)Contionary_Wiki
39childContionary_Wiki
40wifeContionary_Wiki
41husbandContionary_Wiki
42motherContionary_Wiki
43fatherContionary_Wiki
44animalContionary_Wiki
45fishContionary_Wiki
46birdContionary_Wiki
47dogContionary_Wiki
48louseContionary_Wiki
49snakeContionary_Wiki
50wormContionary_Wiki
51treeContionary_Wiki
52forestContionary_Wiki
53stickContionary_Wiki
54fruitContionary_Wiki
55seedContionary_Wiki
56leafContionary_Wiki
57rootContionary_Wiki
58barkContionary_Wiki
59flowerContionary_Wiki
60grassContionary_Wiki
61ropeContionary_Wiki
62skinContionary_Wiki
63meatContionary_Wiki
64bloodContionary_Wiki
65boneContionary_Wiki
66fatContionary_Wiki
67eggContionary_Wiki
68hornContionary_Wiki
69tailContionary_Wiki
70featherContionary_Wiki
71hairContionary_Wiki
72headContionary_Wiki
73earContionary_Wiki
74eyeContionary_Wiki
75noseContionary_Wiki
76mouthContionary_Wiki
77toothContionary_Wiki
78tongueContionary_Wiki
79fingernailContionary_Wiki
80footContionary_Wiki
81legContionary_Wiki
82kneeContionary_Wiki
83handContionary_Wiki
84wingContionary_Wiki
85bellyContionary_Wiki
86gutsContionary_Wiki
87neckContionary_Wiki
88backContionary_Wiki
89breastContionary_Wiki
90heartContionary_Wiki
91liverContionary_Wiki
92drinkContionary_Wiki
93eatContionary_Wiki
94biteContionary_Wiki
95suckContionary_Wiki
96spitContionary_Wiki
97vomitContionary_Wiki
98blowContionary_Wiki
99breatheContionary_Wiki
100laughContionary_Wiki
101seeContionary_Wiki
102hearContionary_Wiki
103knowContionary_Wiki
104thinkContionary_Wiki
105smellContionary_Wiki
106fearContionary_Wiki
107sleepContionary_Wiki
108liveContionary_Wiki
109dieContionary_Wiki
110killContionary_Wiki
111fightContionary_Wiki
112huntContionary_Wiki
113hitContionary_Wiki
114cutContionary_Wiki
115splitContionary_Wiki
116stabContionary_Wiki
117scratchContionary_Wiki
118digContionary_Wiki
119swimContionary_Wiki
120flyContionary_Wiki
121walkContionary_Wiki
122comeContionary_Wiki
123lieContionary_Wiki
124sitContionary_Wiki
125standContionary_Wiki
126turnContionary_Wiki
127fallContionary_Wiki
128giveContionary_Wiki
129holdContionary_Wiki
130squeezeContionary_Wiki
131rubContionary_Wiki
132washContionary_Wiki
133wipeContionary_Wiki
134pullContionary_Wiki
135pushContionary_Wiki
136throwContionary_Wiki
137tieContionary_Wiki
138sewContionary_Wiki
139countContionary_Wiki
140sayContionary_Wiki
141singContionary_Wiki
142playContionary_Wiki
143floatContionary_Wiki
144flowContionary_Wiki
145freezeContionary_Wiki
146swellContionary_Wiki
147sunContionary_Wiki
148moonContionary_Wiki
149starContionary_Wiki
150waterContionary_Wiki
151rainContionary_Wiki
152riverContionary_Wiki
153lakeContionary_Wiki
154seaContionary_Wiki
155saltContionary_Wiki
156stoneContionary_Wiki
157sandContionary_Wiki
158dustContionary_Wiki
159earthContionary_Wiki
160cloudContionary_Wiki
161fogContionary_Wiki
162skyContionary_Wiki
163windContionary_Wiki
164snowContionary_Wiki
165iceContionary_Wiki
166smokeContionary_Wiki
167fireContionary_Wiki
168ashContionary_Wiki
169burnContionary_Wiki
170roadContionary_Wiki
171mountainContionary_Wiki
172redContionary_Wiki
173greenContionary_Wiki
174yellowContionary_Wiki
175whiteContionary_Wiki
176blackContionary_Wiki
177nightContionary_Wiki
178dayContionary_Wiki
179yearContionary_Wiki
180warmContionary_Wiki
181coldContionary_Wiki
182fullContionary_Wiki
183newContionary_Wiki
184oldContionary_Wiki
185goodContionary_Wiki
186badContionary_Wiki
187rottenContionary_Wiki
188dirtyContionary_Wiki
189straightContionary_Wiki
190roundContionary_Wiki
191sharpContionary_Wiki
192dullContionary_Wiki
193smoothContionary_Wiki
194wetContionary_Wiki
195dryContionary_Wiki
196correctContionary_Wiki
197nearContionary_Wiki
198farContionary_Wiki
199rightContionary_Wiki
200leftContionary_Wiki
201atContionary_Wiki
202inContionary_Wiki
203withContionary_Wiki
204andContionary_Wiki
205ifContionary_Wiki
206becauseContionary_Wiki
207nameContionary_Wiki


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