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Pasanian

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OverviewEdit

Pasanian is a descendant of Nessëran, spoken in the eastern seaside areas of Nesëra. Originating as a dialect of the main language - because of it's relative isolation has diverged significantly enough from Nessëran to be classified as a seperate language by many authorities. In addition, because of the seafaring nature of the area in which the language has evolved, Pasanian has picked up many aspects of Spanish and Portuguese including a significant part of it's lexicon, particularly words to do with the sea (bärco "ship" - from Spanish "barco", acantilado "cliff" and playa "beach"). As well as it's orthography (for example the use of 'c' for [k]).

PhonologyEdit

Sound Changes from NessëranEdit

Pasanian has lost the Nessëran palatal fricative [ç] (represented in Nessëran by the letter 'q'), losing it's fricative qualities and becoming an approximant [j] before vowels and after vowels word-finally. Before consonants it has been lost altogether. Examples of this change are adërr from Nessëran adërq ("fine"), drayaş from Nessëran draqqaş ("council") and cuep from Nessëran kepq ("[to] take").

It has also lost the phonemic difference between [i] and [ɪ], both becoming in Pasanian allophones of /i/. These are represented in Pasanian by the letter 'i' (with 'y' - used to represent /i/ in Nessëran - being used instead to represent the approximant /j/ as in english).

Pasanian has adopted the Spanish phonemes [ʎ] and [ɲ] (represented by 'll' and 'ny' respectively), predominantly for loanwords. It has also developed phonemic difference between the alveolar trill [r] and flap [ɾ], as in Spanish. Only the alveolar flap was present in Nessëran.

Pasanian has also lost the phoneme [h], with the character 'h' only being seen as part of the letter 'ch'.

The sound [ts] has deaffricated to [s].

PhonemesEdit

The following table shows the consonants that are found in Nessëran. When found in pairs, the one on the left is voiceless, and the one on the right is voiced.

Bilabial Labiodental Dental Alveolar Postalveolar Palatal Velar
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ1
Plosive p b t d k g
Fricative f v s z ʃ ʒ
Affricate
Approximant j
Flap ɾ
Trill r
Lateral l ʎ
  1. The velar nasal /ŋ/ is an allophone of /n/ before either /k/ or /g/, the same as in english.

OrthographyEdit

Pasanian orthography was developed relatively seperately to that of it's Parent language, so many words that are pronounced the same or similar in both languages are spelt very differently. Pasanian has though transferred the Nessëran letters 'ş', 'ë' and 'ä' to it's own orthography with the same phonetic values.

AlphabetEdit

Letter IPA Name Notes
a [æ] a
ä [ɑ] alärgo
b [b] be
c [k] or [s] ce represents [s] before 'e' and 'i', and [k] elsewhere, the same value it has in English, French and Spanish
ch [tʃ] che corresponds to the Nessëran letter 'ç', and is used in Spanish loanwords where the same letter is present
d [d] de
e [ɛ] e
ë [e] elärgo
f [f] ef
g [g] ege
i [i] i
l [l] le
ll [ʎ] elle found mostly in words from Spanish
m [m] em
n [n] en
ny [ɲ] eny used mostly in Spanish-derived words corresponding to Spanish 'ñ'.
o [ɑ] o
p [p] pe
r [ɾ] re
rr [r] erre found mostly in words from Spanish
s [s] esse
ş [ʃ] şa
t [t] te
u [u] u
v [v] ve
y [j] yipsilon
z [z] zetta

'Ch', 'Ll', 'Ny' and 'Rr' are all regarded as individual letters in their own right. Although the latter three are predominantly found in words borrowed or taken from Spanish, 'Ch' is used frequently in words inherited from Nessëran, in which the same sound is represented by 'ç'.

LexiconEdit

Most of the vocabulary of Pasanian is of Nessëran stock, however a significant (and growing) percentage of Pasanian words is of Spanish and other romance origin. There is also a large Greek and Latin influence, mostly from internationally-used words such as fotografi ("photography") .

Basic GrammarEdit

NounsEdit

CasesEdit

Pasanian stays faithful to the Nessëran system of noun cases.

The following table shows how the noun cases are indicated by adding enclitics onto the noun. Take the phrase va rimasta meaning "the car".

Case Result Meaning
Genitive va rimastadona of the car
Dative va rimastapea to the car (as in "he gave it to the car")
Locative va rimastabea in the car
Allative va rimastasor to the car (as in "he went to the car)
Ablative va rimastapalo from the car
Comitative va rimastavecca together with the car
Instrumental va rimastasura by/using the car
Absentive va rimastanaya without the car
Adjacent va rimastata next to the car

Examples

  • Änilalun achulsor va rimastasura "I traveled here by (the) car"
  • Fesebun achir dennaya "I can do this without you"

ArticlesEdit

Unlike in Nessëran, Pasanian definate and indefinate articles are put before the noun, probably due to Romance influence. The articles are also found in different forms for singular and plural nouns.

Singular Plural
Indefinate la lea
Definate va vele

Examples

  • Canapëra - couch
  • Canapërane - couches
  • Va canapëra - the couch
  • Vele canapërane - the couches
  • La canapëra - a couch
  • Lea canapërane - a/some couches1

1The sentence Lea canapërane (a couches) doesn't seem to make grammatical sense, but in Pasanian it does. Whereas there is an absense of Indefinate Plural Articles in english, there is not in Pasanian. It is also used as a word for 'some', so Lea canapërane also means "some couches".

NumberEdit

There are two numbers in Pasanian, singular and plural. The plurals are represented by adding the suffix '-ne' or '-ane'. So va seyërr meaning "the tree" is pluralised to "vele seyërrane "the trees".

PosessionEdit

As in Nessëran, posession is indicated by adding an enclitic to the end of a noun.

The following table shows how posession is indicated in Pasanian, using the noun "lärnel" meaning "name".

Enclitic Result Meaning
-ame va lärnelame my name
-ada va lärnelad your name (one person)
-ase va lärnelase your name (several people)
-efe va lärnelefe his name
-esä va lärnelesä her name
-unet va lärnelunet their name
-unel va lärnelunel our name
-oy va lärneloy it's name
-ëra va lärnel Tomëra Tom's name

Note that the article 'va' is still kept, rather than dropped as in Nessëran.

Examples

  • Curun va lärnelada - I like your name
  • Va canapërame şärenitue - My couch is nice

AdjectivesEdit

Pasanian adjectives come in five forms, as in Nessëran. Also, like in Nessëran they are placed after the noun they are describing.

Enclitic Result Meaning
- şäreni nice
-lec şärenilec nicer
-lennër şärenilennër nicest
-trea şärenitrea very nice
-nass şäreninass not nice

To add the equivalent to the English word "is" to the adjective, it is added as the suffix "-tue" to the adjective itself, so for example şärenitreatue means "is very nice", şäreninasstue means "is not nice".

Examples

  • Ocho entreselo velschenosetue - That balcony is pretty
  • Va yërmelename uropesyestue - My daughter is European

VerbsEdit

TensesEdit

The tense of a verb is determined in Pasanian by the suffix which is attatched to it. The suffixes and their effects on the vowels they modify is shown in the following table, using the word visseya "to say".

Ending Result Meaning
- visseya to say
-(e)ndo visseyendo saying (present)
-al visseyal said
-al visseyaval was said
-use visseyuse was saying
-use visseyuse saying (past)
-el visseyel will say
-el visseyel saying (future)
-işo visseyişo will have said
-alap visseyalap going to say
-annal visseyannal was going to say

Objects and SubjectsEdit

The object of a verb is attatched to the end of it.

Ending Result Meaning
-un visseyun I say
-id visseyido You say (one person)
-isso visseyisso You say (several people)
-ef visseyef He says
-aşe visseyaşe She says
-innä visseyinnä We say
-ettë visseyettë They say
-ër visseyër It says

The subject of a noun is placed after the verb+object word. "She said to him" is written "visseyalaşe fepe" - with visseyalaşe ("she said") put before fepe ("to him").

Personal PronounsEdit

Personal pronouns are not very different than Nessëran ones.

Word Meaning
un I, me
den You (singular, informal)
zun You (plural, informal)
dennea You (singular, polite)
zunnea You (plural, polite)
fe He, him
She, her
They, them (informal)
vänea They, them (polite)
nos We, us
ur It

Interrogative PronounsEdit

Word Meaning
la? what?
lir? who?
las? when?
luse? why?
los? where?
loş? how?
lër? how many?

NumbersEdit

Number Cardinal Ordinal
0 in ino
1 ul ulo
2 cuëri cuëro
3 lël lëlo
4 ay ayo
5 us uso
6 särl särlo
7 sinel sinelo
8 nos nosso
9 kes kesso
10 den denno


DictionaryEdit

...

Example textEdit

English Pasanian Nessëran
All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. Sotel sondane crunaltue libresben dignitas'e idnesben calatesen'e. Väneatue mossoral yuntevävecca consëres'e proctolte cella cossnor ennosune lea espirituvecca fenlachdona. Ţotel sonden krunalatu enely desteneşe hidnesben kallateseneşe. Vääratu mossòral junteväärveq konsëreseşe progtolte sel koţnòr ennòsun feldesleiben fenlaçdän.

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