Pkalho-Kolo 2

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On Pkalho-Kolo 2 : Phonology/Phonotactics, a sample text, and a brief English to Pkalho-Kölo Word-List. (Back to Grammar on Pkalho-Kolo ) (A longer text on Pkalho-Kölo/A. )

I. Phonology Edit

I. A. Consonants Edit

Pkalho-Kölo has 24 consonants, which unfortunately look a mess on a table, and also need explanation:

Labial Labial-


Inter-dental Alveolar Palatal Labio-Palatal Velar Glottal
Stop p pk /ƥk/ t c k
Labialised pw /pʷ/ pkw /ƥkʷ/ cw kw /kʷ/
Nasal m n /ŋ/
Fricative ph /ɸ/ fh /fç/ th /θ/  fw hw /ʍ/ h
Lateral lh /l̪ / l
Flap r
Approxim. w y /j/

pk is a sound peculiar to the city of Pkalho, double-articulated, a simultaneous implosive p and plosive k. Form the lips to pronounce a p and the back of the tongue to pronounce a k. The lips open with a pop, and at the same moment the k is released. pkw is the labialised version. fh is the corresponding fricative, which could be written /fç/

lh is an interdental lateral, close in sound to /ð/ Compared to "l" it sounds "dark" i.e. velarised.

cw is not simply labialised c. In pronouncing it, the tip of the tongue should press against the back of the bottom teeth while the the top of the tongue touches the hard palate. fw is the corresponding fricative: it could be written /çw/ but the tongue should be in the same position as for cw. Why do I write "fw"? I was trying to avoid diacritical marks, I didn’t like sw, chw or xw, and I couldn't think of anything else except fw

n is /n/ between vowels and before t, c, y and n. Before or after any other consonant it is /ŋ/

hw is the voiceless fricative w that we used to have in English in words like “hwæt"

Missing from the chart, which is already too big:

v is self-explanatory

rl at the beginning of a word, at the end of a syllable or after a consonant is /ɭ / the post-alveolar lateral of Dravidian and Australian Aboriginal languages. Between vowels it is /r/ an alveolar flap; I write "r" at the end of a syllable for brevity. Rl- retains its word-initial sound even if a prefix or aspectual extension is added.

pr could be written /pɭ / Native speakers regard it, like pk, as a single sound. The tongue should press against the back of the alveolar ridge, and release as the lips open.

I. B. Vowels Edit

Back Central Front
Rounded Rounded Unrounded
Close u i
Mid o ë /ɜ/ ö /ø/ e
Open ä /ɒ/ a

ä is the low rounded back vowel in British English “swan,” written with an upside-down a. ë is a mid-central vowel, similar to the vowel in British English "her" but with the tongue drawn further back.)

There are twelve diphthongs, six “like” (rounded + rounded, unrounded + unrounded) and six “unlike” (one rounded, one unrounded.)

Like: ea oä ei  ou ie  uo
Unlike: au  äi ëu  öi iu  ui

II. Phonotactics Edit

1. All root words end in a vowel

2. Syllables can end only in a vowel or the consonants m, n, rl, lh, or l.

3. A syllable can contain a diphthong or a final consonant, but not both. The exception is when a one-syllable word containing a diphthong takes the relative suffix in its reduced form -n, or the -n of n-conjunctives.

4. Words do not begin with a diphthong, though three words, au, ea and ui consist of a diphthong.

5. Words beginning with a vowel have glottal onset. Elision occurs only when the neutral demonstratives e and o follow the suffixes -la, -rë or -pë. Thus iturë en, (someone) said the following, becomes itur'en.

(Also, the word erä, person, human being, loses its first vowel in compound words: velya (to play music) - velyarä (musician), kaulo (garden) - kaulorä (gardener). The word for ten, thilä, also loses its last vowel before ea, one: thil'ea, eleven; heru thil'ea, forty-one, etc.)

6. When a word beginning with a vowel takes a directional prefix, or is extended by aspectual stem-modification, an epenthetic r is inserted. Thus olkwela (it resembles) - pkärolkwela (they resemble each other); ilurë (a light shone) - yërilurë (a light flashed for a moment). Word-initial rl keeps its pronunciation /ɭ / even after a prefix, as noted above.

Minor points: after m, the consonants k and kw are realised as pk and pkw. The sequences m+kw and m+pkw I always write mkw, regardless of the original script. After m, r and l the consonant hw becomes the labialised form of the bilabial fricative /ɸ/, i.e. /ɸʷ/, an allophone that occurs only in this context. The sequence l+hw I write lphw, to distinguish it from the sequence lh+w. The double consonants mm, nn, rll and ll occur frequently: doubled lh ought also to occur, but it seems to have been replaced by the rather rare sequence lh+th, which I write lth.

III. Intonation. Edit

Unlike English, Pkalho-Kölo does not have word-stress: each syllable is pronounced with equal weight, allowing for natural variation. It does however have pitch accent: accented syllables are pronounced at a higher pitch. Three rules roughly cover this:

I. Directional prefixes have an accent which they never lose.

II. One-syllable root words do not normally have an accent.

III. Two and three-syllable root words have an accent on the first syllable, which they lose when immediately preceded by a directional prefix.

Actually it’s a little more complicated than that, but that’s enough to be going on with.

IV. Sample Text Edit

A brief sample text, in Latin letters (Pkalho-Kölo has its own writing system, alphabetic and written from top to bottom and right to left, though a few of the literate prefer left to right.) This is the beginning of a translation of the Grimm Brothers story called "The Seven Ravens":

Täthumä atäla lemäi tonun lamo niköli akäto teina eali. Cimekoäkuto cwëllen e wöhela icwiyi löipë nörövafhanela eto iturë ölvu thena-mäyupiela yuli.

Oto cwinli pintörë eali lamovon atähi kwellapkwe poucahwali ewan, eyi valarikurë lumphë nälmen. Epkëväiloto nöweiwë poucamöli, e hëfworë nilneripë fhampon nömäihi kovo nälhmulemä. Waweto äpkäkwearë lhaun kanlöla vayi haulato emäin thopala muriphili.

There was once a man who had seven sons, and last of all one daughter. although the little girl was very pretty, she was so weak and small that they thought she could not live but they said she should at once be christened.

So the father sent one of his sons in haste to the spring to get some water, but the other six ran with him. Each wanted to be the first at drawing the water, and so they were in such a hurry that they all let their pitchers fall into the well, and they stood foolishly looking at one another, and did not know what to do, for none dared go home.

Vakuito hauvela atäwë yoähauyi ephiun alwä-nänala lupka-prëmon. Mëula, itur’on, thounölela nikö nömäin rlui yakerëvo; mipko nouma lankwäherëto haunöla murirën lhaun, phouvö värurë, vihwëp’en, fwapehwa fhalhkotopë lhau nömäin.

Ituhöiherëto oraun, nila luncarë kälhkarën nökwärë keipë kaprokalerën fhora-cëlhmu fhalhvo nikön. Yohwekuto e vihwën keila kounarën, hunyëla epwean thonukwä nirë-tekan, ela houri rlöhwala lhöyepkwe lamo nikön cwälu teinavo, ilva voprälel’on vali-prëlli nilkwe-kwörorëyi.

In the mean time the father was uneasy, and could not tell what made the young men stay so long. “Surely,” said he, “the whole seven must have forgotten themselves over some game of play.” And when he had waited still longer and they yet did not come, he flew into a rage and wished them all turned into ravens.

Scarcely had he spoken these words when he heard a croaking over his head, and looked up and saw seven ravens as black as coal flying round and round. Sorry as he was to see his wish so fulfilled, he did not know how what was done could be undone, and he comforted himself as well as he could with his dear little daughter, who soon became stronger and every day more beautiful.

A longer text now on Pkalho-Kölo/A

I'm going to try to upload a couple of scans of Pkalho-Kölo in its own writing system. These were written a few years ago and the language has changed slightly since then, but they still give an idea of what the script looks like. (Oh bother they're in the wrong order and I have no idea what to do about it.)

Page 5
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Page 3
Page 1
Page 2

V. English - Pkalho-Kölo: Edit

OK. I'm going, I hope, to add a brief word-list.

A. Edit

to abandon              kwëllo
above              nila
absent              hau
to accompany         mimä
to accuse, blame     rlauce
acquire, obtain      vea
to add to         hwëno
admire             pamyu
admit, confess       kwalpë
advice             nouve
adorn, decorate      prulkwe
afraid; to fear      yafhë
after; later        neto
afternoon         yeilo
agree with         tinnä
air             äyu
almond             nuifhe
amazed             wafwu
amusing, funny       yömwi
ancient             täthu
angry             väru
ankle             prënka
to announce         prilpa
to answer        kwehwä
ant             höpi
apple             kwäli
to approve of       telpkwa
approximately        proha
apricot             cwäimo
an arbour         vëlpkwä
arm             kwenya
ash, ashes         hëtha
ask a favour         prëhwi
ask a question       cwiu
(maternal) aunt      nenya
(paternal) aunt      nula
autumn             cämphu
awake             viro
aware of         ehu
away; out         alwä
an axe             kolke   

B. Edit

back (of the body)      thällu
a bag             phacë
a ball            phälla
bank; shore       velta
bare, desolate          kwähu
barter, exchange     yäpre
basement         lhumvä
basket             praphe
a bat (animal)       pilvä
(have a) bath       camwe
a bay (seaside)      taukwä
a beach             päina
beautiful         nilkwe
to beckon         kwöki
a bee             vëlve
beech-tree        luka
beehive             kwuho
a beetle             rluiko
before             norlla
begin, start         keri
on behalf of         liphu
behind, hidden by   pemwä
behind, to the rear  thuomä
to believe         prepko
a bell             nukwu
belongings         kelu
below; down         nälhmu
to bend; bent       wilu
bend down        vella
to benefit from      kampri
beside             alvi
beyond; far side     pelha
big, large              kapu
bind, tie up         lelhko
birch-tree         rlepa
bird             cöi
to bite             kamku
bitter             lhipwi
bizarre, peculiar   cömwe
black             cëlhmu
blackbird         kiela
blackcurrants       rlelwi
blade of grass       rlilwe
blame, guilt         vëlhu
to blame, accuse     rlauce
blanket            pwelka
blaze, flare up      fhuvi
to bless             mäyu
blind             mukë
blood             fhëma
blood-clot         limwu
blossom         phuolë
blunt                   vuco
to blush             urllo
a board (wood)       capë
to boast             prämpwe
a boat             phawe
boisterous         pruivu
a book             cälpa
borrow; lend         hoä
a bottle             rlempo
to bounce         pumpë
boundary         älle
bouquet (flowers)   cwöllo
a bowl             tälpo
a box             canto
a boy             pwenya
brave             talhmo
bread             nulhä
to break         pkate
break, snap          papkä
to breathe         hiphu
breeze             wefha
to bribe             prilho
a bridge         tälve
brief; short time    helu
bright, clear       cäyu
bright, shiny       luili
bring, carry         tou
broad, wide             pkoula
bronze             prufho
(older) brother     apko
(younger) brother   upe    
brown             hämpra
a bruise            rlëmwa
(scrubbing) brush   thepi
a bucket         polhka
a bud             nipwë
to build             tuina
to bully             pruco
to bump into        pkwape
to burst             rlumco
to bury             lhemcu
busy, occupied       pkivë
butter             yomyë
a buttercup         pilpwä
butterfly         kwëpha
a button         nöpe
buy; sell         proä

C. Edit

a cabinet               preina
a cage             cäki
cake             cöme
calm, still         tulwa
a canal             thölwe
candle             cilpe
carpet             thälvo
carnation         kwölmi
a carrot           nimhi
carry, bring       tou
cat             mimwe
catch (ball etc)   napke
caterpillar         wulumpri
cautious, wary      nöho
a cave             louku
cease, stop         kwento
ceiling             limcö
centre, middle      kunu
certain, sure       unne
a chain             pkilpa
a chair             phapre
chalk             pkëlki
chase away         kwärva
cheap (price)       yekwo
cheerful        hwöi
cheese             hennä
(wooden) chest      këlta
a child             uno
chin             nuopi
to choose         kweru
a chronicle        thentä
cinnamon         pkwillu
circle, ring       kamyo
circumference       aro
clap hands         päkwa
clay             lämi
clear, bright       cäyu
clever nilvë
a cliff             wäntu
to climb           lanti
to cling to         limyë
a cloak            lhalwe
a clock             kälkwo
to close, shut      pkire
close, near        mawe
close, tight       cwipë
cloth, fabric       täivo
a cloth, towel      miho
clothes                 kwoma
cloud             uphe
clover             äphi
clumsy             konla
coal             fhora
a coat             palko
coffee             tavä
a coin             premo
to coincide         prope
cold (to touch)     lhëfwa
cold (weather)      ëfwu
collide with       pronkwa
colour            kwëra
a comb             neiva
common         mauro
to compare          hwate
to compel         promu
to complain         rlocwe
to complete         lhapi
complicated         minlö
to compromise       pkwolla
confess, admit      kwalpë
confident         kehwo
console, comfort   lhönya
contain, hold       otu
container, jar      piuve
contempt         yaupë
contented         hwamo
continual         nanti
continue, remain   näna
to convince         yencu
to cook             mahe
cool             thafwä
copper             melprä
to copy out        preivë
coral            kiula
correct, true       prea
a corridor         pkieva
couch, sofa         tancu
to cough         pkähe
to count         yummo
a country         wale
countryside         täina
courteous         nelko
(female) cousin     vehwa
(male) cousin       tuhwa
to cover; covered       pëu
cream             cenyö
a crime             rlako
crowd             cumo
crumb; grain       öku
to crumble         phuprë
to cry; tears       yölli
(rock-)crystal      käicwe
cucumber         lumpkä
a cup            tuphe
cupboard         pano
curious, intriguing     viulo
a current         tiuphe
curtain             cephu
curve            meto
cushion            mëlpha
a cut, wound       vicu
to cut, sever       ciko

D. Edit

a daisy                 cëpwe
a daffodil         pruma
damage, harm           mati
damp, moist         ömle
to dance        hwäivo
danger              thalfhi
dark-coloured       tänyu
daughter         teina
daunting         wölpha
dawn             pkela
day             vali
deceit, guile       lhëmu
to decide         tencu
decorate, adorn     prulkwe
delicious         nölu
deep             tolphu
deep, low-pitched   lälhu
deer             tilwe
to delay           louri
deliberately       leicwa
delicious         nölu
delight            mölli
to demolish        prampë
depart, leave       nacwi
to describe         prouphe
to despise         yaupë
desolate, bare      kwähu
deter, dissuade     lhencë
dew             nehwi
difficult           tälna
to dig                  thumo
dim, faint         hwemho
to dip             lëpku
direct, straight   tëlvi
disappear         walhu
disappointed       vamyo
to disapprove       venlo
to discuss         pkweina
dishonest         wiefhi
to display         prallu
distant            rloä
distinguish between  kwiulo
distribute        paumi
ditch, trench       thorllu
to dive            tupre
diverse, various    lëmpa
to divide up       palte
dizzy             wauhu
a dog             rlupe
a doll            kimpro
a door            kwalo
dot, spot         töi
to doubt         thavo
down, below         nälhmu
dragonfly        kwëlkwe
to draw            kiene
a drawer         prënu
dreadful, terrible  rloku
dream             nephö
dress, robe        prayu
to dress, put on   kwoma
to drink           nuo
to droop         hwolë
a drop            vöi
drop, fall         neri
drunk             vipwä
dry             hiya
dusk             prepho
dust             pethu
to dye             louvi

E. Edit

ear                     lufhi
earlier; before     norlla
early             hwëlo
earth, ground       malu
earthworm         welwi
east             heipha
easy             ëphu
to eat            mui
echo             kwauho
edge             puhi
(make an) effort    pwora
eight             vähi
eloquent         kwilko
embarrassed        rlampwe
embers            tholce
emerald         pwälho
emerge; take out    luce
emotion; mood       wönä
empty, hollow       vaho
end, tip           tëu
endure, undergo     lhälu
enjoyable kelphwa
enough             mötu
to entertain       pkwiuva
enthusiastic       pwikwä
to envelop         phoru
to envy             volce
to erase         fwipe
errand, task       petä
equal to           puyö
escape from       ilpka
evening             vielo
exact, precise      pikwe
to exceed; too much     priu
exchange, barter     yäpre
(make) excuses       pruipi
expensive         pöne
expert at         tielu
explain; clear       yoä
extinguish, put out  väfwe
extra             hwëno
eye             löme
eyelid           lömki

F. Edit

the face                cwea
faint, dim         hwemho
fair, just         kämo
to faint            fwäiko
fairy-tale         pölye
to fall over         täpu
to fall, drop       neri
famous             kweinö
far away         rloä
far side; beyond     pelha
fast, quick         hikö
fasten, tie         puce
father             atä
to fear; afraid      yafhë
a feather       peivo
fee             taphi
feeble, weak         wöhe
feel, touch         fwiu
a fence            pkanta
fern            rluphë
a few             phënu
a field             kolta
to fight             rlukwi
to find; to be found   këu
fine, good         lawe
fine (weather)       nahe
finger             mëcu
finish, complete     lhapi
fire             ifhë
fireplace         procu
firm (not soft)      kinno
fish             ilho
to fish (with a line)  prulhi
fit together         hine
five            pkaru
a flag             phampru
to flare, blaze up   fhuvi
flat (surface)       häpwa
flit past           prihi
floor             phalma
flour             luphe
a flute             hifwe
to fly             lalpe
follow, walk behind  pkuhe
following, next      lilyë
foolish; nonsense   wawe
foolish, stupid         yempa
foot             pkino
to forbid         lhampe
forcefully        pkalli
forehead         kämrle
forest, wood         wiprä
to forget        thulo
to forgive         hwale
a fork             cankwe
fort, stronghold    tarkä
fortunate         hweva
four             heru
a fox             lhëphi
fragile             cwehwi
fragrant         nifhe
fresh; recent       pkwewe
friend             cäilo
(in) front         torö
frost             fwimë
to frown         rlulka
fruit             perö
frustrating         tönlo
to fry             cifho
full; to fill       pkulho
(to have) fun       päye
a funnel         pkuye
funny, amusing       yömwi
a furnace         rlafho
furniture         tëmpre
futile, useless     phulë

G. Edit

to gamble               rlomle
game, match         wempru
a gap, space         vihu
garden             kaulo
gate             palmo
generous         move
gentle             milu
get out of bed       nimpwä
gift, present       prawe
ginger             kënla
give/receive         kwea
(pane of) glass      hwinya
gloomy, dark        rläwa
gloves             nämpri
to glow             kwömlu
go to bed         nöhwa
gold             kërllu
good, fine         lawe
good-looking         lelpha
gossip, rumour       thähe
to govern         lhiemä
grapes             cärmo
grass            rliwa
grateful            tautho
greedy             yömle
(dark) green         veima
(light) green       lefha
grey             hithä
to grieve         lilhpwä
to grind            kwënme
to grope about       mäkwo
ground, earth       malu
guard, watch over    pkulma
to guess at         wilyo
guess (correctly)   nalyo
(be a) guest        kwamo
to guide            hilpko
guilt, blame        vëlhu
to gush out        pofwä

H. Edit

hairbrush               phiepru
half             pkavi
hall             paphe
hammer         lampro
hand           näke
a handle         pkopa
to hang up        wolte
happy             leha
a harbour         tanve
hard, rigid        tilke
harm, damage        mati
a hat            phumo
to hate             fhayo
the head         poä
headache        neilho
healthy             fhape
to heap up         pumhwe
to hear; a sound     licwe
heart             coä
hearth            procu
heavy             kumlho
the heel            kompe
a helmet         lhulpä
help, aid         källe
a hen            kolci
heroic            kalvo
to hesitate        këmhwe
to hide, hidden      hweca
high; tall         käho
high-pitched        lelya
hill             pälu
to hinder         cwopë
to hint            thohwe
a history        thentä
hit, strike         tepku
hold, contain        otu
hold, take hold of     pkoä
hole, pit           tuko
hollow, empty       vaho
honey             leimo
hope             waphë
horse             fhëvu
hot (to touch)       uvi
hot (weather)           vöra
house tämo
hummingbird pkwëlpa
a hundred elphu
hungry fwëva
to hunt kwilvo
hurry, run lari
to hurt; pain rlëvu
a hut hepra
hyacinth leihwe

I. J. K. Edit

ice		        cwihä
ideal, perfect pköwe
to ignore vope
illness; sick yälme
to imagine phanyö
immediately ölvu
indoors wäru
inform, tell cei
infuse; make (tea) vahwä
ingredient primu
to inherit rliphe
(be) injured völka
ink lhilmi
innocent ceiphi
inside ulka
to insult fhärha
intact, whole mulle
intelligent nilvë
interesting wöla
to interfere velpkwä
intriguing viulo
to invite yuco
iris (flower) liukwa
iron lhäkwu
irrelevant thëlpwe
island phimö
to jab, poke tëmpki
jar, container piuve
jasmine cillö
to join, fit liwe
journey cwallo
joy mölli
a jug pwëku
juice pwöle
to jump pkupä
just, fair kämo
a kettle lhäpke
a key kilwe
to kick pkenco
kind-hearted nöi
to kiss pwöma
knife kilvi
knock in (nails) pwentu
a knot rlipu
know (facts) loä
know (how to) täne
know (a person) pame

L. Edit

to lack			hau
a ladder kepwä
a lake hwela
lamp celma
a land, country wale
large, big kapu
later; after neto
to laugh yehwa
law, rule alhu
lawn fwalo
a layer perllo
lazy hälle
lead, go first pkahi
lead (metal) thënwe
leaf phëya
learn/teach phea
leave, depart nacwi
left (side) thali
left over; remnant lumphë
leg thuya
a legend kallu
lemon mölme
lend/borrow hoä
let go, release hoce
lettuce elhwa
a lid nëpra
(to tell) a lie phëu
to lie down neiwe
to lift cohwi
light (not heavy) weiha
light; to shine ilu
lightning hwico
to like, want phöi
likely, probable kwulvo
lilac			öhwa
to limp tante
to line up; a row cwema
linen malwi
lion pkalo
a list cäime
the liver rlamlö
to load with lhahu
a lock cëmpka
to loiter teilë
lonely wahwe
long (time) nouma
long ago teilho
to look at pkwea
a loom tiuve
loose, unattached meiwa
lose (a game, etc.) mulha
lose (a thing) yallu
loud lhouwe
to love mela
low-pitched lälhu
loyal kwova

M. Edit

a magnet		lhäco
a man tonu
a map pënna
mark, trace inyo
to marry nalphe
marsh, bog phamlo
a mask cauphë
match, game wempru
to match, be like vupke
meadow, pasture lemyo
to measure coha
medium, moderate illä
to meet pkuo
to melt nömyu
mend, repair prina
mercury prullë
message wome
metal lhenko
middle, centre kunu
milk omi
miniature tölmi
mirror thilko
misfortune lhauko
mist hwëlme
moist, damp ömle
mood; emotion wönä
money cepro
the moon hälu
more or less proha
morning elma
moss fhöpha
the most miya
a moth lelwä
mother anä
motionless lona
mottled pärmo
mountain tännu
a mouse nimkë
mouth kölo
mud lulya
muddy (water) prämla
(to play) music velya
mysterious cwalphë

N. O. Edit

a nail			tënle
(finger-)nail cinwë
name thena
narrow pkömi
near, close mawe
the near side käli
the neck mille
(flower) nectar cwölu
needle pwilö
a net uthe
new hea
news nömi
next, following lilyë
next to alvi
night mälho
nightmare fhuilho
nine ämme
noisy kwämpko
nonsense; foolish wawe
north thihu
notice, observe elvö
numb wämwë
oak-tree kwalto
an oar thilpë
to obey kove
obtain, acquire vea
obvious näpre
ocean kuphi
odour, smell iphe
oil yöne
old (not young) härpu
old, former huivä
old man tourä
old woman neirä
olive-green pkwölpha
one (1) ea
to open utä
to oppress; tyranny rlurkwe
an orange märkwa
orange (colour) rlohu
an orchard cwomprä
ordinary mora
out; away alwä
outside äkwa
an oval homya
to overflow rluiwe
owl hwuru

P. Edit

page, sheet		phica
pain; to hurt rlëvu
paint (a wall, etc.) tepra
palace prulphe
pale-coloured hewa
palm (of the hand) kwape
a pancake cimmë
paper niphu
to pass by tewa
pass through pkille
passage, corridor pkieva
pasture, meadow lemyo
path, road cwavo
to pause woltu
paving talphu
to pay for cöyo
peace hwenyo
peaceful, quiet lalkwä
a peach phëmyo
peak, summit tipkwi
a pear pkenyä
a pearl cömyo
peas löpwi
pebble, stone pelto
peculiar, bizarre cömwe
a pen (writing) temwi
perfect, ideal pköwe
to persevere valtu
a person erä
to pick up toka
to pierce këlphi
to pile, stack temce
a pillar tulpä
a pillow mëlpha
to pinch cimpë
pine-tree heikwä
pink cöhwä
pit, hole tuko
to pity fweimi
plain, ordinary mora
to plan phote
a plant miphö
a plate toulo
to play (games) yake
pleasant, enjoyable kelphwa
plum cumpë
poetry kwelma
to point at piko
poison kwëlna
to poke, jab tëmpki
pole, post		läpe
pollen philyu
a pond tapwe
poplar-tree pkwilö
poppy mömkwe
popular yolpa
a porch prentu
potatoes homlö
to pour rlapwi
powder cepha
to practise at pkura
to praise pkäya
precious nipro
precise, exact pikwe
to prefer phari
prepare for prellë
present, gift prawe
to pretend yope
to prevent lhanno
previous mulyë
probable kwulvo
promise hurkwo
prone to wapi
to protect talkwi
proud of phölku
to prove täipri
to provide mälo
to punish vaulhe
purple märvu
to pull prëu
pumpkin koume
pure kwiyö
to push pkäre
to push into cempa
to put, place hëu
put on (clothes) kwoma

Q. R. Edit

to quarrel		hamkwä
a question; to ask cwiu
quick, fast hikö
a quilt pampho
quiet, peaceful lalkwä
radiant kwömlu
rain vui
rainbow pkwelpo
rare phëha
raspberry kumpre
to read wëla
receive/give kwea
recent; fresh pkwewe
recently elna
recover, get better pkwanu
(bright) red kerhwö
(dark) red kafhu
to refuse hanco
to relax luome
release, let go hoce
reliable tulme
reluctant rlëmpu
remain, continue näna
remember mathö
remnant; left over	lumphë
repair, mend prina
to repeat kwiepo
replace, substitute luitë
request kwalwe
rescue, save laukwe
resemble olkwe
reservoir cemwä
rest, settle wëma
retreat, turn back thämkwe
to reveal kwäice
to reward pkume
ribbon lävi
rice yepë
rich, wealthy pkwoma
right (side) mita
rigid, stiff fhëlka
the rim töre
ring, circle kamyo
to rip, tear këfhe
ripe melpë
to risk veca
river linwe
road, path cwavo
to roll up piumo
roof vimä
a room pwahe
robe, dress prayu
rope hiwa
a row; to line up cwema
rowdy pruivu
ruby fhiru
rude, impolite hëva
rule, law alhu
rumour, gossip thähe
run, hurry lari
run away from pkarpi
rust ofha

S. Edit

(to be) safe		talme
a sail kelca
salmon kwimu
salt cithä
save, rescue laukwe
a saw hëcwa
to say itu
a scarf phelkwa
school pherma
scold, tell off nafhi
to scrape cwäke
a screen käina
scissors cimkwä
the sea kuphi
seahorse pkapri
seashell cälo
a secret fwöli
see; be visible kei
sell/buy proä
serene, calm heilu
serious kietä
to serve wipha
set out (journey) paurë
settle, rest on wëma
seven nikö
sever, cut ciko
to sew pwilte
shadow thäpho
shallow nihä
shape häpa
to share with kweyu
sharp (not blunt) pecwi
to shave thöpke
sheet, page phacë
shelf entë
to shelter malvu
shirt cimpu
to shine; light ilu
shiny, bright luili
a ship vakwo
shoes pëwi
shore, bank velta
to shout yauko
shut, close pkire
shy kouhwe
sick; illness yälme

the side kwatho
a sieve theicä
silence lillä
silk cimhö
simple tehu
sing (birds) pöllu
sing (people) cännu
to sink into tumpwä
to sip prölpe
(older) sister venya
(younger) sister vini
to sit nallu
six nalme
skilful pehwa
the sky weho
to sleep; asleep möi
to slice fwice
slim hwilta
slow munwa
small icwi
smash, shatter pkalcë
smell, odour iphe
to smile milmë
smoke rluhe
smooth (to touch) cilvo
snow cäfwi
soap cäme
to soar fholu
sofa, couch tancu
soft (not hard) mefwi
soft (not loud) huhwa
son lamo
soon, shortly ilva
soot tëlhu
to sort out hwäiri
a sound; to hear licwe
soup louma
sour cufwo
south rlomö
a spade thärpu
a spark töfhi
to sparkle cinle
to speak kwila
(magic) spell rluilö
spider thuikwi
to spill pwamë
spin round; whirl fwëri
the spine		kwinvä
a spoon tolku
spot, dot töi
spring (season) kwanyö
to squeeze cëmwi
to stab kalpki
to stand; standing tulle
a star cwilë
stare at pwalo
starfish cumya
start, begin keri
a statue tölkwa
to steal (things) rlëpka
steam mapho
steep (slope) tiekwe
step, stair lenta
still, calm tulwa
to sting vëcwi
to stir (a pot, etc.) tipu
stone, pebble pelto
a stool tävi
stop, cease kwento
storehouse rleiwa
storm wolvö
a story vëllu
a stove karho
straight, direct tëlvi
strawberry kölla
a stream pkwiri
a street cähe
stretch, draw out vieri
strike, hit tepku
striped pkwiphe
stubborn kwäncu
substitute, replace luitë
sudden hölki
sugar pkane
summary phäiyo
summer torllu
summit, peak tipkwi
surprised pwahwe
the sun elko
sure, certain unne
to swallow pkolkwe
a swan pkweno
to sweat fhömi
sweet (taste) likwe
swim (fish) wëlphe
swim (people) kelphu
sympathy rlahwä

T. Edit

table			tälli
take (medicine) pkolkwe
take care of kwällo
take out; emerge luce
tall; high käho
to tap, rap pakë
task, errand petä
a tax themca
tea phikwa
teach/learn phea
to tear, rip këfhe
tears; to cry yölli
to tease pkwäri
tedious numwa
tell, inform cei
tell (what to do) tawe
a telescope kwëlwu
ten thilä
a tent warho
terrible, dreadful rloku
thick (book, etc.) ummë
thin (not thick) hwöpe
think (about) phëlu
think (opinion) löi
thirsty hafwe
thorough lietä
a thousand mauko
a thread hiphë
three pali
throat fhopa
to throw tauhwe
thumb mulpo
thunder lhurko
to tidy up prelko
tie, fasten puce
tie up, bind lelhko
tiger läcwa
tight, close cwipë
timid kwähwe
to tingle		kwönle
tip, end tëu
tip over prëpa
tired yëpha
today ecwa
a toe pköi
tomato yampho
tomorrow lincwa
the tongue vilpa
too much priu
a tortoise cerpa
touch, feel fwiu
a toy wapri
a tower tolva
trace, mark inyo
transparent cahi
travel cwallo
a tray täpha
to tremble pkwemwë
trench, ditch thorllu
trip, stumble pkintë
trivial cëwa
trousers kulte
true, correct prea
to try out veho
a tulip mulvä
a tunnel pköllo
turn around ulya
(take) turns pkolte
a turtle pholkwa
twilight prepho
two lëmo
tyranny rlulkwe

U.V. Edit

ugly			lhuca
(maternal) uncle tovo
(paternal) uncle cëvi
undergo, endure lhälu
unnecessary nauthu
unripe mipwä
(turn) upside-down pkulpri
usual, ordinary mora
to use cëu
to use up uhe
useless, futile phulë
valley lunyä
vanish walhu
various, diverse lëmpa
vase, urn thoä
a veil ceihu
to vibrate kinme
view, vista wimyu
violet (flower) hwilwe
visit kurwe
voice yalhe

W. Y. Edit

to wade			taupko
wages taphi
waist kwöpa
wait for lankwä
to walk tilta
a wall pahä
walnut mikwö
want; like phöi
warm ämrlo
to warn vauro
wary, cautious nöho
wash (clothes) ciwe
waste, squander vanö
watch over, guard pkulma
water ewa
waterfall wiukwe
water-tank cemwä
(sea) wave pule
wax himya
weak, feeble wöhe
wealthy pkwoma
weary yëpha
to weave thape
a well kovo
west tarvo
wet, moist ömle
a wharf touvi
wheat cwëlwa
wheel coru
whirl; spin round fwëri
to whisper hwuhe
to whistle fwikö
white hino
whole, intact mulle
wide, broad		pkoula
wildflowers wephö
willow-tree ipwa
to win möhi
the wind hwiri
a window këlyu
wing pkëlvi
wine rluco
winter fhina
to wipe lëfhi
wire virvo
woman läkwe
wonder about phoure
wood, forest wiprä
wood, timber leprä
wool lhärllu
a word itu
to work, toil fharu
workshop timkwä
the world anta
to worry fhöce
wound, cut vicu
wrap up tompru
wreath kammuli
to wrestle rlipwo
wrist tölve
to write pelu
(house) yard tauna
yellow pilpe
yesterday mucwa
young lenya
young man lupka
young woman nulpe

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