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Pkalho-Kolo 2

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On Pkalho-Kolo 2 : Phonology/Phonotactics, a sample text, and a brief English to Pkalho-Kölo Word-List. (Back to Basic Grammar on Pkalho-Kolo ) (Further Grammar on Pkalho-Kolo 3 ) (A longer text on Pkalho-Kölo/A. )

I. Phonology Edit

I. A. Consonants Edit

Pkalho-Kölo has 24 consonants, in the following order: p - m - ph - pk - v - fh - pkw - pw - pr - rl - t - lh - th - c - l - cw - y - fw - kw - w - hw - k - n - h. Unfortunately they look a mess on a table, and also need explanation:

Labial Labial-

Velar

Inter-dental Alveolar Palatal Labio-Palatal Velar Glottal
Stop p pk /ƥk/ t c k
Labialised pw /pʷ/ pkw /ƥkʷ/ cw kw /kʷ/
Nasal m n /ŋ/
Fricative ph /ɸ/ fh /fç/ th /θ/  fw hw /ʍ/ h
Lateral lh /l̪ / l
Flap r
Approxim. w y /j/

pk is a sound peculiar to the city of Pkalho, double-articulated, a simultaneous implosive p and plosive k. Form the lips to pronounce a p and the back of the tongue to pronounce a k. The lips open with a pop, and at the same moment the k is released. pkw is the labialised version. fh is the corresponding fricative, which could be written /fç/

lh is an interdental lateral, close in sound to /ð/ Compared to "l" it sounds "dark" i.e. velarised.

cw is not simply labialised c. The tip of the tongue should press against the back of the bottom teeth, while the the top of the tongue touches the hard palate. fw is the corresponding fricative: it could be written /çw/ but the tongue should be in the same position as for cw. Why do I write "fw"? I was trying to avoid diacritical marks, and I didn’t like sw, chw or xw.

n is /n/ between vowels and before t, c, y and n. Before or after any other consonant it is /ŋ/

hw is the voiceless fricative w that we used to have in English in words like “hwæt"

Missing from the chart, which is already too big:

v is self-explanatory

rl at the beginning of a word, at the end of a syllable or after a consonant is /ɭ / the post-alveolar lateral of Dravidian and Australian Aboriginal languages. Between vowels it is /r/ an alveolar flap; I write "r" at the end of a syllable for brevity. Rl- retains its word-initial sound even if a prefix or aspectual extension is added.

pr could be written /pɭ / Native speakers regard it, like pk, as a single sound. The tongue should press against the back of the alveolar ridge, and release as the lips open.

I. B. Vowels Edit

Back Central Front
Rounded Rounded Unrounded
Close u i
Mid o ë /ɜ/ ö /ø/ e
Open ä /ɒ/ a

ä is the low rounded back vowel in British English “swan”. ë is a mid-central vowel, similar to the vowel in British English "her" but with the tongue drawn further back.

There are twelve diphthongs, six “like” (rounded + rounded, unrounded + unrounded) and six “unlike” (one rounded, one unrounded.)

Like: ea oä ei  ou ie  uo
Unlike: au  äi ëu  öi iu  ui

II. Phonotactics Edit

1. All root words end in a vowel

2. Syllables can end only in a vowel or the consonants m, n, rl, lh, or l.

3. A syllable can contain a diphthong or a final consonant, but not both. The exception is when a one-syllable word containing a diphthong takes the relative suffix in its reduced form -n, or the -n of n-conjunctives.

4. Words do not begin with a diphthong, though three words, au, ea and ui consist of a diphthong.

5. Words beginning with a vowel have glottal onset. Elision occurs only when the neutral demonstratives e and o follow the suffixes -la, -rë or -pë. Thus iturë en, (someone) said the following, becomes itur'en.

(Also, the word erä, person, human being, loses its first vowel in compound words: velya (to play music) - velyarä (musician), kaulo (garden) - kaulorä (gardener). The word for ten, thilä, also loses its last vowel before ea, one: thil'ea, eleven; heru thil'ea, forty-one.)

6. When a word beginning with a vowel takes a directional prefix, or is extended by aspectual stem-modification, an epenthetic r is inserted. Thus olkwela (it resembles) - pkärolkwela (they resemble each other); ilurë (a light shone) - yërilurë (a light flashed for a moment). Word-initial rl keeps its pronunciation /ɭ / even after a prefix, as noted above.

Minor points: after m, the consonants k and kw are realised as pk and pkw. The sequences m+kw and m+pkw I always write mkw, regardless of the original script. After m, r and l the consonant hw becomes the labialised form of the bilabial fricative, /ɸʷ/, an allophone that occurs only in this context. The sequence l+hw I write lphw, to distinguish it from the sequence lh+w. The double consonants mm, nn, rll and ll occur frequently: doubled lh ought also to occur, but it seems to have been replaced by the rather rare sequence lh+th, which I write lth.

III. Intonation. Edit

Unlike English, Pkalho-Kölo does not have word-stress: each syllable is pronounced with equal weight, allowing for natural variation. It does however have pitch accent: accented syllables are pronounced at a higher pitch. Three rules roughly cover this:

I. Directional prefixes have an accent which they never lose.

II. One-syllable root words do not normally have an accent.

III. Two and three-syllable root words have an accent on the first syllable, which they lose when immediately preceded by a directional prefix.

Actually it’s a little more complicated than that, but that’s enough to be going on with.

IV. Sample Text Edit

A brief sample text, in Latin letters (Pkalho-Kölo has its own writing system, alphabetic and written from top to bottom and right to left, though a few of the literate prefer left to right.) This is the beginning of a translation of the Grimm Brothers story called "The Seven Ravens":

Täthumä atäla lemäi tonun lamo niköli akäto teina eali. Cimekoäto cwëllen e wöheku icwiyë löipë nörövafhanela eto iturë ölvu thena-mäyupiela yuli.

There was once a man who had seven sons, and last of all one daughter. although the little girl was very pretty, she was so weak and small that they thought she could not live but they said she should at once be christened.

Oto cwinli pintörë eali lamovon atähi kwellapkwe poucahwali ewan, eyë valarikurë lumphë nälmen. Epkëväiloto nöweiwe poucamöli, e hëfworë nilneripë fhampon nömäihi kovo nälhmulemä. Yempato äpkäkwearë lhaun kanlöla vayë haulato emäin thopala muriphili.

So the father sent one of his sons in haste to the spring to get some water, but the other six ran with him. Each wanted to be the first at drawing the water, and so they were in such a hurry that they all let their pitchers fall into the well, and they stood foolishly looking at one another, and did not know what to do, for none dared go home.

Vakuito hauvela atäwe yoähauyë ephiun alwä-nänala lupka-prëmon. Itur’en, märi thounölela nikö nömäin rlui yakerëvo; mipko nouma lankwäherëto haunöla murirën lhaun, phouvö värurë, vihwëp’en, fwapehwa fhalhkotopë lhau nömäin.

In the mean time the father was uneasy, and could not tell what made the young men stay so long. “Surely,” said he, “the whole seven must have forgotten themselves over some game of play.” And when he had waited still longer and they yet did not come, he flew into a rage and wished them all turned into ravens.

Ituhöiherëto oraun, nila luncarë kälhkarën nökwärë keipë kaprokalerën fhora-cëlhmu fhalhvo nikön. Yohwekuto e vihwën keila kounarën, hunyëla epwean thonukwä nirë-tekan, ela houri rlöhwala lhöyepkwe lamo nikön cwälu teinavo, ilva voprälel’on vali-prëlli nilkwe-kwörorëyë.

Scarcely had he spoken these words when he heard a croaking over his head, and looked up and saw seven ravens as black as coal flying round and round. Sorry as he was to see his wish so fulfilled, he did not know how what was done could be undone, and he comforted himself as well as he could with his dear little daughter, who soon became stronger and every day more beautiful.

A longer text now on Pkalho-Kölo/A

I'm going to upload a couple of scans of Pkalho-Kölo in its own writing system. These were written a few years ago and the language has changed slightly, but they still show what the script looks like.

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V. English - Pkalho-Kölo Edit

A. Edit

to abandon kwëllo
above nila
absent hau
to accompany mimä
to accuse, blame rlauce
acquire, obtain vea
to add to hwëno
to admire pamyu
admit, confess kwalpë
adorn, decorate prulkwe
advice nouve
afraid; to fear yafhë
after; later neto
afternoon yeilo
agree with  tinnä
air äyu
almond nuifhe
amazed wafwu
amusing, funny yömwi
ancient täthu
angry väru
ankle prënka
to announce prilpa
to answer kwehwä
ant höpi
apple kwäli
to approve of  telpkwa
approximately  proha
apricot cwäimo
an arbour vëlpkwä
arm kwenya
ash, ashes hëtha
ask a favour  prëhwi
ask a question cwiu
(maternal) aunt nenya
(paternal) aunt nula
autumn  cämphu
awake viro
aware of ehu
away; out alwä
an axe kolke

B. Edit

back (of the body) thällu
a bag phacë
a ball phälla
bank; shore velta
bare, desolate kwähu
barter, exchange yäpre
basement  lhumvä
basket praphe
a bat (animal) pilvä
(to have a) bath camwe
a bay (seaside) taukwä
a beach päina
beautiful nilkwe
to beckon kwöki
a bee vëlve
beech-tree luka
beehive kwuho
a beetle rluiko
before norlla
begin, start keri
behind, hidden by pemwä
behind, to the rear thuomä
to believe prepko
a bell nukwu
belongings kelu
below; down nälhmu
to bend, bent wilu
to bend down vella
to benefit from kampri
beside, next to alvi
beyond; the far side pelha
big, large kapu
to bind, tie up lelhko
birch-tree rlepa
a bird cöi
to bite kamku
bitter lhipwi
bizarre, peculiar cömwe
black cëlhmu
blackbird kiela
blackcurrants rlelwi
blame, guilt vëlhu
to blame, accuse rlauce
blanket pwelka
to blaze, flare up fhuvi
to bless mäyu
blind mukë
blood fhëma
blood-clot limwu
blossom phuolë
blunt (not sharp) vuco
to blush urllo
a board (wood) capë
to boast prämpwe
a boat phawe
boisterous pruivu
a book cälpa
borrow; lend hoä
a bottle rlempo
to bounce pumpë
boundary älle
a bowl tälpo
a box canto
a boy pwenya
brave talhmo
bread nulhä
break, smash pkate
break, snap papkä
to breathe hiphu
breeze wefha
to bribe prilho
a bridge tälve
brief; short time helu
bright, clear cäyu
bright, shiny luili
bring, carry tou
broad, wide pkoula
bronze prufho
(older) brother apko
(younger) brother upe
brown hämpra
a bruise rlëmwa
(scrubbing) brush thepi
a bucket polhka
(flower) bud nipwë
to build tuina
to bully pruco
to bump into pkwape
to burst rlumco
to bury lhemcu
busy, occupied pkivë
butter yomyë
a buttercup pilpwä
butterfly kwëpha
a button nöpe
buy; sell proä    

C. Edit

a cabinet preina
a cage cäki
cake cöme
calm, still tulwa
a canal thölwe
a candle cilpe
carpet thälvo
carnation kwölmi
a carrot nimhi
carry, bring tou
a cat mimwe
catch (a ball, etc) napke
caterpillar wulumpri
cautious, wary nöho
cease, stop kwento
ceiling limcö
centre, middle kunu
certain, sure unne
a chain pkilpa
a chair phapre
chalk pkëlki
to chase away kwärva
cheap (price) yekwo
cheerful hwöi
cheese hennä
(wooden) chest këlta
a child uno
chin nuopi
to choose kweru
chronicle thentä
cinnamon pkwillu
circle, ring kamyo
circumference aro
clap hands päkwa
clay lämi
clear, bright cäyu
clever nilvë
a cliff wäntu
to climb lanti
to cling to limyë
a cloak lhalwe
a clock kälkwo
to close, shut pkire
close, near mawe
close, tight cwipë
cloth, fabric täivo
a cloth, towel miho
clothes kwoma
a cloud uphe
clover äphi
clumsy konla
coal fhora
a coat palko
coffee tavä
a coin premo
to coincide prope
cold (to touch) lhëfwa
cold (weather) ëfwu
collide with pronkwa
colour kwëra
a comb neiva
common, usual mauro
to compare hwate
to compel promu
to complain rlocwe
to complete lhapi
complicated minlö
to compromise pkwolla
confess, admit kwalpë
confident kehwo
console, comfort lhönya
contain, hold otu
container, jar piuve
contempt yaupë
contented hwamo
continual nanti
continue, remain  näna
to convince yencu
to cook mahe
cool thafwä
copper melprä
to copy out preivë
coral kiula
correct, true prea
a corridor pkieva
couch, sofa tancu
to cough pkähe
to count yummo
a country wale
countryside täina
courteous, polite nelko
(female) cousin vehwa
(male) cousin tuhwa
to cover; covered pëu
cream cenyö
a crime rlako
a crowd cumo
a crumb, a grain öku
to crumble phuprë
to cry; tears yölli
(rock-)crystal käicwe
cucumber lumpkä
a cup tuphe
cupboard pano
curious, intriguing viulo
a current tiuphe
a curtain cephu
a curve, curving meto
a cushion mëlpha
a cut, wound vicu
to cut, sever ciko

D. Edit

a daisy cëpwe
a daffodil pruma
damage, harm mati
damp, moist ömle
to dance hwäivo
danger thalfhi
dark-coloured tänyu
daughter teina
daunting wölpha
dawn pkela
day vali
deceit, guile lhëmu
to decide tencu
decorate, adorn prulkwe
deep (water, etc) tolphu
deep, low-pitched lälhu
deer tilwe
to delay louri
deliberately leicwa
delicious nölu
delight, joy mölli
to demolish prampë
depart, leave nacwi
to describe prouphe
to despise yaupë
desolate, bare kwähu
deter, dissuade lhencë
dew nehwi
difficult tälna
to dig thumo
dim, faint hwemho
to dip in lëpku
direct, straight tëlvi
to disappear walhu
disappointed vamyo
to disapprove venlo
to discuss pkweina
dishonest wiefhi
to display prallu
distant, far rloä
distinguish between kwiulo
to distribute paumi
ditch, trench  thorllu
to dive tupre
diverse, various lëmpa
to divide up palte
dizzy wauhu
a dog rlupe
a doll kimpro
a door kwalo
dot, spot töi
to doubt thavo
down, below nälhmu
dragonfly kwëlkwe
to draw (pictures) kienu
a drawer prënu
dreadful, terrible rloku
dream nephö
dress; robe prayu
to dress, put on phemo
to drink nuo
to droop hwolë
a drop vöi
to drop, fall neri
drunk vipwä
dry hiya
dusk prepho
dust pethu
to dye louvi

E. Edit

the ear lufhi
earlier; before norlla
early hwëlo
earth, ground malu
earthworm welwi
east heipha
easy ëphu
to eat mui
echo kwaiho
edge puhi
(make an) effort pwora
eight vähi
eloquent kwilko
embarrassed rlampwe
embers tholce
emerald pwälho
emerge; take out luce
emotion; mood  wönä
empty, hollow vaho
end, tip tëu
endure, undergo lhälu
enjoyable, pleasant kelphwa
enough mötu
to entertain pkwiuva
enthusiastic pwikwä
to envelop phoru
to envy volce
to erase fwipe
errand, task petä
equal to puyö
escape from ilpka
evening vielo
exact, precise pikwe
to exceed; too much priu
exchange, barter yäpre
(make) excuses pruipi
expensive pöne
expert at tielu
explain; be clear yoä
extinguish, put out väfwe
extra, additional hwëno
eye löme
eyelid lömki        

F. Edit

the face cwea
faint, dim hwemho
to faint fwäiko
fair, just kämo
fairy-tale pölye
to fall over täpu
to fall, drop neri
famous kweinö
far away rloä
far side; beyond pelha
fast, quick hikö
fasten, tie puce
father atä
to fear; afraid yafhë
a feather peivo
fee taphi
feeble, weak wöhe
to feel, touch fwiu
a fence pkanta
fern rluphë
a few phënu
a field kolta
to fight rlukwi
to find, be found këu
fine, good lawe
fine (weather) nahe
finger mëcu
finish, complete lhapi
fire ifhë
fireplace procu
firm (not soft) kinno
fish ilho
to fish (with a line) prulhi
to fit together hine
five pkaru
a flag phampru
to flare, blaze up fhuvi
flat (surface) häpwa
to flit past prihi
floor phalma
flour luphe
a flute hifwe
to fly lalpe
follow, walk behind pkuhe
following, next lilyë
foolish; nonsense wawe
foolish, stupid yempa
foot pkino
to forbid lhampe
forcefully pkalli
forehead kämrle
forest, wood  wiprä
to forget thulo
to forgive hwale
a fork cankwe
fort, stronghold  tarkä
fortunate, lucky hweva
four heru
a fox lhëphi
fragile cwehwi
fragrant nifhe
fresh; recent pkwewe
a friend cäilo
(in) front torö
frost fwimë
to frown rlulka
fruit perö
frustrating tönlo
to fry cifho
full; to fill pkulho
(to have) fun päye
a funnel pkuye
funny, amusing yömwi
a furnace rlafho
furniture tëmpre
futile, useless phulë  

G. Edit

to gamble rlomle
game, match wempru
a gap, space vihu
garden kaulo
gate palmo
generous move
gentle milu
get out of bed nimpwä
gift, present prawe
ginger kënla
give/receive kwea
(pane of) glass hwinya
gloomy, dark  rläwa
gloves nämpri
to glow kwömlu
go to bed nöhwa
gold kërllu
good, fine lawe
good-looking lelpha
gossip, rumour thähe
to govern lhiemä
grapes cärmo
grass rliwa
grateful tautho
greedy yömle
(dark) green veima
(light) green lefha
grey hithä
to grieve lilhpwä
to grind kwënme
to grope about mäkwo
ground, earth  malu
guard, watch over pkulma
(have a) guess wilyo
guess (correctly) nalyo
(be a) guest kwamo
to guide hilpko
guilt, blame vëlhu
to gush out pofwä   

H. Edit

hairbrush phiepru
half pkavi
a hall paphe
a hammer lampro
hand näke
a handle pkopa
to hang up wolte
happy leha
a harbour tanve
hard, rigid tilke
harm, damage mati
a hat phumo
to hate fhayo
the head poä
headache neilho
healthy fhape
to heap up pumhwe
to hear; a sound licwe
the heart coä
hearth procu
heavy kumlho
heel kompe
a helmet lhulpä
to help, aid källe
a hen kolci
heroic kalvo
to hesitate këmhwe
to hide, hidden hweca
high; tall käho
high-pitched lelya
a hill pälu
to hinder cwopë
to hint at thohwe
a history thentä
to hit, strike tepku
hold, contain otu
hold, take hold of pkoä
hole, pit tuko
hollow, empty vaho
honey leimo
to hope waphë
a horse fhëvu
hot (to touch) uvi
hot (weather) vöra
a house tämo
hummingbird pkwëlpa
hundred elphu
hungry fwëva
to hunt kwilvo
hurry, run lari
to hurt; pain rlëvu
a hut hepra

I. J. K. Edit

ice cwihä
ideal, perfect pköwe
to ignore vope
illness; sick yälme
to imagine phanyö
immediately ölvu
indoors wäru
inform, tell cei
infuse; make (tea) vahwä
ingredient primu
to inherit rliphe
injured; injury völka
ink lhilmi
innocent ceiphi
inside ulka
to insult fhärha
intact, whole mulle
intelligent nilvë
interesting wöla
to interfere velpkwä
intriguing viulo
to invite yuco
iris (flower) liukwa
iron lhäkwu
irrelevant thëlpwe
an island phimö
to jab, poke tëmpki
jar, container piuve
jasmine cillö
to join, fit liwe
journey cwallo
joy mölli
a jug pwëku
juice pwöle
to jump pkupä
just, fair kämo
a kettle lhäpke
a key kilwe
to kick pkenco
kind-hearted nöi
to kiss pwöma
a knife kilvi
knock in (nails) pwentu
a knot rlipu
know (facts) loä
know (how to) täne
know (a person) pame

L. Edit

to lack hau
a ladder kepwä
a lake hwela
a lamp celma
land, country wale
large, big kapu
later; after neto
to laugh yehwa
law, rule alhu
lawn fwalo
a layer perllo
lazy hälle
lead, go first pkahi
lead (metal) thënwe
a leaf phëya
learn/teach phea
leave, depart nacwi
left (side) thali
left over; remaining lumphë
leg thuya
legend kallu
lemon mölme
lend/borrow hoä
let go, release hoce
lettuce elhwa
a lid nëpra
(to tell) a lie phëu
to lie down neiwe
to lift cohwi
light (not heavy) weiha
light; to shine ilu
lightning hwico
to like, want phöi
likely, probable kwulvo
lilac öhwa
to limp tante
to line up; a row cwema
linen malwi
a lion pkalo
a list cäime
the liver rlamlö
to load with lhahu
a lock cëmpka
to loiter teilë
lonely wëhwe
long (space) nëmma
long (time) nouma
long ago teilho
to look at pkwea
a loom tiuve
loose, unattached meiwa
lose (a game, etc) mulha
lose (a thing) yallu
loud lhouwe
to love mela
low-pitched lälhu
loyal kwova

M. Edit

a magnet lhäco
a man tonu
a map pënna
a mark, trace inyo
to marry nalphe
marsh, bog phamlo
a mask cauphë
a match, game wempru
to match, be like vupke
meadow, pasture lemyo
to measure coha
medium, moderate illä
to meet pkuo
to melt nömyu
mend, repair prina
mercury prullë
a message wome
metal lhenko
middle, centre kunu
milk omi
miniature tölmi
a mirror thilko
misfortune lhauko
mist hwëlme
moist, damp ömle
money cepro
mood; emotion wönä
the moon hälu
more or less proha
morning elma
moss fhöpha
the most miya
a moth lelwä
mother anä
motionless lona
mottled pärmo
a mountain tännu
a mouse nimkë
mouth; language kölo
mud lulya
muddy (water) prämla
(to play) music velya
mysterious cwalphë

N. O. Edit

a nail tënle
(finger-)nail cinwë
name thena
narrow pkömi
near, close mawe
the near side käli
the neck mille
(flower) nectar cwölu
a needle pwilö
a net uthe
new hea
news nömi
next, following lilyë
next to alvi
night mälho
nightmare fhuilho
nine ämme
noisy kwämpko
nonsense; absurd wawe
north thihu
notice, observe elvö
numb wämwë
oak-tree kwalto
an oar thilpë
to obey kove
obtain, acquire vea
obvious näpre
ocean kuphi
odour, smell iphe
oil yöne
old (not young) härpu
old, former huivä
old man tourä
old woman neirä
olive-green pkwölpha
one (1) ea
to open utä
oppress; tyranny rlurkwe
an orange märkwa
orange (colour) rlohu
an orchard cwomprä
ordinary mora
out; away alwä
outside äkwa
an oval homya
to overflow rluiwe
an owl hwuru

P. Edit

page, sheet phica
pain; to hurt rlëvu
paint (a wall etc) tepra
a palace prulphe
pale-coloured hewa
palm (of the hand) kwape
pancake cimmë
paper niphu
to pass by tewa
to pass through pkille
passage, corridor pkieva
pasture, meadow lemyo
path, road cwavo
to pause woltu
paving talphu
to pay for cöyo
peace hwenyo
peaceful, quiet lalkwä
a peach phëmyo
peak, summit tipkwi
a pear pkenyä
a pearl cömyo
peas löpwi
pebble, stone pelto
peculiar, bizarre cömwe
pen (for writing) temwi
perfect, ideal pköwe
to persevere valtu
person, human being erä
to pick up toka
to pierce këlphi
to pile, stack up temce
a pillar tulpä
a pillow mëlpha
to pinch cimpë
pine-tree heikwä
pink cöhwä
pit, hole tuko
to pity fweimi
plain, ordinary mora
to plan phote
a plant miphö
a plate toulo
to play (games) yake
pleasant, enjoyable kelphwa
a plum cumpë
poetry kwelma
to point at piko
poison kwëlna
to poke, jab tëmpki
pole, post läpe
pollen philyu
a pond tapwe
poplar-tree pkwilö
poppy mömkwe
popular yolpa
porch prentu
potatoes homlö
to pour rlapwi
powder cepha
to practise at pkura
to praise pkäya
precious nipro
precise, exact pikwe
to prefer phari
prepare for prellë
present, gift prawe
to pretend yope
to prevent lhanno
previous mulyë
probable kwulvo
promise hurkwo
prone to yäi
to protect talkwi
proud of phölku
to prove täipri
to provide mälo
to punish vaulhe
purple märvu
to pull prëu
pumpkin koume
pure kwiyö
to push pkäre
push into cempa
to put, place hëu

Q. R. Edit

to quarrel hamkwä
question; to ask cwiu
quick, fast hikö
a quilt pampho
quiet, peaceful lalkwä
radiant kwömlu
rain vui
rainbow pkwelpo
rare phëha
raspberry kumpre
to read wëla
receive/give kwea
recent; fresh pkwewe
recently elna
recover, get better pkwanu
(bright) red kerhwö
(dark) red kafhu
to refuse hanco
to relax luome
release, let go hoce
reliable tulme
reluctant rlëmpu
remain, continue näna
to remember mathö
remaining, left over lumphë
repair, mend prina
to repeat kwiepo
replace, substitute luitë
request kwalwe
rescue, save laukwe
resemble olkwe
reservoir cemwä
rest on, settle wëma
retreat, turn back thämkwe
to reveal kwäice
to reward pkume
ribbon lävi
rice yepë
rich, wealthy pkwoma
right, correct prea
right (side) mita
rigid, stiff fhëlka
rim töre
ring, circle kamyo
to rip, tear këfhe
ripe melpë
to risk veca
river linwe
road, path cwavo
to roll up piumo
roof vimä
a room pwahe
robe; dress prayu
rope hiwa
a row; to line up cwema
rowdy pruivu
ruby fhiru
rude, impolite hëva
rule, law alhu
rumour, gossip thähe
run, hurry lari
run away from pkarpi
rust ofha

S. Edit

(to be) safe talme
a sail kelca
salmon kwimu
salt cithä
save, rescue laukwe
a saw hëcwa
to say itu
a scarf phelkwa
school pherma
scold, tell off nafhi
to scrape cwäke
a screen käina
scissors cimkwä
the sea kuphi
seahorse pkarpi
seashell cälo
a secret fwöli
see; be visible kei
sell/buy proä
serene, calm heilu
serious kietä
to serve wipha
set out (journey) paurë
settle, rest on wëma
seven nikö
sever, cut ciko
to sew pwilte
shadow thäpho
shallow nihä
shape, form häpa
to share with kweyu
sharp (not blunt) pecwi
to shave thöpke
sheet, page phacë
a shelf entë
to shelter malvu
a shirt cimpu
to shine; light ilu
shiny, bright luili
a ship vakwo
shoes pewi
shore, bank velta
to shout yauko
to shut, close pkire
shy kouhwe
sick; illness yälme
side kwatho
a sieve theicä
silence lillä
silk cimhö
simple tehu
sing (birds) pöllu
sing (people) cännu
to sink into tumpwä
to sip prölpe
(older) sister venya
(younger) sister vini
to sit nallu
six nalme
skilful pehwa
the sky; weather weho
to sleep; asleep möi
to slice fwice
slim hwilta
slow munwa
small icwi
smash, shatter pkalcë
smell, odour iphe
smile milmë
smoke rluhe
smooth (to touch) cilvo
snow cäfwi
soap cäme
to soar fholu
sofa tancu
soft (not hard) mefwi
soft (not loud) huhwa
son lamo
soon, shortly ilva
soot tëlhu
to sort out hwäiri
a sound; to hear licwe
soup louma
sour cufwo
south rlomö
a spade thärpu
a spark töfhi
to sparkle cinle
to speak kwila
(magic) spell rluilö
spider thuikwi
to spill pwamë
spin round; whirl fwëri
the spine kwinvä
a spoon tolku
spot, dot töi
spring (season) kwanyö
to squeeze cëmwi
to stab kalpki
to stand; standing tulle
a star cwilë
to stare at pwalo
starfish cumya
start, begin keri
a statue tölkwa
to steal rlëpka
steam mapho
steep (slope) tiekwe
step, stair lenta
still, calm tulwa
to sting vëcwi
stir (a pot, etc) tipu
stone, pebble pelto
a stool tävi
stop, cease kwento
storehouse rleiwa
a storm wolvö
a story vëllu
a stove karho
straight, direct tëlvi
strawberry kölla
a stream pkwiri
a street cähe
stretch, draw out vieri
strike, hit tepku
striped pkwiphe
stubborn kwäncu
substitute, replace luitë
sudden hölki
sugar pkane
summary phäiyo
summer torllu
summit, peak tipkwi
the sun elko
sure, certain unne
surprised pwahwe
to swallow pkolkwe
a swan pkweno
to sweat fhömi
sweet (taste) likwe
swim (fish) wëlphe
swim (people) kelphu
sympathy rlahwä

T. Edit

table tälli
take (medicine) pkolkwe
take care of kwällo
take out; emerge luce
tall; high käho
to tap, rap pakë
task, errand petä
a tax themca
tea phikwa
teach/learn phea
to tear, rip këfhe
tears; to cry yölli
to tease pkwäri
tedious numwa
tell, inform cei
tell (what to do) tawe
telescope kwëlwu
ten thilä
a tent warho
terrible, dreadful rloku
thick (book, etc) ummë
thin (not thick) hwöpe
think (about) phëlu
think (opinion) löi
thirsty hafwe
thorough lietä
a thousand mauko
a thread hiphë
three pali
throat fhopa
to throw tauhwe
thumb mulpo
thunder lhurko
to tidy up prelko
tie, fasten puce
tie up, bind lelhko
tiger läcwa
tight, close cwipë
timid kwähwe
to tingle kwönle
tip, end tëu
tip over prëpa
tired yëpha
today ecwa
a toe pköi
tomato yampho
tomorrow lincwa
the tongue vilpa
too much priu
a tortoise cerpa
to touch, feel fwiu
a tower tolva
a toy wapri
trace, mark inyo
transparent cahi
to travel cwallo
a tray täpha
to tremble pkwemwë
to trip, stumble pkintë
trivial cëwa
trousers kulte
true, correct prea
to try out veho
a tulip mulvä
a tunnel pköllo
turn around ulya
(take) turns pkolte
a turtle pholkwa
twilight prepho
two lëmo
tyranny rlulkwe

U.V. Edit

ugly lhuca
(maternal) uncle tovo
(paternal) uncle cëvi
undergo, endure lhälu
unnecessary nauthu
unripe mipwä
(turn) upside-down pkulpri
to use cëu
to use up uhe
useless, futile phulë
usual, common mauro
valley lunyä
to vanish walhu
various, diverse lëmpa
vase, urn thoä
a veil ceihu
to vibrate kinme
view, vista wimyu
violet (flower) hwilwe
to visit kurwe
voice yalhe

W. Y. Edit

to wade taupko
wages taphi
waist kwöpa
wait for lankwä
to walk tilta
a wall pahä
walnut mikwö
want; like phöi
warm ämrlo
to warn vauro
wary, cautious nöho
wash (clothes) ciwe
waste, squander vanö
watch over, guard pkulma
water ewa
waterfall wiukwe
water-tank cemwä
wave (of the sea) pule
wax himya
weak, feeble wöhe
wealthy pkwoma
weary yëpha
to weave thape
a well kovo
west tarvo
wet, moist ömle
a wharf touvi
wheat cwëlwa
a wheel coru
whirl; spin round fwëri
to whisper hwuhe
to whistle fwikö
white hino
whole, intact mulle
wide, broad pkoula
wildflowers wephö
willow ipwa
to win möhi
the wind hwiri
a window këlyu
wing pkëlvi
wine rluco
winter fhina
to wipe lëfhi
wire virvo
woman läkwe
wonder about phoure
wood, forest wiprä
wood, timber leprä
wool lhärllu
a word itu
to work, toil fharu
workshop timkwä
the world anta
to worry fhöce
wound, cut vicu
to wrap up tompru
a wreath kammuli
to wrestle rlipwo
wrist tölve
to write pelu
(house) yard tauna
yellow pilpe
yesterday mucwa
young lenya
young man lupka
young woman nulpe

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