VII. Directional Prefixes A Edit
Pkalho-Kölo has 27 suffixes, and seven prefixes: these are the directional prefixes, which have an important role in every area of grammar. They express the direction of movement:
A i. Le- and He- The first two are the most commonly used, indicating direction towards, or away from, the speaker or point of focus. The meaning is clear with words expressing movement:
lelantirë - climbed up (towards me) / helantirë - climbed up (away from me)
lenerirë - dropped down (towards me) / henerirë - dropped down (away from me)
With words describing transactions, two different English words are often needed:
leproä - buy / heproä - sell : letou - bring / hetou - take : lekwea - get / hekwea - give : lehoä - borrow / hehoä - lend
Pkalho-Kölo is not based on subject-object relations and so the suffixes of subordinated words remain the same, regardless of direction. The word order may be changed, but needn’t be:
lehoärë cälpan lhuhi pali - I borrowed a book from him : hehoärë cälpan pali lhuhi - he lent me a book
The “direction” can be quite abstract : lehurkworë - (someone) promised me / hehurkworë - I made a promise. With yoä, to be clear : yoäla - it is clear to me, I understand / leyoärë - it was explained to me / heyoärë - I explained.
The demonstratives are frequently used with directional prefixes, usually translatable as go/come: leperë - came (here) : heperë - went away : lelhorë - went there : helhorë - went/came from there : lepekë - come here : lecephi - I will come (to where you are) : heyorë - came from that other place
A ii. Nö- and Cö- The next two, indicating a direction continued or reversed, are also clear with movement words:
larirë wiprä kweholi nölarirë - ran to the verge of the forest and then ran on / larirë wiprä kweholi cölarirë - ran to the verge of the forest and then ran back
leprëurëto nöpkärerë - pulled it towards (him/her) then pushed it onwards / tokarëto cöhëurë - picked it up then put it down again
The direction with these also may be more abstract:
letöwarë nömin nötöwarë pahi - the news was passed on to me and I in turn passed it on / lëmpa cwiurë pal cöcwiurë pahi - (he/she) asked me various questions, and I asked questions back
An idiom using these two prefixes: luncwa - tomorrow : nöluncwa - the day after tomorrow : mucwa - yesterday : cömucwa - the day before yesterday
A iii. Va-, Cwa- and Pkä- Obviously used most often when two individuals or distinct groups are being spoken of:
larirë lhun linwepkwe valarirë upen - he ran towards the river and his brother ran with him.
(Note: valarirë lhuwe - they ran with him : valarirë lhuli - they ran after him)
larirë lhun ifhëphoru tämopkwe cwalarirë cumon - he ran towards the burning house as a crowd of people ran away from it
With turki, meaning “fight (with weapons)” vaturkirë lhaun - they fought on the same side : cwaturkirë lhaun - they fought on opposite sides : pkäturkirë lhaun - they fought each other.
pkä- is used for all kinds of reciprocal events or relations: kwila - talk / pkäkwila - talk to each other, converse : mela - love / pkämela - love each other : mawe - near / pkämawe - near to each other : rloä - far / pkärloä - far from each other. Also to create general terms: leproä - buy / heproä - sell / pkäproä - buying and selling
VIII. Directional Prefixes B Edit
One of the characteristics of Pkalho-Kölo is the use of affixes to modify the meaning of other affixes. This is nowhere truer than in the case of directional prefixes, which can be added, not only to word-stems, but also to suffixes.
B i. Aspectual Meanings. The first four directional prefixes, le-, he-, nö-, cö-, are added to the first three Order suffixes to describe a state or event that has: (1) begun but not been completed (2) been moved away from (3) is continuing (4) looking back into the past is seen to have begun.
So: möilela ninyön - the baby has fallen asleep / möihela ninyön - the baby was asleep / möinöla ninyön - the baby is still asleep / möicöla ninyön - the baby is already asleep
With the active: fharulerë lhaun - they are working / fharuherë lhaun - they were working / fharunörë lhaun - they are still working / fharucörë lhaun - they have already begun working.
Likewise with the Habitual. Note that tense, like gender and number, is not a grammatical category in Pkalho-Kölo: forms with he- do not refer to the past strictly speaking, but to priority in time, whether in the past, present or future.
Directional prefixes are not added directly to the second group of Stative suffixes: these are added to one of the forms above: fharuwonörë - are they still working? / fharupwänörë - perhaps they are still working / fharukunörë - I’m surprised that they’re still working.
But the order of suffixes changes if the Denominative -to is added to create a suspended clause: fharunörëkuto - but they’re still working...
B ii. Locative Meanings. The first two directional prefixes are frequently added to the four locative Subordination suffixes to describe movement to or away from a location :
hwaprärë ninyön anälewe - the baby crawled to where his mother was / larirë tämoli linwe veltahewe - (he/she) ran to the house from the riverbank
hëurë cäitan vöntalethu - placed the ruler down along the ledge / cënerë thärpun thorlluhethu - picked up the spade from out of the ditch
neltërë kilwen tällilekö - put the key down on the table / mankerë mecën phalmehekö - collected the pieces up from off the floor
näpherë maprön cäkilemä - put the greenfinch into the cage / lucerë pkanyö cumpën piuvehemä - took a candied plum out of the jar
Many other combinations of prefix and locative suffix are possible. Some examples:
marpwola lentanöwe - there was a puddle in front of the steps / pumhwela fhohwen pahäcöwe - dead leaves were heaped up behind the wall
tëprarë camphön phalme hekuvathu - (someone) spread plaster across the crack in the floor / nitärë kepwän pahäcwakö - (someone) set up the ladder against the wall
tullela cëvin leapkäwe - (his/her) uncle stood between the trees / yakelerë unon leapkämä - children were playing among the trees / hëurë phoän cälpa phicapkäkö - placed the flower between the pages of the book.
IX. Directional Prefixes C Edit
Ci. The directional prefixes are also added to indefinite words, as follows, using mäi, someone, as example:
|lemäi||a certain person;|
|at least one person|
|vamäi||the same person|
The same pattern applies to all the others: lekui - at a certain time; hepea - nowhere; nörlui - all kinds of; cövoä - any amount of; vahwea - in the same way; cwaphiu - for a different reason; pkäpwea - by whatever means.
Forms such as cömäi, anyone, are used mostly in questions and with the negative: këuworëto cömäili, prure ceikë - if anyone has found it, please tell me. Haula cömäin - there was no-one there.
Cii. With the Denominative. The directional prefixes can also be added to the Denominative -to to form quasi-suffixes that express inclusion, exclusion, extent, and so on. Examples:
löikuhela tulmelheala cal leto - I thought I could trust you, at least
tauthoru rlacwerë heto - you should be grateful rather than complaining
kurwerë nömäin lhu pkanin nöto - everyone came, even her parents
mimärë proha mäi lënton cöto - only about twenty people came with us
wëlphemu linwethu ilho nörluin kwimun vato - in the river are all kinds of fish, including salmon
phöila perö nörluin markwän cwato - I like all kinds of fruit except oranges
cëuneala tolkun pkäto - you could use a spoon for example
These can be added to the stem of a word, or after another suffix.
Ciii. Concurrent Actions. The last three prefixes, va-, cwa-, and pkä-, are normally used when two or more things are happening at once. They can simply be placed in series, especially with short phrases:
wëpwivarë pkwemkwevarë - dripping with water and shivering
Adding the Denominative -to gives a more precise meaning: “while”
lilfwämu velyarën capwëvarëto hwimpren - I listen to music while washing the dishes
Other prefixes can also be co-ordinated:
närivarë phawemä nommikunörëto - getting into a boat while still holding hands
cwiuvarë loäcölato kwehwän - asking a question already knowing the answer
The prefix cwa- expresses contrast or opposition, often translatable despite, in spite of:
hwäivonörë lhun yehwacwarë yauhi - he went on dancing in spite of their laughter
ilpkanearë lhaun pkalli pwororacwarë pahi - they managed to escape despite my greatest possible efforts
The Mutual prefix pkä- conveys the idea of alternation between two states or activities:
pwömapkärë hampkäpkärë - now kissing, now quarrelling
Logically enough it is also used for either/or choices, as we shall see later.
X. Inversions Edit
Inversion is a particular feature of Pkalho-Kölo grammar. The principle is that any relationship between a word with an Order suffix and a Subordinated word can be reversed. This is done by taking the Subordination suffix, adding the Order suffix, and prefixing the result to the stem of the Subordinated word. When this is done the Stative suffix -la is reduced to -l and the Habitual suffix -mu is reduced to -m. Examples are probably easier to understand than explanations:
möila tancukö - (she) was sleeping on the sofa : köl-möi tancu - the sofa (she) was sleeping on.
kelphumu linwemä - I swim in the river : mäm-kelphu linwe - the river I swim in
kamkurë cwëllekö rlupehi - a dog bit the little girl : körë-kamku cwëlle - the little girl who was bitten : hirë-kamku rlupe - the dog that bit her
Inverted phrases can then be included in sentences :
hëurë kilwen thencu cantomä - he put the key in a sandalwood box : märë-hëu canto - the box he put it in : yallurë märë-hëu canton - he lost the box he put it in
A word can be added to such inverted phrases, provided that its Subordination is the Relative:
hoämu cälpan cäilohi - a friend of mine lends me books : cälpa him-hoä cäilo - the friend who lends me books : kwearë kwölmi phuvon cälpa him-hoä cäiloli - I gave a bunch of carnations to the friend who lends me books
Modifiers can also be added to this word:
hoämu ummë muilho cälpan cäilohi - a friend lends me thick, difficult books : ummë muilho cälpa him-hoä cäilo - the friend who lends me thick, difficult books
XI. The Conjunctive Edit
A. And. As mentioned before, the conjunctive suffix -yë can often be translated “and.” But more precisely, it reprises the meaning of whichever Order suffix it refers back to:
nökui hwöila nelkoyë lhun - he/she was always cheerful and courteous
cännulerë phërëpweyë cöin - the birds were singing and fluttering about
pkulmaphi talmeteiyë cal pahi - I will watch over you and keep you safe
If the Relative suffix in its reduced form -n is added to the conjunctive, it refers back to the nearest word with any suffix:
pöllumu leamä kielahi miuvayën - blackbirds and thrushes would sing in the trees
kwomala körömpikö cimhövo fhaproyën - the princess was dressed in silk and brocade
Or/But. In either case, the Conjunctive can be combined with the second three Statives: the Interrogative, Conjectural and Concessive:
tälnapriula petän yempapriuwoyë pan - either the task is too difficult or I am too stupid
vipwäla lhun yopelerëpwäyë - he’s drunk or perhaps he’s pretending to be
wölphala cwallon kehwokuyë lhauwe - the journey was daunting but they were confident
Although Interrogative and Conjectural can both be translated “or” there is a difference. Interrogative is used for yes/no oppositions, Conjectural for more open-ended choices:
phöiwo phikwan taväwoyën - would you like tea or coffee? (Those are your choices.)
phöiwo phikwan taväpwäyën - would you like tea or coffee (or something else, or perhaps you don’t want anything.)
B. With Directional prefixes. As with the Denominative -to, the Conjunctive suffix can follow directional prefixes; the result can be added either to a word-stem, or to another suffix, in which case I usually write it as a separate word.
Le- and He- Le- with the conjunctive signifies the beginning of a list. It can be used after the last item, to indicate that the list continues: leproärë yamphon kummiyën mäpweleyën - (I) bought tomatoes, capsicums, eggplant and so on.
With a simple list of items, it isn’t necessary to add -yë to every single item. The first and last words of such a list may end in -yë or -leyë, the latter for open-ended lists; the intervening words may have no suffix. In this situation, two- and three-syllable words lose their accent.
kwanyö lhopea këumu lëmpa phoän, prumayë niepri momcö leihweleyë - in spring there you can find various flowers, such as daffodils, narcissi, anemones, hyacinths and so on. (A self-contained list like this need not be linked by the Relative -n, since the meaning is clear. The first -yë already has the implication “such as”.)
-heyë is used with negatives; it translates “nor.” theala pkwoman lelphaheyën lhun - he is neither rich nor good-looking. It can be repeated and used after other suffixes: ceihaula venyali heyë cäiloli heyë - I didn’t tell either my sister or my friends.
Nö- and Cö- -nöyë suggests extension, and often translates “even.” proutänela phapren tälliyën panonöyën - he can make chairs, tables and even cupboards.
-cöyë has the opposite meaning of restriction, can be used with positives or negatives, and translates “or even/not even”.
hwamokwäla prea itukwä lhuhi pehwa phëucöyë - I would be happy if he would tell the truth, or even lie more skilfully.
lapkolhäila cömäivo, pkämecöyën - I can’t trust anyone, not even my brothers and sisters.
XII. Neutral Demonstratives Edit
A. Relative Clauses. The neutral demonstratives, e and o, unlike the proximate and remote demonstratives, refer not to physical space but to space within the discourse. O refers back to what has just been mentioned; e refers forward to what is about to be said: thus they could be called anaphoric and cataphoric particles.
We have seen how inversions can be used to translate relative clauses: mucwa pkuorë cäiloli - I met a friend yesterday/ mucwa lirë-pkuo cäilo - the friend I met yesterday. However this can only be done with phrases containing only modifiers and words in the relative subordination. The neutral demonstratives are used to form more complex relative clauses:
mucwa pkuorë cäiloli - yesterday I met a friend/ kui lenya phäita cärimu cäilopkäli - when I was young I used to play chess with a friend - mucwa pkuorë e cäiloli kui lenya phäita cärimu opkäli - yesterday I met a friend I used to play chess with when I was young
B. Topicalising. e with the Denominative can also be used to topicalise:
tepkurë pakö rlempowe - (he) hit me with a bottle / e rlempoto tepkurë pakö owe - it was a bottle (he) hit me with
In the second example the owe would often be omitted; generally the e/o needn’t always have a specific counterpart in the other clause:
hunyël’en lhomila pkani nölëmon lhulin - I didn’t know that both his parents were dead
C. With Indefinites. As mentioned above, e or o are often combined with Indefinite words:
evoä nilkwela körömpin cwallorë körpron walemeahi pkweaphito lhuli - the princess was so beautiful that princes from many countries travelled to see her
thulola epean hëurë kilwen läpkwalin - I have forgotten where I put the key to the attic
XIII. The Resultative Edit
A. Resultative. The suffix -pë expresses the result of an immediately preceding action; some specific uses:
With the Habitual, -mu, when describing general laws and consequences:
fwiumu lhamcekö pofhëmupë mëcukö - if you touch a hotplate you will burn your fingers (as opposed to: fwiurë lhamcekö pofhëpë mëcukö - (I) touched a hotplate and burnt (my) finger)
It is also used with the Subjunctive, -kwä, combined with words such as priu, excessive, too much, or with negatives:
lhipwipriula nuolhäipë - (it) was too bitter drink-unable-to, = too bitter to drink
theala epean tamyuväikwäpë - it was not somewhere live-want-would-to = not somewhere you would want to live
theala eraun ëphu thulokwäpë - it was not something you could easily forget
B. Deliminative. It has quite a different use, which I could call Delimitative, when prefixed to other suffixes. Examples:
tamyula pe tuncamä uno kuipëhi - I have lived in this town since childhood
mimä tiltarë palmopëli - we walked together as far as the gate / fharurë vielopëli - I worked until evening
lepelëukë kälkwo vähipëwe - get here by eight o’clock / lhapimö hälyopëmä - (we) should be finished within a month
C. Necessary Conditions. When prefixed to the Mood suffixes:
mathöpëhwa eraun ceirë pahi - if only (they) remember what I told them
källephi cal neto källepëkwäto pal cahi - I will help you provided you help me later
tipwi lëumö ölvu nacwipëru - we should be on time provided we leave straightaway
XIV. Negatives Edit
In Pkalho-Kölo there is no one way of forming the negative. A wide variety of negative words are used. Some of the most important are:
Hau. Absent; to lack. ecwa haula ca upen? your younger brother isn’t here today? haula pkwövin - there are no olives. With the Denominative -to: lucerë hauto hwalton - I came out without an umbrella.
Often added to other words: mathöhaula lho valivo - memory is lacking of that day = I don’t remember that day. yafhëhaula cömäivo - I’m not afraid of anyone. With directionals: haunöla leperën cömäin - still no-one has come = no-one has come yet. haucöla cämen - there is already no soap = we’ve run out of soap.
Thea. Incorrect; not the case. mincwätowo lho nulpen? is she your girlfriend? theala. no.
theala hurkworën amkwephi cal pahi - it’s not true that I promised to take you = I didn’t promise to take you : theato yëman keir’on cali, e hiwato - it wasn’t a snake that you saw but a rope
Vëu. To miss, omit, fail to. vëula phica phënun - a few pages are missing : letouvëula palkon - I failed to/forgot to bring my coat : ecwa ollavëula pa lenya cäilon - my young friend wasn’t present today : murivëurëto lhun fhöcerë pkaniwe - his parents were worried when he didn’t come home
Thui. Must not, may not. Translates negative imperatives. thuila - don’t do that! : thuila fwiurë hwimprekö - don’t touch the china : kwilathuila cäntarëthu - no talking during lessons.
Lhäi. Can’t, unable to. cohwilhäila pali - I can’t lift it : nuolhäi ewa - undrinkable water : lhäila nenkorë lucehwato - I can’t get my hand in so as to take it out : e hikö larirë pelhpilhäipë lhuli - (they) ran so fast (I) couldn’t catch up with them
Fhoä. Inadvisable, better not. tullefhoäla ehwea maweto rlafholi - better not stand so close to the furnace : fhoäla ceirën haunöla unnelan - better not tell anyone until you’re sure.
Vace. Avoid, be sure not to. vacekë kämhwerën cwavo alvi phoäkön - be careful not to trample the flowers beside the path : vacerë pwamërën phaphi yönen piuvehemän kwomakön - (I) was careful not to spill the sesame oil in the container on my clothes
Three words translate “to know”: loä, to know facts or information; täne, to know how to do something; and pame, to know a person. Each of these has a negative counterpart: hunyë, not to know (an answer, a fact;) palhä, not to know how to do something; and lhema, not to know a person. Notice that palhä is used about abilities, not lhäi : palhäla kipërën kitarakön - (I) can’t play the guitar. Other negative words include horu, to be puzzled by, not to understand; nauthu, unnecessary, not to need; and lhencë, to dissuade, advise not to.
XV. Aspect Edit
A Forms. Pkalho-Kölo is a transparent, regular agglutinative language, its structure clear and lucid. The one area of real complexity is the aspectual system. Aspects are formed by stem-modulation, the precise nature of which will depend on the phonetic structure of the root, and while there are in fact no exceptions, the rules are rather complicated.
As can be seen, pk, pkw and pr simplify to p in the Semelfactive, Extensive and Distributive.
cw simplifies to c and fh to f, creating allophones found only in this context. In the Distributive however fh does not simplify. Other labialised consonants also do not simplify.
Words beginning with a vowel acquire an epenthetic r in the Separative and Semelfactive, an initial w for rounded vowels, y for unrounded in the Semelfactive, and an extra l in the Distributive.
In the Iterative, most words simply repeat the first syllable, but if this contains a diphthong the initial consonant is used with the vowel of the last syllable.
In the Extensive, one syllable words acquire an epenthetic w if they contain the diphthongs ea, ei, ie, äi, ëu or iu; an r for the diphthongs oä, ou, uo, au, öi or ui. (Yes, äi goes with unrounded vowels, au with rounded vowels, don’t ask why.)
The Separative, Iterative and Distributive have an accent on the first syllable, the Semelfactive and Extensive have an accent on the second syllable.
The Separative describes an event that lasts a limited time and ends, but is not completed: norlla ömöirë - I slept for a while/had a sleep earlier; ëwëlarë e cälpavo mucwa leproärë - I read a bit of the book I bought yesterday; epkwearë keluli läpkwamän - I had a look at the stuff in the attic.
The Extensive describes an event that goes on for a long time, longer than expected or too long. fwovovërë haukuto këurën - I wandered around for ages without finding anything. kwililarë phöipë möikwän pawe - (he/she) talked on and on till I felt like going to sleep.
The Semelfactive describes a brief, momentary, often fragmentary event. pëpkwemkwerë - (he/she) shuddered, gave a shudder. cëcelärë - the moon shone for a moment (between clouds.) keila wimyun hwëhwicorëmä - (I) saw the landscape for a moment by a flash of lightning. It can also have inceptive meanings: vëvuirë - it began to rain
The Iterative describes an event that occurs repeatedly. kwiepokworë thenan - (he/she) repeated the name over and over. tepepkurë kwinyakö hipkëwe - he tapped on the glass with his walking-stick again and again.
The Distributive describes an event occurring at several points at once. fhalfhëkarë cilpen lhauhi - they each lit a candle. pilpaumirë cömen unoli - (he/she) gave each child a cake. liuhwä ullilurë wöpkwa vöihi - each drop of dew shone iridescent.
Aspect usually expresses the contour of an event in time, but where appropriate statives can also have aspectual forms: emprola - it forms a semi-circle / empoprela - it forms a series of semi-circles. tullela tölkwan thienumä - a statue stood in the niche / teltullela tölkwan thienumä - a statue stood in each niche.
XVI. Mood: Grades Edit
A. So far we have only looked at the base form of the Mood suffixes, the first grade, which is the potential, referring to events that have not yet taken place. The second and third grades are formed by adding the directional prefixes le- and he-.The second grade is current/unknown, referring to events that may have taken place, the speaker not knowing one way or the other; the third grade is contrafactual, referring to events that might have taken place, but in fact did not.
So with the Optative: kamhwihwa pa nouveli - I hope (they) pay attention to my advice : kamhwilehwa pa nouveli - I hope (they) have paid attention to my advice : kamhwihehwa pa nouveli - if only (they) had paid attention to my advice.
With the Subjunctive: lincwa pkuokwä lhaun cäiloli - tomorrow they might/could meet their friends : ecwa pkuolekwä lhaun cäiloli - today they might/may have met their friends : mucwa pkuohekwä lhaun cäiloli - yesterday they would have met their friends (but something happened so that they didn’t.)
The same with the Expective: lincwa lëumö kuphiveltali - (they) should reach the seacoast tomorrow : ecwa lëulemö kuphiveltali - (they) should have reached the seacoast today : mucwa lëuhemö kuphiveltali - (they) should have reached the seacoast yesterday (but they didn’t.)
And the Apprehensive: thulofhe pavo - I’m afraid (he) will forget about me : thulolefhe pavo - I’m afraid (he) has forgotten about me : thulohefhe pavo - I was afraid (he) had forgotten about me.
The Habitual takes these prefixes with the same kind of meaning : nouma tëlkwamu - I go for long walks : nouma tëlkwalemu - I’ve begun to go for long walks : nouma tëlkwahemu - I used to go for long walks.
B. Four of the Moods, Expective, Subjunctive, Hortative and Purposive, also have a Conjectural form, used to express a greater degree of uncertainty:
Expective: fwelwëlerë ewan, lhuntupwämö - water is seeping in, perhaps it’s going to sink : Subjunctive: uno kui pkäpamela, mathöpwäkwä pan lhuli - we knew each other as children, he might remember me
Hortative: ilva muripwäru - perhaps we’d better go home soon : Purposive: leproäpwäphi hea pewin - perhaps I’ll buy some new shoes
The difference between the Expective and the Subjunctive:
takwikari au ciwen vuipwämöto - could you get the washing in if it happens to rain : mathökë hetourën palkon vuipwäkwäto - remember to take a coat in case it rains
XVII. N-Conjunctives Edit
There are four more suffixes which are not usually counted in the canonical list, because they begin with a syllable-final -n, and have the form nCV. These N-conjunctives, like the Conjunctive and Resultative, generally link back to the previous word with an Order or Mood suffix; but sometimes, like the Denominative, they appear in the first clause, creating a suspened form awaiting completion.
Causal and Sequential replace the Active -rë, Recognitive and Implicative replace the Stative -la. In the Stative and Habitual the first pair become -lante, -munte; -lanyo, -munyo. In the Active and Habitual the second pair become -nkärë, -nkämu; -nnurë, -nnumu.