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Template:Poweinean

Poweinean
Tryndamerio
Type Synetic
Alignment Nominative-Accusative
Head direction Head-Initial
Tonal No
Declensions Yes
Conjugations Yes
Genders No
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Meta-information
Progress 80%
Statistics
Nouns 25%
Verbs 83%
Adjectives 100%
Syntax 97%
Words 1000 of 1500
Creator Powei Kao


ClassificationEdit

The Poweinean language is a Northern Novorsian language spoken by around 200 million people. Along with the other Northern Novorsian languages, Poweinean is a descendant of Old Norvorsian. However, base on the fact that the home of Poweinean, Kingdom of Tryndameria is far away from the rest Norvorsian languages from the Norvorsian languages, experts have suggested that Poweinean should belong to its own language sub-family, the Coastal Novorsian[1]. However, the majority of the researchers are still categorize Poweinean as a Northern Novorsian language.

Compare to other languages are spoken in the nearby region, Poweinean is considered the youngest language. It is believed that the Poweinean is formed when the first Norvosian, or Freljordians, conquered Tryndameria in the late 4th century A.E. However, the milestone that set Poweinean apart from the other Freljordian language is the adoption of the Latin Alphabets in 7th century, by the legendary king Carlos II from the House of Trynomecial.

Follow by the adoption of writing system, the Poweinean experienced the Great Shift in the late 7th century. The language introduced many foreign loan words from the nearby Estarians, Celts and Bigtopians. The pronunciation of many words are also changed [2].

Followed by the colonization of Casini Islands and Schetswenschen, many new words and grammatical rules were added in during the late 9th century. The most notable was the introduce of Possessive Preposition Descending Rule from the native Casinian language.

Status of Poweinean
Region Percentage Regonition
First Language Non-Native Speakers
Empire of Tryndameria Tryndameria 92% 7% Official And Major Language
Casini Islands 87% 9%
Schetswenschen 53% 36% Official but not the Major Language
Terrenovo and St. Herreignen 39% 43%
Orrande-Mivourvire 13% 18%
Leserdong 8% 13%
Republic of Bigtopia Schenleswick Province 16% 25% Regonized Minor Language
Bigtopia City 1.3% 7%
Republic of Smalltopia Carssone-Upper Province 3.2% 5%
Carssone-Lower Province 1.0% 11%

Orthography Edit

Alphabet System Edit

Nowadays, Poweinean is written in Estariyy Alphabet System (also called Latin alphabet on the Earth).

Letter Aa Bb Cc Oo Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll
Name [ɑ] [bi] [se] [o] [de] [ə] [ɛf] [ʒe] [aʃ] [ji] [tʃi] [ka] [ɛl]
Letter Mm Nn Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz
Name [ɛm] [ɛn] [paj] [ky] [ɛʀ] [ɛs] [taj] [y] [vaj] [wɒl] [iks] [igʀɛk] [zɛd]

There are so some diaritics in order to mark a specific tone.

Name
Flèa
◌́ Apes
◌̀ Grave
◌̌ Wedge
◌̈ Thes
Ññ Año

Diacritics are often omitted on capital letters, mainly for technical reasons. It is widely believed that they are not required; however the Uprisläsium Tryndamerio reject this usage and confirm that "in Poweinean, the accent has full orthographic value", except for acronyms but not for abbreviations nor name initials. Nevertheless, diacritics are often ignored in word games.

When sorting the letters, the Flèa/Apes/Grave/Wedge and Thes diacritic-letters are treated as same as their un-diaritic root alphabets. The only exception is the año Ñ, which have its own pronunciation rules and are sorted after Z in both Dixiónaire Uprisläsium Tryndamerio el 1036 and other major dictionaries.

Sound to spelling correspondences Edit

Consonants and combinations of consonant letters Edit

Spelling Value (IPA) Example
b, bb non-finally /b/
finally Ø
bh /b/
c before e, i, y /s/
initially/medially elsewhere /k/
finally Ø
ch /k/
d, dd non-finally /d/
finally /t/
dg /dʒ/
f, ff /f/
g, gg /g/
gn /ɲ/
h /h/
j /tʃ/
l, ll before an accuted é or diaeresised ë /ɾ/
elsewhere /l/
m, mm /m/
n, nn /n/
-ng /ŋ/
p, pp /p/
ph /f/
r /ɹ/
rr /ɾ/
t /t/
th before e, i, y /θ/
before a, o, u /t/
after a vowel /s/
ts /tsʰ/
s initially

medially next to a consonant

or after a nasal vowel

/s/
elsewhere /z/
sc before e, i, y /s/
elsewhere /sk/
sch /ʃ/
schr before o /ʃr/
elsewhere /ʃ/
ss /s/
st /st/
v /v/
x next to a voiceless consonant /ks/
next to a voiced consonant /gz/
next to a vowel /ɕ/
finally /s/
xc before e, i, y /ks/
elsewhere /sk/
z non-finally /z/
finally /s/
zh before e, o /tʂ/
elsewhere /z/
ñ /ɲ/

Vowels and combinations of vowel letters Edit

Spelling Value (IPA) Example
a, à /a/
â /ɑ/
ai, aî, aï /aɪ/
aie /ɛ/
aou /u/
au /o/
ay finally /ɛj/
elsewhere /aɪ/
aye /ɛi/
o phonologically finally /o/
elsewhere /ɔ/
ô /o/
ö after a phonologically single consonant /ɒ/
elsewhere /o/
oe /oe/
/wa/
/ɔɛ/
oi, oie, oï /wa/
ou before an vowel /w/
elsewhere /u/
/u/
-oue /u/
-oux /us/
e after an unvoiced consonant /ɛ/
after a voiced consonant /e/
in the suffix -eum/-eas Ø
finally, after a velar consonant Ø
é, é /e/
è, ê /ɛ/
eau finally /o/
elsewhere /ju/
ei, eî /ɛ/
eu phonologically first/finally /ju/
elsewhere /œ/
i before a vowel, except u /j/
elsewhere /i/
î /j/
ï /i/
ie after an bilabial consonant /aɪ/
elsewhere /i/
u before vowel /ɥ/
after vowel /ə/
û /yə/
ue phonologically finally /uː/
elsewhere /y/
y initially before vowel /j/
elsewhere /i/

Combinations of vowels and consonant letters Edit

Spelling Value (IPA) Example
er /ər/
ere /ɛr/
uille /ɒl/

Phonotactics Edit

A Poweinean syllable includes a syllable nucleus consisting of a vowel sound. Syllable onset and coda (start and end) are optional. A syllable can start with up to three consonant sounds, as in swröv /swrɔv/, and end with up to three, as in schrölst /ʃrolst/. This gives an Poweinean syllable the following structure, (CCC)V(CCC) where C represents a consonant and V a vowel. The consonants that may appear together in onsets or codas are restricted, as is the order in which they may appear.

Furthermore, several consonants have limited distributions: /h/ can only occur in syllable initial position, and /ŋ/ only in syllable final position.

Syntax Edit

Modern Poweinean syntax language is moderately analytic. It has developed features such as modal verbs and word order as resources for conveying meaning. Auxiliary verbs mark constructions such as questions, negative polarity, the passive voice and progressive aspect.

Word Classes Edit

Like most languages, Poweinean classifies most of its lexicon into four word classes: verbs, nouns, adjectives, and adverbs. These are "open" classes, in the sense that they readily accept new members, by coinage, borrowing, or compounding. Interjections form a smaller open class.

There are also several small closed classes, such as pronouns, prepositions, articles, demonstratives, numerals, and conjunctions.

Spacing Edit

Generally, a space is inserted after a punctuation mark (include but not limited to , . ; : ! % ? ). The commas and periods should go into the brackets and the quotation marks; however, in some cases where inserts an comma or period into brackets or quotation marks could cause confusions (as the example showed above in the first row of the article), punctuation marks can go after them.

Capitalisation Edit

The letters in Poweinean have capital and lower cases. Here are some situations where only the first letter of the word should be capitalised in the sentence.

  1. The first word of a sentence.
  2. Proper Nouns.
  3. Pronoun that refers to a person.
  4. Single letter that refer to a grade, sorting number or name abbreviation.

Here are some situations that every first letter of every words should be capitalised.

  1. Title of a article, report, news.
  2. When referring the name of a book, movie, law in the sentence.

Verb After Noun Edit

Subject After Verb Edit

  1. Interrogative Sentence: where the verb is moved to the first of the sentence and the subject follows it, as Are they in English. Use a hyphen between verb and subject. V-S. Notices the hyphen between the verb and the subject.

Object After Verb Edit

  1. When there is a transitive verb and the target is a pronoun, use a hyphen between verb and the pronoun. V-O
  2. To mark passive action. V O. Notices that there is a space between the verb and the subject.
  3. Indicating the source or provenance of someone or something, as the preposition from in English. V O

Verb Before Noun Edit

The sentences which are not identified into the categories in the previous paragraph follow SVO structure in Poweinean.

Position of Adjectives Edit

All adjectives are after the noun they modified.

When there is more than one adjectives to describe a object, the adjectives are placed in order as shown below.

Object Size Beauty Age Color Good/Bad Sound Taste Religion/ Nationality Social Class Mood

Position of Adverbs Edit

The depends to some extent upon the type of adverb and the word that it is modifying.

  1. Adverbs that modify a verb are placed after the verb.
  2. Adverbs which modify adjectives or other adverbs are placed in front of the word they modify.
  3. Adverbs of frequency are placed after the verb.
  4. Adverbs of time which refer to specific days (today, yesterday) can only be placed at the beginning (with a comma behind it) or end of the sentence.

GrammarEdit

Article Edit

Traditionally in Poweinean, an article is usually considered to be a type of adjective. It is also possible for articles to be part of another part of speech category such as a determiner, an Poweinean part of speech category that combines articles and demonstratives such as dis (this) and tu (that).

In Poweinean, every common noun, with some exceptions, is expressed with a certain definiteness (e.g. definite or indefinite) and number (singular or plural). Every noun must be accompanied by the article, if any, corresponding to its definiteness, and the lack of an article (considered a zero article) itself specifies a certain definiteness.

Singular Plural
Definite la / l'
Indefinite sao / s' sao / sa'
Partitive du / d'
Negative none / ne

Nouns Edit

Number Edit

Poweinean nouns conjugate according to its ending type and number.

There are 4 kinds of numbers, they are: singular, plural, unclear ,and infinite. Use singular when there is only one object; otherwise uses plural. When in the interrogative sentence, use unclear if the amount of object is unknown; use infinite to referring things that are infinite large, also can be used for exaggeration.

The conjugation is according to the noun's ending.

There are 4 types of noun ending that has special suffixes for multiple number objects.

-ium* -or -ier -io Others
End in Consonant End in Vowel
Singular -ium -or -ier -io
Plural -ias -ar -iers -ioe -a -x
Unclear -ilis -orlis -erlis -ilis -a -x
infinitie -ius -ur -urs -ioe -as -x

*When there is a vowel in the end of the root word, the i is dismissed. i.e. ëxènsé ⇒ ëxènséum. When the root word is end in a; the ending of plural form becomes simply -as

Possessive Constructions Edit

Possession can be expressed either by the possessive enclitic hen , or by the preposition el, which has to follow the Possessive Preposition Descending Rule. Historically the hen possessive has been used for animate nouns, whereas the el possessive has been reserved for inanimate nouns. Today this distinction is less clear, and many speakers use hen also with inanimates. Orthographically the possessive hen is separated from the noun root with an space, possessive hen should not be treated as a separate word from the root.

Possessive Preposition Descending Rule Edit

The Possessive Preposition descends by its position in a sentence.

Level of Possesive Spelling Usage
First Level Possesive de When there is more than one level of possessive relationships, the First Level Possessive should conjugate into de.
el When there is only one level of possesive relationships
Higher Level Possesive For the higher level of possessive relationships
Second Higher Level Possesive die For the higher level of possessive relationships
Third Higher Level Possesive das For the higher level of possessive relationships
Forth Higher Level Possesive and higher du For the higher level of possessive relationships

For Example:

  • A el B: B owns A.
  • A de B el C: B owns A; C owns B and its lower possessions (A in this case).
  • A de B el C die D: B owns A; C owns B and its lower possessions (A in this case). ; D owns C and its lower possessions (A and B in this case).

Demonyms Edit

Poweinean uses prefixes and suffixes to identify demonyms. Note that when expressing local resident(s) from a certain region, the first letter in root word must be capitalized (e.g. citiFrancais), even if the word itself is in the first of the sentence (e.g. CitiFrancais). Here is some examples of demonyms:

Root Word Local Object Adjective Influenced
English Poweinean Noun/Adj(plural) V.
Britian Angloe citiAngloe(x) Angloeska Angloesphon(ie) Angloeser
Sydney Scheuley citiScheuley(x) Scheuleyska Scheuleysphon(ie) Scheuleyser
China Houa citiHoua(x) Houaska Houasphon(ie) Houaser
West Virginia Útere Virginia citiVirginiaÚteriyy(a) VirginiaÚteriska VirginiaÚterisphon(ie) VirginiaÚteriser
citi- -ska -sphonie -ser
  • Local object: express something in the region, e.g. a car in Japan: tuirie citiNippon
  • Adjective: express something from the region, e.g. a Japan-made car in Canada: tuirie Nipponska en Canadien
  • Influenced: express something that is/are inspired by the region, e.g. Japanese food in America: Nipponsphon alimentoum. Note that the object is considered "influenced" by the region if it is not come from nor in the region; the Japanese food in America is not made in Japan, nor in Japan.

Verb Edit

Poweinean verbs conjugate according to its tense and person.

There are three persons (first, second, third and omniscient).

The six fused tense-aspects are:

  • present simple- actions according at the time of speech.
  • present continuing - actions continuing in the present.
  • present perfect - actions completed rightly when the time of speech.
  • past simple - actions according at the time of speech was in the past.
  • past continuing- actions continuing in the past.
  • past perfect - actions completed by the past.
  • future simple - events occurring in the future .
  • future continuing- actions continuing in the future.
  • future perfect - actions completed by a point in the future.
View of Person First Person View Second Person View Third Person View
Present Simple -d -d -d
Present Continuing le / l'- * le / l'- * le / l'- *
Present Perfect les les les
Past Simple -au -eu -ou
Past Continuing le -au / l'- -au* le -eu / l'- -au* le -ou / l'- -au*
Past Perfect les -au les -eu les -ou
Future Simple la / las ** la / las ** la / las **
Future Continuing le la'- / le las'- ** le la'- / le las'- ** le la'- / le las'- **
Future Perfect les la'- / les las'- ** les la'- / les las'- ** les la'- / les las'- **

* Stand alone if the verb starts with a consonant. e.g. le spise = is eating .If the following verb start with a vowel, use prefix d'-. e.g. l'ëdreich = is looking.

** Stand alone if the verb starts with a consonant. e.g. la spise = will eat .If the following verb start with a vowel, use las'-. e.g. las'ëdreich = will look.

Auxiliary Verbs Edit

In Poweinean grammar, certain verb forms are classified as auxiliary verbs. Exact definitions of this term vary; an auxiliary verb is generally conceived as one with little semantic meaning of its own, which modifies the meaning of another verb with which it co-occurs. In Poweinean verbs are often classed as auxiliaries on the basis of certain grammatical properties, particularly as regards their syntax – primarily whether they participate in subject–auxiliary inversion.

An auxiliary verb is most generally understood as a verb that "helps" another verb by adding grammatical information to it. They are excluded from the verb conjugation tenses rules.

Root Word
Usage Word
questions, negation, emphasis (do) net
perfect tenses in question (have) les
expressive passive voice (be) avea
passive voice in question

The following are examples of sentences containing the above types of auxiliary verbs:

Net you want tea?
Les he given his all?
It avea destroyed.
it destroyed?

However the above understanding of auxiliary verbs is not always strictly adhered to in the literature, particularly in the case of forms of the verb be, which may be called auxiliaries even when they do not accompany another verb. Other approaches to defining auxiliary verbs are described in the following sections.

Adjuncts Edit

Basic of Adjective and Adverbs Edit

In Poweinean, adjective and adverbs are interchangeable.

Common English Suffixes for Descriptive words
English Suffixes Poweinean Suffixes Example in English Translated into Poweinean
-able -nein eatable spisenein
-ly -iyy shortly laroiyy
-like -hoph childlike untizerhoph
-ful -daeu colorful chromidaeu
-al -iyy national citiyy
-ar -iyy lunar luniyy

Degree of Comparison Edit

The Poweinean language has 2 degree of comparison. Uses comparative to comparing two or more similar objects; uses superlative to express the one which has the greatest value in comparison. Note for the ease of pronunciation adjuncts more than 3 syllables have special words before them indicating the comparisons instead of adding prefix/suffixes

Degree of Comparisons in Poweinean
2 Syllables or less 3 Syllables or more
Comparative peri- peria adj/adv
Superlative -sta

sonzer adj/adv

Pronouns Edit

Person Pronouns
Person View Case Subject Object Possessive Reflexive
Numbers N. Adj.
First Person Singular Je Me Men Mes Menhen
Plural Wer Nous Zour Zours Zourhen
Plural (Inclusive) Szer Uas Uanshen
Second Person Singular Vire Vires Dun Duns Vireshen
Plural Dye Dye Dyen Dyen Dynhen
Third Person Masculine Singular Vou Voun Voun Vous Vouhen
Feminine Singular Ver Vern Vern Vers Verhen
Neuter/Mixed Singular Et At Ets Ets Etshen
Plural Sey Seyn Ses Ses Seshen
Question Words
Usage Corresponding English Word Position in an

Independent Clause

aerne asking the manner of things occured how Begining
quoi choosing an object without a fixed answer pool what Begining
ouay asking the time when Begining
houre asking the place where Begining
örn asking a true-or-false question do one Before Verb
ouye choosing an object within limited choices which Begining
oué asking about a person who Begining
résson asking the reason why Begining

Prepositions and Postpositions Edit

Prepositions and postpositions, together called adpositions, are a class of words that express spatial or temporal relations (as in, under, towards, before in English) or marking various semantic roles (as of, for in English).

A preposition or postposition typically combines with a noun or pronoun, or more generally a noun phrase, this being called its object. A preposition comes before its object; a postposition comes after its object. Poweinean generally has prepositions rather than postpositions – words such as a(n), falie, eco and of precede their objects, as in an Angloe, falie desco-officio, eco ols scentsña, el Romursary.

Vocabulary Edit

Poweinean forms new words from existing words or roots in its vocabulary through a variety of processes. One of the most productive processes in Poweinean is conversion: using a word with a different grammatical role; for example using a noun as a verb or a verb as a noun. Another productive word-formation process is nominal compounding, producing compound words such as alimentischröster or reigenaufenbrausier. A process more common in Parasquilay than in Novosquilay, but still productive in Novosquilay, is the use of derivational suffixes and suffixes(özzer-, -tie , -timi) to derive new words from existing words or stems. Another active word-formation process in Poweinean is acronyms, words formed by pronouncing as a single word abbreviations of longer phrases (e.g. CDSLP, uprinediyy). Borrowing words from other language is also a common ways of adding new ideas into the language.

Numerals Edit

In the word forms of numbers above 10, the units are stated before the tens, so 21 is rendered ols-deca scent, literally "one and two tens". The word twenty ols-deca is the sufffix deca, which means ten, combine with the the word ols 2. Ordinal numeral in general are added -tine at the last digit of the numeral.

Military numerals are usually uses in military or hospital, where expressing numbers quickly and without-confusion is necessary. Military numerals are not formal and it is not suggested to spell out in a piece of writing.

Number Cardinal Numeral Ordinal Numeral Military Numeral
0 zéro no
1 scent premier pre
2 ols deuxième duse
3 quat troisième qua
4 sire siretine si
5 kobe kobetine ko
6 taipe taipetine tay
7 pow powtine pow
8 octo octine to
9 rom romtine ro
10 des scent-destine pre no
20 ols-deca ols-destine duse no
100 hecto scent-hetine pre no no
200 ols-heta ols-hetine duse no no
1000 kelo scent-kiltine pre no no no
2000 ols-kilo ols-kiltine duse no no no

Lexicon Edit

Example Text Edit

THE UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS Edit

Al-Traytié el Stoire de Renas

1. All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Ren el morael les borne paréil en diginitus und stoire. Seen les endow y medèl und moralis und devreit avea a ren en paréil el thanks de soyuz.

  1. Bassiel, R. (987). Al Suschestre De Al Linguafamilie Novo El Kosstale Novourozayan. Bigtopyan Zystreych Linguasticue 23, 3-9
  2. Bassiel, R.; Koszeyl, J.C. (989). Al Suschestre De Al Fonostikya Estuinysie Tryndamerio Freytu Bats "Al Zybret Largre". Bigtopyan Zystreych Linguasticue 31, 7-29

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