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|Nouns decline according to...|
|Verbs conjugate according to...|
The Poweinean language is a Northern Novorsian language spoken by around 200 million people. Along with the other Northern Novorsian languages, Poweinean is a descendant of Old Norvorsian. However, base on the fact that the home of Poweinean, Kingdom of Tryndameria is far away from the rest Norvorsian languages from the Norvorsian languages, experts have suggested that Poweinean should belong to its own language sub-family, the Coastal Novorsian. However, the majority of the researchers are still categorize Poweinean as a Northern Novorsian language.
Compare to other languages are spoken in the nearby region, Poweinean is considered the youngest language. It is believed that the Poweinean is formed when the first Norvosian, or Freljordians, conquered Tryndameria in the late 4th century A.E. However, the milestone that set Poweinean apart from the other Freljordian language is the adoption of the Latin Alphabets in 7th century, by the legendary king Carlos II from the House of Trynomecial.
Follow by the adoption of writing system, the Poweinean experienced the Great Shift in the late 7th century. The language introduced many foreign loan words from the nearby Estarians, Celts and Bigtopians. The pronunciation of many words are also changed .
Followed by the colonization of Casini Islands and Schetswenschen, many new words and grammatical rules were added in during the late 9th century. The most notable was the introduce of Possessive Preposition Descending Rule from the native Casinian language.
|First Language||Non-Native Speakers|
|Empire of Tryndameria||Tryndameria||92%||7%||Official And Major Language|
|Schetswenschen||53%||36%||Official but not the Major Language|
|Terrenovo and St. Herreignen||39%||43%|
|Republic of Bigtopia||Schenleswick Province||16%||25%||Regonized Minor Language|
|Republic of Smalltopia||Carssone-Upper Province||3.2%||5%|
Alphabet System Edit
Nowadays, Poweinean is written in Estariyy Alphabet System (also called Latin alphabet on the Earth).
There are so some diaritics in order to mark a specific tone.
Diacritics are often omitted on capital letters, mainly for technical reasons. It is widely believed that they are not required; however the Uprisläsium Tryndamerio reject this usage and confirm that "in Poweinean, the accent has full orthographic value", except for acronyms but not for abbreviations nor name initials. Nevertheless, diacritics are often ignored in word games.
When sorting the letters, the Flèa/Apes/Grave/Wedge and Thes diacritic-letters are treated as same as their un-diaritic root alphabets. The only exception is the año Ñ, which have its own pronunciation rules and are sorted after Z in both Dixiónaire Uprisläsium Tryndamerio el 1036 and other major dictionaries.
Sound to spelling correspondences Edit
Consonants and combinations of consonant letters Edit
|c||before e, i, y||/s/|
|l, ll||before an accuted é or diaeresised ë||/ɾ/|
|th||before e, i, y||/θ/|
|before a, o, u||/t/|
|after a vowel||/s/|
medially next to a consonant
or after a nasal vowel
|sc||before e, i, y||/s/|
|x||next to a voiceless consonant||/ks/|
|next to a voiced consonant||/gz/|
|next to a vowel||/ɕ/|
|xc||before e, i, y||/ks/|
|zh||before e, o||/tʂ/|
Vowels and combinations of vowel letters Edit
|ai, aî, aï||/aɪ/|
|ö||after a phonologically single consonant||/ɒ/|
|oi, oie, oï||/wa/|
|ou||before an vowel||/w/|
|e||after an unvoiced consonant||/ɛ/|
|after a voiced consonant||/e/|
|in the suffix -eum/-eas||Ø|
|finally, after a velar consonant||Ø|
|i||before a vowel, except u||/j/|
|ie||after an bilabial consonant||/aɪ/|
|y||initially before vowel||/j/|
Combinations of vowels and consonant letters Edit
A Poweinean syllable includes a syllable nucleus consisting of a vowel sound. Syllable onset and coda (start and end) are optional. A syllable can start with up to three consonant sounds, as in swröv /swrɔv/, and end with up to three, as in schrölst /ʃrolst/. This gives an Poweinean syllable the following structure, (CCC)V(CCC) where C represents a consonant and V a vowel. The consonants that may appear together in onsets or codas are restricted, as is the order in which they may appear.
Furthermore, several consonants have limited distributions: /h/ can only occur in syllable initial position, and /ŋ/ only in syllable final position.
Modern Poweinean syntax language is moderately analytic. It has developed features such as modal verbs and word order as resources for conveying meaning. Auxiliary verbs mark constructions such as questions, negative polarity, the passive voice and progressive aspect.
Word Classes Edit
Like most languages, Poweinean classifies most of its lexicon into four word classes: verbs, nouns, adjectives, and adverbs. These are "open" classes, in the sense that they readily accept new members, by coinage, borrowing, or compounding. Interjections form a smaller open class.
There are also several small closed classes, such as pronouns, prepositions, articles, demonstratives, numerals, and conjunctions.
Generally, a space is inserted after a punctuation mark (include but not limited to , . ; : ! % ? ). The commas and periods should go into the brackets and the quotation marks; however, in some cases where inserts an comma or period into brackets or quotation marks could cause confusions (as the example showed above in the first row of the article), punctuation marks can go after them.
The letters in Poweinean have capital and lower cases. Here are some situations where only the first letter of the word should be capitalised in the sentence.
- The first word of a sentence.
- Proper Nouns.
- Pronoun that refers to a person.
- Single letter that refer to a grade, sorting number or name abbreviation.
Here are some situations that every first letter of every words should be capitalised.
- Title of a article, report, news.
- When referring the name of a book, movie, law in the sentence.
Verb After Noun Edit
Subject After Verb Edit
- Interrogative Sentence: where the verb is moved to the first of the sentence and the subject follows it, as Are they in English. Use a hyphen between verb and subject. V-S. Notices the hyphen between the verb and the subject.
Object After Verb Edit
- When there is a transitive verb and the target is a pronoun, use a hyphen between verb and the pronoun. V-O
- To mark passive action. V O. Notices that there is a space between the verb and the subject.
- Indicating the source or provenance of someone or something, as the preposition from in English. V O
Verb Before Noun Edit
The sentences which are not identified into the categories in the previous paragraph follow SVO structure in Poweinean.
Position of Adjectives Edit
All adjectives are after the noun they modified.
When there is more than one adjectives to describe a object, the adjectives are placed in order as shown below.
|Object||Size||Beauty||Age||Color||Good/Bad||Sound||Taste||Religion/ Nationality||Social Class||Mood|
Position of Adverbs Edit
The depends to some extent upon the type of adverb and the word that it is modifying.
- Adverbs that modify a verb are placed after the verb.
- Adverbs which modify adjectives or other adverbs are placed in front of the word they modify.
- Adverbs of frequency are placed after the verb.
- Adverbs of time which refer to specific days (today, yesterday) can only be placed at the beginning (with a comma behind it) or end of the sentence.
Traditionally in Poweinean, an article is usually considered to be a type of adjective. It is also possible for articles to be part of another part of speech category such as a determiner, an Poweinean part of speech category that combines articles and demonstratives such as dis (this) and tu (that).
In Poweinean, every common noun, with some exceptions, is expressed with a certain definiteness (e.g. definite or indefinite) and number (singular or plural). Every noun must be accompanied by the article, if any, corresponding to its definiteness, and the lack of an article (considered a zero article) itself specifies a certain definiteness.
|Definite||la / l'|
|Indefinite||sao / s'||sao / sa'|
|Partitive||du / d'|
|Negative||none / ne|
Poweinean nouns conjugate according to its ending type and number.
There are 4 kinds of numbers, they are: singular, plural, unclear ,and infinite. Use singular when there is only one object; otherwise uses plural. When in the interrogative sentence, use unclear if the amount of object is unknown; use infinite to referring things that are infinite large, also can be used for exaggeration.
The conjugation is according to the noun's ending.
There are 4 types of noun ending that has special suffixes for multiple number objects.
|End in Consonant||End in Vowel|
*When there is a vowel in the end of the root word, the i is dismissed. i.e. ëxènsé ⇒ ëxènséum. When the root word is end in a; the ending of plural form becomes simply -as
Possessive Constructions Edit
Possession can be expressed either by the possessive enclitic hen , or by the preposition el, which has to follow the Possessive Preposition Descending Rule. Historically the hen possessive has been used for animate nouns, whereas the el possessive has been reserved for inanimate nouns. Today this distinction is less clear, and many speakers use hen also with inanimates. Orthographically the possessive hen is separated from the noun root with an space, possessive hen should not be treated as a separate word from the root.
Possessive Preposition Descending Rule Edit
The Possessive Preposition descends by its position in a sentence.
|Level of Possesive||Spelling||Usage|
|First Level Possesive||de||When there is more than one level of possessive relationships, the First Level Possessive should conjugate into de.|
|el||When there is only one level of possesive relationships|
|Higher Level Possesive||For the higher level of possessive relationships|
|Second Higher Level Possesive||die||For the higher level of possessive relationships|
|Third Higher Level Possesive||das||For the higher level of possessive relationships|
|Forth Higher Level Possesive and higher||du||For the higher level of possessive relationships|
- A el B: B owns A.
- A de B el C: B owns A; C owns B and its lower possessions (A in this case).
- A de B el C die D: B owns A; C owns B and its lower possessions (A in this case). ; D owns C and its lower possessions (A and B in this case).
Poweinean uses prefixes and suffixes to identify demonyms. Note that when expressing local resident(s) from a certain region, the first letter in root word must be capitalized (e.g. citiFrancais), even if the word itself is in the first of the sentence (e.g. CitiFrancais). Here is some examples of demonyms:
|Root Word||Local Object||Adjective||Influenced|
|West Virginia||Útere Virginia||citiVirginiaÚteriyy(a)||VirginiaÚteriska||VirginiaÚterisphon(ie)||VirginiaÚteriser|
- Local object: express something in the region, e.g. a car in Japan: tuirie citiNippon
- Adjective: express something from the region, e.g. a Japan-made car in Canada: tuirie Nipponska en Canadien
- Influenced: express something that is/are inspired by the region, e.g. Japanese food in America: Nipponsphon alimentoum. Note that the object is considered "influenced" by the region if it is not come from nor in the region; the Japanese food in America is not made in Japan, nor in Japan.
Poweinean verbs conjugate according to its tense and person.
There are three persons (first, second, third and omniscient).
The six fused tense-aspects are:
- present simple- actions according at the time of speech.
- present continuing - actions continuing in the present.
- present perfect - actions completed rightly when the time of speech.
- past simple - actions according at the time of speech was in the past.
- past continuing- actions continuing in the past.
- past perfect - actions completed by the past.
- future simple - events occurring in the future .
- future continuing- actions continuing in the future.
- future perfect - actions completed by a point in the future.
|View of Person||First Person View||Second Person View||Third Person View|
|Present Continuing||le / l'- *||le / l'- *||le / l'- *|
|Past Continuing||le -au / l'- -au*||le -eu / l'- -au*||le -ou / l'- -au*|
|Past Perfect||les -au||les -eu||les -ou|
|Future Simple||la / las **||la / las **||la / las **|
|Future Continuing||le la'- / le las'- **||le la'- / le las'- **||le la'- / le las'- **|
|Future Perfect||les la'- / les las'- **||les la'- / les las'- **||les la'- / les las'- **|
* Stand alone if the verb starts with a consonant. e.g. le spise = is eating .If the following verb start with a vowel, use prefix d'-. e.g. l'ëdreich = is looking.
** Stand alone if the verb starts with a consonant. e.g. la spise = will eat .If the following verb start with a vowel, use las'-. e.g. las'ëdreich = will look.
Auxiliary Verbs Edit
In Poweinean grammar, certain verb forms are classified as auxiliary verbs. Exact definitions of this term vary; an auxiliary verb is generally conceived as one with little semantic meaning of its own, which modifies the meaning of another verb with which it co-occurs. In Poweinean verbs are often classed as auxiliaries on the basis of certain grammatical properties, particularly as regards their syntax – primarily whether they participate in subject–auxiliary inversion.
An auxiliary verb is most generally understood as a verb that "helps" another verb by adding grammatical information to it. They are excluded from the verb conjugation tenses rules.
|questions, negation, emphasis (do)||net|
|perfect tenses in question (have)||les|
|expressive passive voice (be)||avea|
|passive voice in question||ré|
The following are examples of sentences containing the above types of auxiliary verbs:
- Net you want tea?
- Les he given his all?
- It avea destroyed.
- Ré it destroyed?
However the above understanding of auxiliary verbs is not always strictly adhered to in the literature, particularly in the case of forms of the verb be, which may be called auxiliaries even when they do not accompany another verb. Other approaches to defining auxiliary verbs are described in the following sections.
Basic of Adjective and Adverbs Edit
In Poweinean, adjective and adverbs are interchangeable.
|English Suffixes||Poweinean Suffixes||Example in English||Translated into Poweinean|
Degree of Comparison Edit
The Poweinean language has 2 degree of comparison. Uses comparative to comparing two or more similar objects; uses superlative to express the one which has the greatest value in comparison. Note for the ease of pronunciation adjuncts more than 3 syllables have special words before them indicating the comparisons instead of adding prefix/suffixes
|2 Syllables or less||3 Syllables or more|
|Usage||Corresponding English Word||Position in an
|aerne||asking the manner of things occured||how||Begining|
|quoi||choosing an object without a fixed answer pool||what||Begining|
|ouay||asking the time||when||Begining|
|houre||asking the place||where||Begining|
|örn||asking a true-or-false question||do one||Before Verb|
|ouye||choosing an object within limited choices||which||Begining|
|oué||asking about a person||who||Begining|
|résson||asking the reason||why||Begining|
Prepositions and Postpositions Edit
Prepositions and postpositions, together called adpositions, are a class of words that express spatial or temporal relations (as in, under, towards, before in English) or marking various semantic roles (as of, for in English).
A preposition or postposition typically combines with a noun or pronoun, or more generally a noun phrase, this being called its object. A preposition comes before its object; a postposition comes after its object. Poweinean generally has prepositions rather than postpositions – words such as a(n), falie, eco and of precede their objects, as in an Angloe, falie desco-officio, eco ols scentsña, el Romursary.
Poweinean forms new words from existing words or roots in its vocabulary through a variety of processes. One of the most productive processes in Poweinean is conversion: using a word with a different grammatical role; for example using a noun as a verb or a verb as a noun. Another productive word-formation process is nominal compounding, producing compound words such as alimentischröster or reigenaufenbrausier. A process more common in Parasquilay than in Novosquilay, but still productive in Novosquilay, is the use of derivational suffixes and suffixes(özzer-, -tie , -timi) to derive new words from existing words or stems. Another active word-formation process in Poweinean is acronyms, words formed by pronouncing as a single word abbreviations of longer phrases (e.g. CDSLP, uprinediyy). Borrowing words from other language is also a common ways of adding new ideas into the language.
In the word forms of numbers above 10, the units are stated before the tens, so 21 is rendered ols-deca scent, literally "one and two tens". The word twenty ols-deca is the sufffix deca, which means ten, combine with the the word ols 2. Ordinal numeral in general are added -tine at the last digit of the numeral.
Military numerals are usually uses in military or hospital, where expressing numbers quickly and without-confusion is necessary. Military numerals are not formal and it is not suggested to spell out in a piece of writing.
|Number||Cardinal Numeral||Ordinal Numeral||Military Numeral|
|100||hecto||scent-hetine||pre no no|
|200||ols-heta||ols-hetine||duse no no|
|1000||kelo||scent-kiltine||pre no no no|
|2000||ols-kilo||ols-kiltine||duse no no no|
Example Text Edit
THE UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS Edit
Al-Traytié el Stoire de Renas
1. All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
Ren el morael les borne paréil en diginitus und stoire. Seen les endow y medèl und moralis und devreit avea a ren en paréil el thanks de soyuz.