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Pratra

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Name: [[]]

Type:

Alignment:

Head Direction:

Number of genders:

Declensions: No

Conjugations: No

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No No No No No No No
Nouns No No No No No No No No
Adjectives No No No No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns No No No No No No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No


SettingEdit

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

All χ and w are supposed to be superscripted. Tie bars are left out for clarity and browser support.

Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar/Uvular Glottal
nasal m n
Plosive/Affricate p pχ t tχ tɕ tɕχ k kχ
Fricative f s ɕ ç h
Approximant ʋ ɹ l j ʁ ʁw

/ɹ/ is represented by <r>. /pχ tχ kχ/ are represented by <pr tr kr>. /ʁ/ is written <g>, /ʁw/ is <w>. /ɕtɕtɕχ/ are <x c cr>. /ç/ is written <hj>, and is pronounced instead of the sequence /hj/.


VowelsEdit

Front Mid Back
i u
e o
a

Each vowel may be long or short, and is marked with a following apostrophe. Stress always falls on the first syllable of a word, irrelevant of vowel length.


PhonotacticsEdit

Syllable structure is CVVC. The first consonant may be any consonant, the final consonant may only be one of /m n l s ʁ/.

Basic GrammarEdit

Pratra is a heavily prefixing language, with nouns, verbs, and adjectives inflected with prefixes. There are numerous rules and exceptions, which stem from it's evolutionary history. Nouns and adjectives have no gender, but are declined in 5 cases- nominative/accusative, genitive, dative, locative, instrumental, and singular and plural numbers. Verbs have 3 tenses, perfect-imperfect aspect, and indicative, interrogative, and imperative mood.

Nouns and adjective declensions:Edit

Case Sing. A Pl. A Sing. B Pl. B
Nom/Acc Pratra Opratra Di'pru (cat) Odipru
Genitive Sepratra Sopratra Ca'dipru Cadi'pru
Dative Depratra Dopratra Da'dipru Dadi'pru
Locative Lopratra Lo''pratra Lo'dipru Lodi'pru
Instrumental Cripratra Cripratra Ci'dipru Cidi'pru

Declension A is normally for words in which the first vowel is short, B for long vowels. However, there are numerous exceptions.

All relevant nouns are required to be negated when the verbs are using the negation prefix "va-".

VerbsEdit

It is good to know that most verbs follow a single conjugation pattern:

For the infintive Da't (to speak):

Ind. perfect Ind, imperfect Interrogative Imperative
Present Mida' Mada' Oda'tu O'da'ce!
Past Mi'da' Ma'da' Oda'tou *none*
Future Lemi'da' Lema'da' Lehoda'tu Lehoda'ce!

To further conjugate for person, use the person prefices:

sing. pl.
1st Lo- Inclusive: Le- Exclusive:Me-
2nd Mu- Mi-
3rd Da- Da-

Negation is achieved by using the prefix "Va-"

So, "I speak Pratra" is "Lomada' Cripratra."

"Cat's will never speak Pratra": "Vaodipru vadalema'da' vacripratra."

Pronouns are declined reguarly: "sa" = I, so:

Speak to me! = "O'da'ce desa!"

DictionaryEdit


No. English
1I
2you (singular)
3he
4we
5you (plural)
6they
7this
8that
9here
10there
11who
12what
13where
14when
15how
16not
17all
18many
19some
20few
21other
22one
23two
24three
25four
26five
27big
28long
29wide
30thick
31heavy
32small
33short
34narrow
35thin
36woman
37man (adult male)
38man (human being)
39child
40wife
41husband
42mother
43father
44animal
45fish
46bird
47dog
48louse
49snake
50worm
51tree
52forest
53stick
54fruit
55seed
56leaf
57root
58bark
59flower
60grass
61rope
62skin
63meat
64blood
65bone
66fat
67egg
68horn
69tail
70feather
71hair
72head
73ear
74eye
75nose
76mouth
77tooth
78tongue
79fingernail
80foot
81leg
82knee
83hand
84wing
85belly
86guts
87neck
88back
89breast
90heart
91liver
92drink
93eat
94bite
95suck
96spit
97vomit
98blow
99breathe
100laugh
101see
102hear
103know
104think
105smell
106fear
107sleep
108live
109die
110kill
111fight
112hunt
113hit
114cut
115split
116stab
117scratch
118dig
119swim
120fly
121walk
122come
123lie
124sit
125stand
126turn
127fall
128give
129hold
130squeeze
131rub
132wash
133wipe
134pull
135push
136throw
137tie
138sew
139count
140say
141sing
142play
143float
144flow
145freeze
146swell
147sun
148moon
149star
150water
151rain
152river
153lake
154sea
155salt
156stone
157sand
158dust
159earth
160cloud
161fog
162sky
163wind
164snow
165ice
166smoke
167fire
168ash
169burn
170road
171mountain
172red
173green
174yellow
175white
176black
177night
178day
179year
180warm
181cold
182full
183new
184old
185good
186bad
187rotten
188dirty
189straight
190round
191sharp
192dull
193smooth
194wet
195dry
196correct
197near
198far
199right
200left
201at
202in
203with
204and
205if
206because
207name


Example textEdit


No. English
1I
2you (singular)
3he
4we
5you (plural)
6they
7this
8that
9here
10there
11who
12what
13where
14when
15how
16not
17all
18many
19some
20few
21other
22one
23two
24three
25four
26five
27big
28long
29wide
30thick
31heavy
32small
33short
34narrow
35thin
36woman
37man (adult male)
38man (human being)
39child
40wife
41husband
42mother
43father
44animal
45fish
46bird
47dog
48louse
49snake
50worm
51tree
52forest
53stick
54fruit
55seed
56leaf
57root
58bark
59flower
60grass
61rope
62skin
63meat
64blood
65bone
66fat
67egg
68horn
69tail
70feather
71hair
72head
73ear
74eye
75nose
76mouth
77tooth
78tongue
79fingernail
80foot
81leg
82knee
83hand
84wing
85belly
86guts
87neck
88back
89breast
90heart
91liver
92drink
93eat
94bite
95suck
96spit
97vomit
98blow
99breathe
100laugh
101see
102hear
103know
104think
105smell
106fear
107sleep
108live
109die
110kill
111fight
112hunt
113hit
114cut
115split
116stab
117scratch
118dig
119swim
120fly
121walk
122come
123lie
124sit
125stand
126turn
127fall
128give
129hold
130squeeze
131rub
132wash
133wipe
134pull
135push
136throw
137tie
138sew
139count
140say
141sing
142play
143float
144flow
145freeze
146swell
147sun
148moon
149star
150water
151rain
152river
153lake
154sea
155salt
156stone
157sand
158dust
159earth
160cloud
161fog
162sky
163wind
164snow
165ice
166smoke
167fire
168ash
169burn
170road
171mountain
172red
173green
174yellow
175white
176black
177night
178day
179year
180warm
181cold
182full
183new
184old
185good
186bad
187rotten
188dirty
189straight
190round
191sharp
192dull
193smooth
194wet
195dry
196correct
197near
198far
199right
200left
201at
202in
203with
204and
205if
206because
207name

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