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Project KS

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Type
Alignment
Head direction
Tonal
No
Declensions
No
Conjugations
No
Genders
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ
Plosive p b t d k g
Fricative f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ x χ ʁ h
Affricate pf ts tʃ dʒ
Approximant w j
Trill r ʀ
Flap or tap
Lateral fric.
Lateral app. l
Lateral flap

VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close i y u
Near-close
Close-mid e ø o
Mid
Open-mid ɛ
Near-open
Open ä

AlphabetEdit

Letter Sound
A a /ä/
AE ae /ɛ/
E e /e/
I i /i/
O o /o/
OE oe /ø/
U u /u/
UE ue /y/
B b /b/
C c /ts/
CH ch /tʃ/
D d /d/
DH dh /ð/
F f /f/
G g /g/
H h /h/
J j /dʒ/
K k /k/
L l /l/
M m /m/
N n /n/
NG ng /ŋ/
NH nh /ɲ/
P p /p/
PF pf /pf/
R r /r/
RH rh /ʀ/ or /ʁ/ - free variation
S s /s/
SH sh /ʃ/
T t /t/
TH th /θ/
V v /v/
W w /w/
X x /x/
XH xh /χ/
Y y /j/
Z z /z/
ZH zh /ʒ/

All vowels and all consonants except plosives and the palatal nasal /ɲ/ can be long or short. The short versions are the "standard" and they are listed in the chart above. To form the long version, follow these rules:

  1. If the sound is represented by a single letter, double the letter.
  2. If a sound is represented by a digraph, double the first letter of the digraph

PhonotacticsEdit

GrammarEdit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No No No No No No No
Nouns No No No No No No No No
Adjectives No No No No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns No No No No No No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No

To understand the grammar of Project KS, you have to understand the vocabulary: Just like Arabic, the vocabulary doesn't consist of actual words but of radicals. These radicals are a certain combination of consonants (or consonant clusters) and define a whole group of words.

In Project KS, all radicals have at least two syllables and therefore at least three consonants or clusters - there are only few exceptions to this rule, e.g. letters, numbers, pronouns or conjunctions.

Most radicals can form a noun, a verb and an adjective - an English example for the group "rain" would be: rain (noun), to rain (verb) or rainy (adjective). These are the main parts of speech used in Project KS. Please note that the vowels i and e can only appear in suffixes or diphthongs.

NounsEdit

Before you can start declining nouns, you have to form them from your radicals. To do that, you insert an "a" between all consonants. Example for the radical "M-N-N" ("fire"): manan meaning fire.

Nouns are declined for ...

  1. their number - singular, plural or collective
  2. their case - nominative, dative, accusative, genetive, adessive, ablative or oblique

NumberEdit

The number of a noun is shown by the vowels in the first syllable of a noun.

Vowel Example Translation
Singular a manan fire
Plural ai mainan fires
Collective au maunan all fires

CaseEdit

The case of a noun is shown by the vowels in the last syllable of a noun.

Vowel Example Function Translation
Nominative a manan subject fire
Dative o manon indirect object to/for fire
Accusative ae manaen direct object fire
Genetive u manun possession of fire
Adessive oi manoin goal, direction towards for fire, towards fire
Ablative au manaun reason, direction away from ..., agent in passive clauses because of fire, away from fire, by fire
Oblique aa manaan time, place, manner ... at the time/place of fire, with fire ...

AdjectivesEdit

Before you can start declining adjectives, you have to form them from your radicals. To do that, you insert an "o" between all consonants. Example for the radical "M-N-N" ("fire"): monon meaning hot (full of fire).

Adjectives are declined for ...

  1. their number - singular, plural or collective
  2. their case - nominative, dative, accusative, genetive, adessive, ablative or oblique
  3. their grade of comparison - positive, positive or negative comparative or positive or negative superlative

All adjectives have to agree with their noun in number and case!


NumberEdit

The number of an adjective is shown by the vowels in the first syllable.

Vowel Example Translation
Singular o monon hot thing
Plural oi moinon hot things
Collective ou mounon all hot things

CaseEdit

The case of an adjective is shown by the vowels in the last syllable.

Vowel Example Function Translation
Nominative o monon subject hot thing
Dative u monun indirect object to/for hot thing
Accusative oe monoen direct object hot thing
Genetive a monan possession of hot thing
Adessive ue monuen goal, direction towards for hot thing, towards hot thing
Ablative oa monoan reason, direction away from ..., agent in passive clauses because of hot thing, away from hot thing, by hot thing
Oblique oo monoon time, place, manner ... at the time/place of hot thing, with hot thing

Grade of comparisonEdit

The grade of comparison is shown by a suffix.

Suffix Example Translation
Positive - monon hot thing
Positive comparative -is mononis hotter thing
Negative comparative -es monones less hot thing
Positive Superlative -it mononit hottest thing
Negative superlative -et mononet least hot thing

AdverbsEdit

To form an adverb from an adjective, you add the suffix "-e" to the nominative singular form. Example: monon meaning hot, monone meaning hotly.

VerbsEdit

Before you can start conjugating verbs, you have to form them from your radicals. To do that, you insert an "u" between all consonants. Example for the radical "M-N-N" ("fire"): munun meaning to heat or to set on fire.

Verbs are conjugated for ...

  1. their number - singular, plural or collective
  2. their person - first, second or third
  3. their tense - present, past, prepast, future or prefuture
  4. their voice - active or passive
  5. their mood - indicative, subjunctive, causative or imperative

Number & PersonEdit

The number and person of a verb is shown by the vowels in the first syllable of a verb.

Singular Example Translation Plural Example Translation Collective Example Translation
First person ui muinun I heat ue muenun We heat iu miunun All of us heat
Second person uo muonun You heat uei mueinun You heat iue miuenun All of you heat
Third person uu muunun He/She/It heats uue muuenun They heat ueoe mueoenun All of them heat

Tense & VoiceEdit

The tense and voice of a verb is shown by the vowels in the last syllable of a verb.

Active Example Translation Passive Example Translation
Prepast ai muinain I had heated ei muinein I had been heated
Past a muinan I heated ae muinaen I was heated
Present u muinun I heat ue muinuen I am heated
Prefuture oi muinoin I will have heated ui muinuin I will have been heated
Future o muinon I will heat oe muinoen I will be heated

MoodEdit

The mood of a verb is shown by a suffix.

Suffix Example Function Translation
Indicative - muinun Truth I heat
Subjunctive -is muinunis Conditions or wishes I would heat, I want to heat
Causative -es muinunes Causing sb. to do something I make sb. heat
Imperative -eis muinuneis Orders or results of conditions I have to heat, I should heat

Infinit verb formsEdit

Only very few infinit verb forms exist - these are verb forms that are not conjugated at all like infinitives or participles.


InfinitivesEdit

All verbs only have one infinitive. Example: munun meaning to heat or to set on fire.


ParticiplesEdit

Participles do not exist. Participle information has to be expressed in a relative clause.



VocabularyEdit


No. English
1I
2you (singular)
3he
4we
5you (plural)
6they
7this
8that
9here
10there
11who
12what
13where
14when
15how
16not
17all
18many
19some
20few
21other
22one
23two
24three
25four
26five
27big
28long
29wide
30thick
31heavy
32small
33short
34narrow
35thin
36woman
37man (adult male)
38man (human being)
39child
40wife
41husband
42mother
43father
44animal
45fish
46bird
47dog
48louse
49snake
50worm
51tree
52forest
53stick
54fruit
55seed
56leaf
57root
58bark
59flower
60grass
61rope
62skin
63meat
64blood
65bone
66fat
67egg
68horn
69tail
70feather
71hair
72head
73ear
74eye
75nose
76mouth
77tooth
78tongue
79fingernail
80foot
81leg
82knee
83hand
84wing
85belly
86guts
87neck
88back
89breast
90heart
91liver
92drink
93eat
94bite
95suck
96spit
97vomit
98blow
99breathe
100laugh
101see
102hear
103know
104think
105smell
106fear
107sleep
108live
109die
110kill
111fight
112hunt
113hit
114cut
115split
116stab
117scratch
118dig
119swim
120fly
121walk
122come
123lie
124sit
125stand
126turn
127fall
128give
129hold
130squeeze
131rub
132wash
133wipe
134pull
135push
136throw
137tie
138sew
139count
140say
141sing
142play
143float
144flow
145freeze
146swell
147sun
148moon
149star
150water
151rain
152river
153lake
154sea
155salt
156stone
157sand
158dust
159earth
160cloud
161fog
162sky
163wind
164snow
165ice
166smoke
167fire
168ash
169burn
170road
171mountain
172red
173green
174yellow
175white
176black
177night
178day
179year
180warm
181cold
182full
183new
184old
185good
186bad
187rotten
188dirty
189straight
190round
191sharp
192dull
193smooth
194wet
195dry
196correct
197near
198far
199right
200left
201at
202in
203with
204and
205if
206because
207name


Example textEdit

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