Head direction
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect

General InformationEdit

Proto-Andem (Andemucmeţvaa’ /andɨmutsmɨʈʋaaʔ/, literally: “from-the-northerners-speech”)



bilabial interdental alveolar retroflex velar glottal
nasal m n ɳ ŋ
stop p b t d ʈ ɖ k g ʔ
affricate ts dz kx gɣ
fricative ɸ θ ð s z ʂ x ɣ
Approximant ʋ ɻ
Trill r

m, p, b, f, v, þ, ð, n, t, d, c, dz, s, z, r, ņ, ţ, ḑ, ş, l, ŋ, k, g, kh, gj, h, j, ’


Front Central Back
High i ɨ u
Low ä

i, e, u, a



  • no word intial or final consonant clusters
  • diphthongs of any two vowels (even two same vowels) permited, but no triphthongs
  • Syllable-final consonants may not be /z/, /dz/, /kx/, or /gɣ/.
  • adjacent consonants need not be voiced the same, ex. kepgje
  • Words must begin with a consonant.
  • words have a minimum of two mora; that is, the minimal word is VC or VCV, both of which are bimoraic.


Declension classes Edit

There are three declension classes in Proto-Andem. Class I nouns end in a full vowel, that is, a, i, and u, in the nominative. Class II nouns take the ending -is in the nominative and genitive. Class III nouns end in a consonant or e, which could be epenthetic or not, in the nominative and vocative.


  • Class I þukma, ’isfuŋa, zara
  • Class II zajdis, khetfis, suŋis
  • Class III tende, beje, kepgje, lauk, decu, ’edam

Core casesEdit

sg pl sg pl sg pl
nom V Vm is mis (e) (e)m
acc Vu Vmu u mu u mu
dat Vmaŋ maŋ maŋ
gen iV iVm is mis i mi
abl Vmeţ miţ meţ
voc V Vm i mi 0 (e)m

Case usageEdit

  • Nominative: subject, dictionary form (dza’a "form, shape")
  • Accusative: object (dza’au "form, shape")
  • Dative: indirect object, destination (dza’aŋ "to a shape")
  • Genitive: possessor (dza’ia "a shape's")
  • Ablative: origin (dza’aţ "from a shape")
  • Vocative: directly addressed (dza’a "O, shape!")

Oblique casesEdit

Oblique cases are all regular, formed with oblique endings added to the vocative.

  • Instrumental (ta): instrument; laukta "using the log"
  • Adessive (na): near location; laukna "near the log"
  • Superessive (l): top location; laukel "on the log"
  • Subessive (kuf): under location; laukekuf "under the log"
  • Inessive (ḑu): internal location; laukḑu "in the log"
  • Comitative (ben): accompanying; laukben "along with the log"
  • Equative (si): resemblance; lauksi "like the log"
  • etc.



Verbs conjugate for person and number of the subject, definiteness of the object, aspect, mood/polarity, and voice. This complex conjugation is perhaps best summarized in a table.

Subject Stem Voice1 Aspect1 Mood1 Definiteness2
je- -faal- -0- -eņ- -pu- -t
1s- -run- -act- -gno- -neg- -ndef
Jefaaleņput. "I don't run."
  1. The order of the voice, aspect, and mood suffixes is not precisely known. The order presented here is the order found in the most daughter languages.
  2. It is unknown how Proto-Andem treated intransitives with regards to definiteness.

Personal prefixes Edit

sg pl
1 j(e)- ram-
2 ð(e)- şi-
3 '(e)- 'il-


active: -(e)-

passive I: -ib-

passive II: -gji-


episodic: -0-

gnomic: -(e)ņ-

Mood Edit

indicative: -0-

subjunctive: -ir-

negative: -pu-

optative: -a- and/or 2s/2p prefixes na/şa-

Definiteness Edit

definite: -0

indefinite: -t(e)

Sound changes and Descendants Edit

Insular Andem Edit

  1. V//_#/V_
  2. t/s/_#
  3. ɣ/u/_#
  4. ɣ/j/_
  5. x/h/_
  6. ɸ/w/_
  7. ɻ/ɭ/_
  8. h//_C
  9. S//_C[-j]
  10. ɨ/ɐ/_
  11. au/o/_
  12. ua/o/_
  13. ai/e/_
  14. ia/e/_
  15. V//_²
  16. b/ɖ/ɳ_
  17. p/ʈ/ɳ_
  18. jɐ/i/_
  19. ʔɐ//#_C

Desert Andem Edit

Southern Andem Edit

Eastern Andem Edit

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