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Proto-Ayja-Né

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Proto-Ayja-Né
Unknown
Type Isolating
Alignment Tripartite
Head direction Initial
Tonal No
Declensions No
Conjugations No
Genders
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Meta-information
Progress 0%
Statistics
Nouns 0%
Verbs 0%
Adjectives 0%
Syntax 0%
Words of 1500
Creator Nataja

Classification and DialectsEdit

Proto-Ayja-Né and has a V-S-O word order.

  • Proto-Ayja-Né
    • Ko-Ayja
      • Uylebisan
      • Tthit’e-Xwăłe
        • Tthit’e
        • Xwăłe
          • Northern
            • Nanjey'a
            • Njhuy'é
            • Kwxwąątsătwth
          • Central
          • Southern
      • Northern
      • Southern

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Dental Alveopalatal Palatal Velar Glottal
Stop /p b/ <p b> /t d/ <t d> /c ɟ/ <c f> /k g/ <k g> /ʔ/ < >
Affricate /t͡θ/ <ss> /t͡ɕ/ <zz>
Nasal /m/ <m> /n/ <n> /ɲ/ <ny> /ŋ/ <ng>
Fricative /θ/ <s> /ɕ/ <z> /h/ <h>
Approximate /l/ <l> /j/ <y> /ɰᵝ/ <w>

VowelsEdit

Phoneme Romanization
Free Vowels /iː/ I i
/ʌː/ Eu eu
/uː/ U u
/ɯː/ Uo uo
/oː/ O o
/ɑː/ A a
Checked Vowels /œ/ Oe oe
/e/ E e
/a/ Ae ae

Diphthongs Edit

Vowel "y" form "w" form
i wi
eu yeu weu
u yu
uo yuo wuo
o yo wo
a ya wa
oe yoe woe
e ye we
ae yae wae

PhonotacticsEdit

Syllables are CV(C)

Open Syllables have no consonant following the vowel.

  • Ex. /bɑː/, /gʲʰaʊ/, /t̪eɪ/

Closed syllables are closed with either nasalization or checking.

  • Ex. /pʊm/, /gʷʰeŋ/

Nasalization depends upon the consonant of the following syllable. When the onset of the following syllable is a nasal {m, n, ɲ, ŋ}, the nasalization merges with the next syllable (i.e. instead of "hemmeɪ"; "hemeɪ" to turn red)

  • Before {p, b, bʰ, f, v, h, ʔ} the nasalization is [m].
  • Before {t̪, d̪, d̪ʰ, ð, θ, z, s, r, h, ʔ} the nasalization is [n].
  • Before {t̪ʲ, d̪ʲʰ, ðʲ, θʲ, gʲ, kʲ, gʲʰ, h, ʔ} the nasalization is [ɲ].
  • Before {k, g, gʰ, gʷ, kʷ, gʷʰ, ɣ, x, h, ʔ} the nasalization is [ŋ].

Checking, in Proto-Ayja-Né, is when a plain plosive closes a syllable. This happens in several situations depending on the quality of the vowel.

  • Free vowels are vowels that exist in a syllable without a syllable coda. These include:
    • /iː/
    • /eɪ/
    • /uː/
    • /oʊ/
    • /aɪ/
    • /aʊ/
    • /oː/
    • /ɑː/
  • Checked vowels are vowels that do not exist in a syllable without a syllable coda. These include:
    • /e/
    • /a/
    • /ʊ/
    • /ɪ/

Writing System Edit

Letter A a Ä ä Å å B b C c D d
Sound
Letter Þ þ Ð ð E e Ë ë
Sound
Letter
Sound

GrammarEdit

Edit

Verbs Edit

Proto-Ayja-Né verbs do not conjugate, but take on suffixes for

Verb Roots Edit

Verb Stem Valency val Mood mod Tense tns Aspect1 asp1 Aspect2 asp2 Volicity vol
0 +1 +2 +3 +41 +42 +5
Valency Grapheme English Approximate
Impersonal (avalent) imprs It0 is raining
Intransitive (monovalent) intr dya He1 sleeps
Transitive (divalent) tr fo He1 ate some food2
Ditransitive (trivalent) ditr tyet He1 gave her2 a flower3
Tritransitive (quadrivalent) tritr 'yi I1 bet you2 two dollars3 it will rain4

ghï ka bet dyha kwåtmë qågwhmeq gwhentyøt ka þä

Mood Grapheme English approximate
Realis Indicative -∅ He writes
Energetic -kwåm He certainly writes
Irrealis Subjunctive -þo I wish he wrote more
Conditional -ba He would write
Imperative -të Write!
Potential -kyä He may/can write
Hypothetical -zɨp He could write
Hortative Adhortative -nguqa You might want to write
Exhortative -nguqet You really should write
Suprahortative -ngugyhä You must write
Dehortative
Inhortative
Infrahortative
Cohortative
Benedictive
Alethic
Interrogative
Aspect1 Aspect2 Morphemes Combination English Approximate
Simple Simple -∅-∅ -∅ ...-∅
Simple Progressive -∅-bʰɪd̪ -bhɨd ...-ing (actions)
Simple Continuous -∅-ðʲʊk -ɖøk ...-ing (states)
Simple Habitual -∅-gʷʰeʔ -gwheq ...-ing repetitively/habitually
Perfect Simple -ʔam-∅ -qåm to have ...-en
Perfect Progressive -ʔam-bʰɪd̪ -qåbhmɨd to have been ...-ing (actions)
Perfect Continuous -ʔam-ðʲʊk -qåðymøk to have been ...-ing (states)
Perfect Habitual -ʔam-gʷʰeʔ -qågwhmeq to have been ...-ing repetitively/habitually

Nouns Edit

Ergative Accusative Absolutive
First Person Singular hiː-∅-∅-noː

hino

hiː-∅-∅-vet̪

hivet

hiː-∅-∅-θaʊ

hiþä

Plural hiː-san-∅-noː

hisåno

hiː-sam-∅-vet̪

hisåvmet

hiː-san-∅-θaʊ

hisåþnä

Second Person Singular ðeɪ-∅-∅-noː

ðëno

ðeɪ-∅-∅-vet̪

ðëvet

ðeɪ-∅-∅-θaʊ

ðëþä

Plural ðeɪ-san-∅-noː

ðësåno

ðeɪ-sam-∅-vet̪

ðësåvmet

ðeɪ-san-∅-θaʊ

ðësåþnä

Third Person Singular Masc. t̪ʲʊt̪-∅-kɑː-noː

tyøtkano

t̪ʲʊt̪-∅-kɑː-vet̪

tyøtkavet

t̪ʲʊt̪-∅-kɑː-θaʊ

tyøtkaþä

Fem. t̪ʲʊt̪-∅-ɹen-noː

tyøtreno

t̪ʲʊt̪-∅-ɹem-vet̪

tyøtrevmet

t̪ʲʊt̪-∅-ɹen-θaʊ

tyøtreþnä

Neut. t̪ʲʊt̪-∅-∅-noː

tyøtno

t̪ʲʊt̪-∅-∅-vet̪

tyøtvet

t̪ʲʊt̪-∅-∅-θaʊ

tyøtþä

Plural t̪ʲʊt̪-san-∅-noː

tyøtsåno

t̪ʲʊt̪-sam-∅-vet̪

tyøtsåvmet

t̪ʲʊt̪-san-∅-θaʊ

tyøtsåþnä

'∅' represents the lack of a morpheme in that position of the pronoun. '∅' should not be confused with 'Ø' and 'ø', the letters representing the vowel /ʊ/.

Edit

Edit

SyntaxEdit

Proto-Ayja-Né is considered a VSO

LexiconEdit

Example textEdit

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