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Proto-Chevin

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Proto-Chevin
'
Type
Fusional
Alignment
Marked Nominative
Head direction
right
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
2
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect


General InformationEdit

Proto-Chevin is one of several descendants of Proto-Aidelið.

ClassificationEdit

Proto-Chevin diverged into the Chevin language family.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

The traditional classification and symbols are shown below.

labial alveolar palatal velar
nasal m n
stop p b t d c g
affricate ts
fricative f s h q
approximant r l y v
  • The column labeled 'alveolar' was most likely laminal dentialveolar.
  • /f/ could have been either bilabial [ɸ] or labiodental [f].
  • /r/ could have been nearly any rhotic consonant, but it is currently constructed as an alveolar approximant, in line with other early Aidelið languages.
  • /q/ was most likely farther back in the mouth than velar, possibly pharyngeal/epiglottal. It could have been a stop, fricative, approximant, or even a trill. There is simply no way to know given its diverse reflexes in descendant languages.
  • /v/ was almost certainly a labiovelar approximant.

VowelsEdit

front back
close i ī u ū
mid e ē o ō
open a ā
  • The vowel length distinction may have been accompanied by a tense/lax distinction.
  • The only reconstructed diphthongs are /ei/, /oi/, /ai/, and /eu/, /ou/, /au/. Combinations of /u/ and /i/ with /y/ and /w/ in the morphology cause the vowels to lower.

Therefore, korēmu* "guideline, rule" may have been pronounced [kɔˈɹeˑmʊ].

PhonotacticsEdit

StressEdit

Stress was fairly regular, typically appearing on the final syllable of the root. Long vowels took much more stress than short vowels, even when they weren't the last root vowel.

fetútya* "tree" vs. bā́rumu* "mountain"

NounsEdit

GenderEdit

Proto-Chevin had two main gender classes: animate and inanimate. The second and third declension classes contain two subsets of the inanimate gender: lustrous and dull, but this is not shown in agreement with adjectives.

Examples

  • Animate: luqa* "spinnerfly"
  • Lustrous inanimate: dōhi* "gold"
  • Dull inanimate: qvertu* "house, home"

CasesEdit

There are six cases. Proto-Chevin retained all but the locative and ablative of Proto-Aidelið.

Absolutive: The dictionary form of a word. Used for the object of a transitive verb, and the indirect object of a ditransitive verb. It’s descended from the Proto-Aidelið absolutive case.

Nominative: Used for the subject of verbs and as the object of a select few prepositions. It’s descended from the Proto-Aidelið ergative and locative cases.

Instrumental: Used for instruments used to do an action and the direct object of a ditransitive verb. It’s descended from the Proto-Aidelið instrumental case.

Allative: Used to indicate movement towards something. It’s descended from the Proto-Aidelið allative case.

Genitive: Used to indicate movement away from something. Also used in compounds, compositions, and possession. It’s descended from the Proto-Aidelið genitive and ablative cases.

Vocative: Used to directly address a noun. It’s descended from the Proto-Aidelið vocative case.

First declensionEdit

The first declension has the absolutive ending -a. It is overwhelmingly full of animate nouns: people and animals. It contains all diminutives, some body parts, and generally helpful or beautiful plants.

ex. qrenta 'person'

sg pl
abs qrenta qrentai
nom qrentat qrentait
instr qrentan qrentain
all qrentam qrentaim
gen qrentai qrentau
voc qrentai qrentā

Second declensionEdit

The second declension has the absolutive ending -i. It contains mostly inanimate lustrous nouns and abstractions, but the occasional body part or animate noun.

ex. kāsi 'light, brightness'

sg pl
abs kāsi kāsei
nom kāsit kāseit
instr kāsin kāsein
all kāsem kāseim
gen kāsī kāseu
voc kāsit kāsī

Third declensionEdit

The third declension has the absolutive ending -u. Unlike the other classes which have a marked Nominative alignment, this declension has a Nominative-Accusative alignment. It contains mostly inanimate dull nouns, but the occasional body part or abstraction. It also contains all augmentatives.

ex. usinu 'bowl, cup, pot'

sg pl
abs usinu usinoi
nom usin usino
instr usinun usinoin
all usinum usinoim
gen usinoi usinau
voc usinoi usinō

Full tableEdit

1st 2nd 3rd
abs a/ai i/ei u/oi
nom at/ait it/eit 0/o
instr an/ain in/ein un/oin
all am/aim em/eim um/oim
gen ai/au ī/ew oi/au
voc ai/ā it/ī oi/ū,ō

PronounsEdit

PersonalEdit

DemonstrativeEdit

  • ɣedei
  • solei
  • twelei

AdjectivesEdit

VerbsEdit

Verbs are exceedingly regular, as there are only a dozen or so irregular verbs. There are four conjugation classes (themes) based on four thematic vowels: a, e, u, and o.

Present tenseEdit

The present tense is formed like this: stem-theme-endings. The only break from this is the u theme 1p is -oim, not -uim, due to Proto-Chevin's avoidance of vowel hiatus.

sg pl
1 -gi -im
2 -k -rut
3 -s -qis

ExampleEdit

sg pl
1 puvagi puvaim
2 puvak puvarut
3 puvas puvaqis

ex. *puvagi sewo "I do."

Sound ChangesEdit

VocabularyEdit

NumbersEdit

ColorsEdit

  • kindi-red, purple
  • plāfi-yellow, white
  • ɣwoyki-gray
  • arīti-black, blue
  • pwarsi-green, cyan

GodsEdit

SwadeshEdit


No. English Proto-Serazi
1IContionary_Wiki
2you (singular)Contionary_Wiki
3heContionary_Wiki
4weContionary_Wiki
5you (plural)Contionary_Wiki
6theyContionary_Wiki
7thisContionary_Wiki
8thatContionary_Wiki
9hereContionary_Wiki
10thereContionary_Wiki
11whobekīna
12whatbekīni, bekīnu
13whereContionary_Wiki
14whenContionary_Wiki
15howbideiha
16notContionary_Wiki
17allīpsei
18manyContionary_Wiki
19sometlonei
20fewpvifei
21otherContionary_Wiki
22oneContionary_Wiki
23twoContionary_Wiki
24threeContionary_Wiki
25fourContionary_Wiki
26fiveContionary_Wiki
27bignetōɣi
28longContionary_Wiki
29wideContionary_Wiki
30thickContionary_Wiki
31heavyContionary_Wiki
32smallContionary_Wiki
33shortContionary_Wiki
34narrowContionary_Wiki
35thinContionary_Wiki
36womanɣrenta
37man (adult male)ɣrenta
38man (human being)Contionary_Wiki
39childContionary_Wiki
40wifeContionary_Wiki
41husbandContionary_Wiki
42motherbābora
43fathernūnora
44animalContionary_Wiki
45fishContionary_Wiki
46birdContionary_Wiki
47dogContionary_Wiki
48louseContionary_Wiki
49snakeContionary_Wiki
50wormContionary_Wiki
51treefetutya
52forestContionary_Wiki
53stickContionary_Wiki
54fruitkūltya
55seedContionary_Wiki
56leafyētu
57rootContionary_Wiki
58barkContionary_Wiki
59flowerirdya
60grasslandu
61ropeContionary_Wiki
62skinContionary_Wiki
63meatContionary_Wiki
64bloodContionary_Wiki
65boneContionary_Wiki
66fatContionary_Wiki
67eggContionary_Wiki
68hornContionary_Wiki
69tailContionary_Wiki
70featherContionary_Wiki
71hairContionary_Wiki
72headContionary_Wiki
73earContionary_Wiki
74eyerituri
75noseotvarku
76mouthContionary_Wiki
77toothContionary_Wiki
78tongueokta
79fingernailContionary_Wiki
80footContionary_Wiki
81legContionary_Wiki
82kneeContionary_Wiki
83handContionary_Wiki
84wingContionary_Wiki
85bellyContionary_Wiki
86gutsContionary_Wiki
87neckContionary_Wiki
88backContionary_Wiki
89breastmanya
90heartContionary_Wiki
91liverContionary_Wiki
92drinkpaype
93eatpaype
94biteContionary_Wiki
95suckhuku
96spitContionary_Wiki
97vomitContionary_Wiki
98blowContionary_Wiki
99breathefvidva
100laughContionary_Wiki
101seeContionary_Wiki
102hearContionary_Wiki
103knowkmoisa
104thinkContionary_Wiki
105smellContionary_Wiki
106fearfārte
107sleepdūmu
108liveɣimota
109dieContionary_Wiki
110killContionary_Wiki
111fightContionary_Wiki
112hunttsēre
113hitContionary_Wiki
114cutksāla
115splitContionary_Wiki
116stabContionary_Wiki
117scratchContionary_Wiki
118digContionary_Wiki
119swimContionary_Wiki
120flyContionary_Wiki
121walkContionary_Wiki
122comeugne
123liepuro
124sitContionary_Wiki
125standratne
126turnContionary_Wiki
127fallContionary_Wiki
128giveContionary_Wiki
129holdkara
130squeezeContionary_Wiki
131rubContionary_Wiki
132washContionary_Wiki
133wipeContionary_Wiki
134pullContionary_Wiki
135pushContionary_Wiki
136throwContionary_Wiki
137tieContionary_Wiki
138sewnoima
139countContionary_Wiki
140sayContionary_Wiki
141singContionary_Wiki
142playnoiqe
143floatContionary_Wiki
144flowContionary_Wiki
145freezeContionary_Wiki
146swellContionary_Wiki
147sunContionary_Wiki
148moonContionary_Wiki
149starContionary_Wiki
150watermādi
151rainContionary_Wiki
152riverdorgi
153lakeContionary_Wiki
154seaContionary_Wiki
155saltContionary_Wiki
156stonesaigu
157sandContionary_Wiki
158dustContionary_Wiki
159earthBārtona
160cloudvoɣayu
161fogContionary_Wiki
162skyContionary_Wiki
163windsahu
164snowContionary_Wiki
165iceContionary_Wiki
166smokeContionary_Wiki
167firekuru
168ashContionary_Wiki
169burnContionary_Wiki
170roadContionary_Wiki
171mountainbārumu
172redkindi
173greenpvarsi
174yellowplāfi
175whiteplāfi
176blackarīti
177nightContionary_Wiki
178dayaksu
179yearContionary_Wiki
180warmContionary_Wiki
181coldContionary_Wiki
182fullContionary_Wiki
183newkadi
184oldContionary_Wiki
185goodContionary_Wiki
186badContionary_Wiki
187rottenContionary_Wiki
188dirtyContionary_Wiki
189straightContionary_Wiki
190roundContionary_Wiki
191sharpContionary_Wiki
192dullContionary_Wiki
193smoothContionary_Wiki
194wetContionary_Wiki
195dryContionary_Wiki
196correcttobrolu
197nearfeɣend
198farContionary_Wiki
199rightContionary_Wiki
200leftContionary_Wiki
201atfeɣend
202inih
203withsēd
204andūde
205ifContionary_Wiki
206becausegai
207nametugnu

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