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Proto-Chevin

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Proto-Chevin
'
Type
Fusional
Alignment
Marked Nominative
Head direction
right
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
2
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect


General InformationEdit

Proto-Chevin is one of several descendants of Proto-Aidelið.

ClassificationEdit

Proto-Chevin diverged into the Chevin language family.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

The traditional classification and symbols are shown below.

labial alveolar palatal velar
nasal m n
stop p b t d c g
affricate ts
fricative f s h q
approximant r l y v
  • The column labeled 'alveolar' was most likely laminal dentialveolar.
  • /f/ could have been either bilabial [ɸ] or labiodental [f].
  • /r/ could have been nearly any rhotic consonant, but it is currently constructed as an alveolar approximant, in line with other early Aidelið languages.
  • /q/ was most likely farther back in the mouth than velar, possibly pharyngeal/epiglottal. It could have been a stop, fricative, approximant, or even a trill. There is simply no way to know given its diverse reflexes in descendant languages.
  • /v/ was almost certainly a labiovelar approximant.

VowelsEdit

front back
close i ī u ū
mid e ē o ō
open a ā
  • The vowel length distinction may have been accompanied by a tense/lax distinction.
  • The only reconstructed diphthongs are /ei/, /oi/, /ai/, and /eu/, /ou/, /au/. Combinations of /u/ and /i/ with /y/ and /w/ in the morphology cause the vowels to lower.

Therefore, korēmu* "guideline, rule" may have been pronounced [kɔˈɹeˑmʊ].

PhonotacticsEdit

StressEdit

Stress was fairly regular, typically appearing on the final syllable of the root. Long vowels took much more stress than short vowels, even when they weren't the last root vowel.

fetútya* "tree" vs. bā́rumu* "mountain"

NounsEdit

GenderEdit

Proto-Chevin had two main gender classes: animate and inanimate. The second and third declension classes contain two subsets of the inanimate gender: lustrous and dull, but this is not shown in agreement with adjectives.

Examples

  • Animate: luqa* "spinnerfly"
  • Lustrous inanimate: dōhi* "gold"
  • Dull inanimate: qvertu* "house, home"

CasesEdit

There are six cases. Proto-Chevin retained all but the locative and ablative of Proto-Aidelið.

Absolutive: The dictionary form of a word. Used for the object of a transitive verb, and the indirect object of a ditransitive verb. It’s descended from the Proto-Aidelið absolutive case.

Nominative: Used for the subject of verbs and as the object of a select few prepositions. It’s descended from the Proto-Aidelið ergative and locative cases.

Instrumental: Used for instruments used to do an action and the direct object of a ditransitive verb. It’s descended from the Proto-Aidelið instrumental case.

Allative: Used to indicate movement towards something. It’s descended from the Proto-Aidelið allative case.

Genitive: Used to indicate movement away from something. Also used in compounds, compositions, and possession. It’s descended from the Proto-Aidelið genitive and ablative cases.

Vocative: Used to directly address a noun. It’s descended from the Proto-Aidelið vocative case.

First declensionEdit

The first declension has the absolutive ending -a. It is overwhelmingly full of animate nouns: people and animals. It contains all diminutives, some body parts, and generally helpful or beautiful plants.

ex. qrenta 'person'

sg pl
abs qrenta qrentai
nom qrentat qrentait
instr qrentan qrentain
all qrentam qrentaim
gen qrentai qrentau
voc qrentai qrentā

Second declensionEdit

The second declension has the absolutive ending -i. It contains mostly inanimate lustrous nouns and abstractions, but the occasional body part or animate noun.

ex. kāsi 'light, brightness'

sg pl
abs kāsi kāsei
nom kāsit kāseit
instr kāsin kāsein
all kāsem kāseim
gen kāsī kāseu
voc kāsit kāsī

Third declensionEdit

The third declension has the absolutive ending -u. Unlike the other classes which have a marked Nominative alignment, this declension has a Nominative-Accusative alignment. It contains mostly inanimate dull nouns, but the occasional body part or abstraction. It also contains all augmentatives.

ex. usinu 'bowl, cup, pot'

sg pl
abs usinu usinoi
nom usin usino
instr usinun usinoin
all usinum usinoim
gen usinoi usinau
voc usinoi usinō

Full tableEdit

1st 2nd 3rd
abs a/ai i/ei u/oi
nom at/ait it/eit 0/o
instr an/ain in/ein un/oin
all am/aim em/eim um/oim
gen ai/au ī/ew oi/au
voc ai/ā it/ī oi/ū,ō

PronounsEdit

PersonalEdit

DemonstrativeEdit

  • ɣedei
  • solei
  • twelei

AdjectivesEdit

VerbsEdit

Verbs are exceedingly regular, as there are only a dozen or so irregular verbs. There are four conjugation classes (themes) based on four thematic vowels: a, e, u, and o.

Present tenseEdit

The present tense is formed like this: stem-theme-endings. The only break from this is the u theme 1p is -oim, not -uim, due to Proto-Chevin's avoidance of vowel hiatus.

sg pl
1 -gi -im
2 -k -rut
3 -s -qis

ExampleEdit

sg pl
1 puvagi puvaim
2 puvak puvarut
3 puvas puvaqis

ex. *puvagi sewo "I do."

Sound ChangesEdit

VocabularyEdit

NumbersEdit

ColorsEdit

  • kindi-red, purple
  • plāfi-yellow, white
  • ɣwoyki-gray
  • arīti-black, blue
  • pwarsi-green, cyan

GodsEdit

SwadeshEdit


No. English Proto-Serazi
1I
2you (singular)
3he
4we
5you (plural)
6they
7this
8that
9here
10there
11whobekīna
12whatbekīni, bekīnu
13where
14when
15howbideiha
16not
17allīpsei
18many
19sometlonei
20fewpvifei
21other
22one
23two
24three
25four
26five
27bignetōɣi
28long
29wide
30thick
31heavy
32small
33short
34narrow
35thin
36womanɣrenta
37man (adult male)ɣrenta
38man (human being)
39child
40wife
41husband
42motherbābora
43fathernūnora
44animal
45fish
46bird
47dog
48louse
49snake
50worm
51treefetutya
52forest
53stick
54fruitkūltya
55seed
56leafyētu
57root
58bark
59flowerirdya
60grasslandu
61rope
62skin
63meat
64blood
65bone
66fat
67egg
68horn
69tail
70feather
71hair
72head
73ear
74eyerituri
75noseotvarku
76mouth
77tooth
78tongueokta
79fingernail
80foot
81leg
82knee
83hand
84wing
85belly
86guts
87neck
88back
89breastmanya
90heart
91liver
92drinkpaype
93eatpaype
94bite
95suckhuku
96spit
97vomit
98blow
99breathefvidva
100laugh
101see
102hear
103knowkmoisa
104think
105smell
106fearfārte
107sleepdūmu
108liveɣimota
109die
110kill
111fight
112hunttsēre
113hit
114cutksāla
115split
116stab
117scratch
118dig
119swim
120fly
121walk
122comeugne
123liepuro
124sit
125standratne
126turn
127fall
128give
129holdkara
130squeeze
131rub
132wash
133wipe
134pull
135push
136throw
137tie
138sewnoima
139count
140say
141sing
142playnoiqe
143float
144flow
145freeze
146swell
147sun
148moon
149star
150watermādi
151rain
152riverdorgi
153lake
154sea
155salt
156stonesaigu
157sand
158dust
159earthBārtona
160cloudvoɣayu
161fog
162sky
163windsahu
164snow
165ice
166smoke
167firekuru
168ash
169burn
170road
171mountainbārumu
172redkindi
173greenpvarsi
174yellowplāfi
175whiteplāfi
176blackarīti
177night
178dayaksu
179year
180warm
181cold
182full
183newkadi
184old
185good
186bad
187rotten
188dirty
189straight
190round
191sharp
192dull
193smooth
194wet
195dry
196correcttobrolu
197nearfeɣend
198far
199right
200left
201atfeɣend
202inih
203withsēd
204andūde
205if
206becausegai
207nametugnu

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