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|Nouns decline according to...|
|Verbs conjugate according to...|
Proto-Chevin is one of several descendants of Proto-Aidelið.
Proto-Chevin diverged into the Chevin language family.
The traditional classification and symbols are shown below.
|stop||p b||t d||c g|
- The column labeled 'alveolar' was most likely laminal dentialveolar.
- /f/ could have been either bilabial [ɸ] or labiodental [f].
- /r/ could have been nearly any rhotic consonant, but it is currently constructed as an alveolar approximant, in line with other early Aidelið languages.
- /q/ was most likely farther back in the mouth than velar, possibly pharyngeal/epiglottal. It could have been a stop, fricative, approximant, or even a trill. There is simply no way to know given its diverse reflexes in descendant languages.
- /v/ was almost certainly a labiovelar approximant.
|close||i ī||u ū|
|mid||e ē||o ō|
- The vowel length distinction may have been accompanied by a tense/lax distinction.
- The only reconstructed diphthongs are /ei/, /oi/, /ai/, and /eu/, /ou/, /au/. Combinations of /u/ and /i/ with /y/ and /w/ in the morphology cause the vowels to lower.
Therefore, korēmu* "guideline, rule" may have been pronounced [kɔˈɹeˑmʊ].
Stress was fairly regular, typically appearing on the final syllable of the root. Long vowels took much more stress than short vowels, even when they weren't the last root vowel.
fetútya* "tree" vs. bā́rumu* "mountain"
Proto-Chevin had two main gender classes: animate and inanimate. The second and third declension classes contain two subsets of the inanimate gender: lustrous and dull, but this is not shown in agreement with adjectives.
- Animate: luqa* "spinnerfly"
- Lustrous inanimate: dōhi* "gold"
- Dull inanimate: qvertu* "house, home"
There are six cases. Proto-Chevin retained all but the locative and ablative of Proto-Aidelið.
Absolutive: The dictionary form of a word. Used for the object of a transitive verb, and the indirect object of a ditransitive verb. It’s descended from the Proto-Aidelið absolutive case.
Nominative: Used for the subject of verbs and as the object of a select few prepositions. It’s descended from the Proto-Aidelið ergative and locative cases.
Instrumental: Used for instruments used to do an action and the direct object of a ditransitive verb. It’s descended from the Proto-Aidelið instrumental case.
Allative: Used to indicate movement towards something. It’s descended from the Proto-Aidelið allative case.
Genitive: Used to indicate movement away from something. Also used in compounds, compositions, and possession. It’s descended from the Proto-Aidelið genitive and ablative cases.
Vocative: Used to directly address a noun. It’s descended from the Proto-Aidelið vocative case.
The first declension has the absolutive ending -a. It is overwhelmingly full of animate nouns: people and animals. It contains all diminutives, some body parts, and generally helpful or beautiful plants.
ex. qrenta 'person'
The second declension has the absolutive ending -i. It contains mostly inanimate lustrous nouns and abstractions, but the occasional body part or animate noun.
ex. kāsi 'light, brightness'
The third declension has the absolutive ending -u. Unlike the other classes which have a marked Nominative alignment, this declension has a Nominative-Accusative alignment. It contains mostly inanimate dull nouns, but the occasional body part or abstraction. It also contains all augmentatives.
ex. usinu 'bowl, cup, pot'
Verbs are exceedingly regular, as there are only a dozen or so irregular verbs. There are four conjugation classes (themes) based on four thematic vowels: a, e, u, and o.
The present tense is formed like this: stem-theme-endings. The only break from this is the u theme 1p is -oim, not -uim, due to Proto-Chevin's avoidance of vowel hiatus.
ex. *puvagi sewo "I do."
- kindi-red, purple
- plāfi-yellow, white
- arīti-black, blue
- pwarsi-green, cyan