Head direction
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect

General InformationEdit

Proto-Edalith is the protolanguage of one of the largest language macrofamilies of the planet Patrona. Among its descendant languages are over half of the top ten most spoken languages by number of native and total speakers.


Proto-Edalith diverged into the Edalith language family. Descendants include:

  • Shaibeist family
    • Shaibestyur



The traditional classification and symbols are shown below.

bilabial alveolar palatal velar glottal
nasal m n
stop p b t d c ɟ k g ʔ
fricative s h
approximant l
rhotic r1 r2


front back
close i u
mid e o
open a
  • Diphthongs consist of any two consecutive vowels, even two of the same vowel.
  • Triphthongs consist of any three consecutive vowels, except that the first two may not be the same.




It is unknown how stress worked in Proto-Edalith, as nearly every daughter language treats it differently.

Family stress pattern
Chevin last long vowel or root syllable
Shaibest first root syllable
Ngalryn last non-/y/ vowel

Pronouns Edit

Pronoun comparison Edit

Chevin Shaibest Ngalryn
1s sevo koi te
2s tav tai thar

Reconstruction Edit

Nominative roots Edit

sg pl
1 ceo
2 t(h)ar2


Nouns in Proto-Edalith are formed with optional prefixes, a root, a derivational suffix, and a grammatical ending. Nouns declined for gender, case, and number.


Eight cases can be reconstructed, more than any daughter language has. Each case has a suffix associated with it. Some case suffixes also change for genders and/or number. If this suffix indicates number, the daughter languages disagree as to whether a plural suffix is needed in those cases. The nominative suffixes are subject to a confusing number of alternative forms, interpreted differently in the daughter language families.

sg pl sg pl
NOM r1/r2/ta/? t 0/r2/ti/? t
ACC s s
GEN ai ou i au
INSTR me me
ALL ns ns
ABL io eu i au
LOC hul hul
VOC ʔ t ? t


The two genders were the avocalic animate gender, and the vocalic neuter gender, which ended in any number of gendered suffixes.

Example animate suffixes: nt, mag

Example inanimate suffixes: iu, du, ʔmu, ʔr2i


Pluralization is shown by pre-case suffixes -ai for animates and -i for inanimates. These were absent from the genitive and ablative cases.


*r1eeh-nt-ta "person, being" (an.)

sg pl
NOM r1eeh-nt-ta r1eeh-nt-ai-t
ACC r1eeh-nt-s r1eeh-nt-ai-s
GEN r1eeh-nt-ai r1eeh-nt-ou
INSTR r1eeh-nt-me r1eeh-nt-ai-me
ALL r1eeh-nt-ns r1eeh-nt-ai-ns
ABL r1eeh-nt-io r1eeh-nt-eu
LOC r1eeh-nt-hul r1eeh-nt-ai-hul
VOC r1eeh-nt-ʔ r1eeh-nt-ai-t

*kor1e-ʔmu-r2 "straight stick, walking stick" (inan.)

sg pl
NOM kor1e-ʔmu-r2 kor1e-ʔmu-i-t
ACC kor1e-ʔmu-s kor1e-ʔmu-i-s
GEN kor1e-ʔmu-i kor1e-ʔmu-au
INSTR kor1e-ʔmu-me kor1e-ʔmu-i-me
ALL kor1e-ʔmu-ns kor1e-ʔmu-i-ns
ABL kor1e-ʔmu-i kor1e-ʔmu-au
LOC kor1e-ʔmu-hul kor1e-ʔmu-i-hul
VOC kor1e-ʔmu-ʔ kor1e-ʔmu-i-t

*tephu-ʔr2i-0 "tail" (inan.)

sg pl
NOM tephu-ʔr2i-0 tephu-ʔr2i-i-t
ACC tephu-ʔr2i-s tephu-ʔr2i-i-s
GEN tephu-ʔr2i-i tephu-ʔr2i-au
INSTR tephu-ʔr2i-me tephu-ʔr2i-i-me
ALL tephu-ʔr2i-ns tephu-ʔr2i-i-ns
ABL tephu-ʔr2i-i tephu-ʔr2i-au
LOC tephu-ʔr2i-hul tephu-ʔr2i-i-hul
VOC tephu-ʔr2i-ʔ tephu-ʔr2i-i-t


Verbs were definitely marked for person (1st, 2nd, and 3rd), number (sg and pl), and tense (nonpast and past). Verbs are exceedingly regular, as there are only a dozen or so irregular verbs.

Present tenseEdit

The present tense is formed with the present tense endings added to the verb stem. Two sets of present plural suffixes are reconstructed, with different language families inheriting different ones, for example the Chevin family inherited the first set and the Siaibeist and Ngalryn families inherited the second set.

sg pl
1 -gi -im/dim
2 -k -rut/der2
3 -s -his/duih

Syntax Edit

Sentence-level word order Edit

Proto-Edalith was probably a VSO language, like many of its ancient descendants.

Sound ChangesEdit

Proto-Edalith to Proto-Ngalryn Edit

  1. h > ʰ / [p, t, c, k]_
  2. h > 0 / C_, _C
  3. r1, r2 > r
  4. Cʔ > ʔC
  5. ʔ > : / V_, _V
  6.  :V > V:
  7. o > u / V_, _V
  8. e > i unless _V
  9. cʰ > ʃ
  10. c > ʃ / i_
  11. c > t
  12. V > 0 / e_
  13. [i, u] > y / C_#
  14. ui, iu > y
  15. a[i, y] > e
  16. au > o
  17. N > ŋ / _[k, g]
  18. g > ŋ
  19. ɟ > j
  20. i > j / V_, _V
  21. u > w / V_, _V

Proto-Edalith to Proto-Shaibest Edit

  1. V: > V
  2. ui, iu > ju
  3. eu > oi
  4. ou > u
  5. p > 0 / _h
  6. p > b
  7. t > d except _h
  8. k > ʔ except _h
  9. ch > s
  10. c > ʔ / _#
  11. c > k
  12. h > 0
  13. i > j / V_, _V
  14. u > w / V_, _V
  15. r2 > j
  16. r1 > r
  17. u > o / _#
  18. i > e / _#
  19. g > k / [-vcd]_
  20. n > 0 / _s

Examples Edit

  • Proto-Edalith, Proto-Chevin, Proto-Shaibest, Proto-Ngalryn
  • kor1e-ʔmu-r2, korēmu, ʔoreʔmoi, korìmür
  • tephu-ʔr2i-0, tefūvi, deuʔye, tʰipʰùrü
  • cher2ʔa-t, tsēvat, seyʔad, ʃìrat
  • cer1ʔa-t, sērat, kerʔad, ʃìrat
  • cer1ʔa-nt-r2, sērantav, kerʔandi, ʃìrantʰrü
  • cer1ʔa-du-0, sēradu, kerʔazo, ʃìratü
  • puitua-t, pvitvat, byuduʔad, pʰütʰut
  • puiuta-t, pvevtat, buyudad, pʰüütʰat
  • baar1-ton-r1, bārtona, bardonar, baartonrü

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