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Proto-Edalith
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Type
Fusional
Alignment
Accusative
Head direction
right
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect


General InformationEdit

Proto-Edalith is the protolanguage of one of the largest language macrofamilies of the planet Patrona. Among its descendant languages are over half of the top ten most spoken languages by number of native and total speakers.

ClassificationEdit

Proto-Edalith diverged into the Edalith language family. Descendants include: Proto-Chevin, Proto-Ngalran, and Proto-Shaibeist.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

The traditional classification and symbols are shown below.

bilabial alveolar palatal velar glottal
nasal m n
stop p b t d c ɟ k g ʔ
fricative s h
approximant l
rhotic r1 r2

VowelsEdit

front back
close i u
mid e o
open a
  • Diphthongs consist of any two consecutive vowels, even two of the same vowel.
  • Triphthongs consist of any three consecutive vowels, except that the first two may not be the same.

Therefore, kor1eʔmur2* "straight stick" may have been pronounced [koreʔmur].

PhonotacticsEdit

CV(V)(V)(C)

StressEdit

It is unknown how stress worked in Proto-Edalith, as nearly every daughter language treats it differently.

Family stress pattern
Chevin last long vowel or root syllable
Shaibeist first root syllable
Ngalryn last non-/y/ vowel

NounsEdit

Nouns in Proto-Edalith are formed with optional prefixes, a root, a derivational suffix, and a grammatical ending. Nouns declined for gender, case, and number.

CaseEdit

Eight cases can be reconstructed, more than any daughter language has. Each case has a suffix associated with it. Some case suffixes also change for genders and/or number. If this suffix indicates number, the daughter languages disagree as to whether a plural suffix is needed in those cases. The nominative suffixes are subject to a confusing number of alternative forms, interpreted differently in the daughter language families.

AN INAN
sg pl sg pl
NOM r1/r2/ta/? t 0/r2/ti/? t
ACC s s
GEN ai ou i au
INSTR me me
ALL ns ns
ABL io eu i au
LOC hul hul
VOC ʔ t ? t

GenderEdit

The two genders were the avocalic animate gender, and the vocalic neuter gender, which ended in any number of gendered suffixes.

Example animate suffixes: nt, mag

Example inanimate suffixes: iu, du, ʔmu, ʔr2i

NumberEdit

ExamplesEdit

*r1eeh-nt-ta "person, being" (an.)

sg pl
NOM r1eeh-nt-ta r1eeh-nt-ai-t
ACC r1eeh-nt-s r1eeh-nt-ai-s
GEN r1eeh-nt-ai r1eeh-nt-ou
INSTR r1eeh-nt-me r1eeh-nt-ai-me
ALL r1eeh-nt-ns r1eeh-nt-ai-ns
ABL r1eeh-nt-io r1eeh-nt-eu
LOC r1eeh-nt-hul r1eeh-nt-ai-hul
VOC r1eeh-nt-ʔ r1eeh-nt-ai-t

*kor1e-ʔmu-r2 "straight stick, walking stick" (inan.)

sg pl
NOM kor1e-ʔmu-r2 kor1e-ʔmu-i-t
ACC kor1e-ʔmu-s kor1e-ʔmu-i-s
GEN kor1e-ʔmu-i kor1e-ʔmu-au
INSTR kor1e-ʔmu-me kor1e-ʔmu-i-me
ALL kor1e-ʔmu-ns kor1e-ʔmu-i-ns
ABL kor1e-ʔmu-i kor1e-ʔmu-au
LOC kor1e-ʔmu-hul kor1e-ʔmu-i-hul
VOC kor1e-ʔmu-ʔ kor1e-ʔmu-i-t

*tephu-ʔr2i-0 "" (inan.)

VerbsEdit

Verbs were definitely marked for person (1st, 2nd, and 3rd), number (sg and pl), and tense (nonpast and past). Verbs are exceedingly regular, as there are only a dozen or so irregular verbs.

Present tenseEdit

The present tense is formed with the present tense endings added to the verb stem. Two sets of present plural suffixes are reconstructed, with different language families inheriting different ones, for example the Chevin family inherited the first set and the Siaibeist and Ngalryn families inherited the second set.

sg pl
1 -gi -im/dim
2 -k -rut/der2
3 -s -his/duih

Sound ChangesEdit

Proto-Edalith to Proto-Ngalryn Edit

  1. h > ʰ / [p, t, c, k]_
  2. h > 0 / C_, _C
  3. r1, r2 > r
  4. Cʔ > ʔC
  5. ʔ > : / V_, _V
  6.  :V > V:
  7.  :V > V:
  8. o > u / V_, _V
  9. e > i unless _[i, u]
  10. cʰ > ʃ
  11. c > ʃ / i_
  12. c > t
  13. [i, u] > 0 / e_
  14. [i, u] > y / C_#
  15. ui, iu > y
  16. a[i, y] > e
  17. au > o
  18. N > ŋ / _[k, g]
  19. g > ŋ
  20. ɟ > j
  21. i > j / V_, _V
  22. u > w / V_, _V
  23. 0 > h / #_V

Proto-Edalith to Proto-Shaibest Edit

  1. V: > V
  2. ui, iu > ju
  3. eu > oi
  4. ou > u
  5. p > 0 / _h
  6. p > b
  7. t > d except _h
  8. k > ʔ except _h
  9. ch > s
  10. c > ʔ / _#
  11. c > k
  12. h > 0
  13. i > j / V_, _V
  14. u > w / V_, _V
  15. r2 > j
  16. r1 > r
  17. u > o / _#
  18. i > e / _#
  19. g > k / [-vcd]_
  20. n > 0 / _s

Examples Edit

  • Proto-Edalith, Proto-Chevin, Proto-Shaibest, Proto-Ngalryn
  • kor1e-ʔmu-r2, korēmu, ʔoreʔmoi, korìmür
  • tephu-ʔr2i-0, tefūvi, deuʔye, tʰipʰùrü
  • cher2ʔa-t, tsēvat, seyʔad, ʃìrat
  • cer1ʔa-t, sērat, kerʔad, ʃìrat
  • cer1ʔa-nt-r2, sērantav, kerʔandi, ʃìrantʰrü
  • cer1ʔa-du-0, sēradu, kerʔazo, ʃìratü
  • puitua-t, pvitvat, byuduʔad, pʰütʰut
  • puiuta-t, pvevtat, buyudad, pʰüütʰat
  • baar-ton-r1, bārtona, bardonar,

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