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Proto-Galiscan/Sound Change

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Consonants Edit

*Proto-Indo-European consonants
Labial Coronal Dorsal Laryngeals
palatal plain labial
Nasal *m *n - - - -
Plosive voiceless *p *t *ḱ *k *kʷ -
voiced *b *d *g *gʷ -
aspirated *bʰ *dʰ *ǵʰ *gʰ *gʷʰ -
Fricative - *s - - - h1, h2, h3
Liquid - *r, *l - - - -
Semivowel - - *i̯ - *u̯ -
Proto-Galiscan consonants
Labial Alveolar/
Palatal
Velar
palatal plain labial
Nasal *m *n - - -
Plosive voiceless *p *t *ḱ *k *kʷ
voiced *b *d *g *gʷ
Sibilant - *s - - -
Liquid - *r, *l - - -
Semivowel - - *i̯ - *u̯
PIE PG PIE PG PIE PG PIE PG PIE PG
*p *p *t *t *ḱ *ḱ *k *k *kʷ *kʷ, *ku3
*bʰ *dʰ *ǵʰ

*gʰ

*gʷʰ
*b *b *d *d *g *g *gʷ *gʷ, *gu3
*m *m

*n

*n *s *s; *r1 *l *l *r *r; *l2
*i̯ *i̯

*u̯

*u̯

Notes:

  • 1 At the beginning of a word
  • 2 At the end of a word
  • 3 If no vowel follows

Consonants in daughter languages Edit

PG D1 D2
*m m m
*n n n
*s s s
z
*r r

r

*l l l
*i̯ j j
*u̯ v w
*p p p
*t t t
*ḱ ʃ k
*k k
*kʷ
*b b b
*d d d
ʒ g
*g g
*gʷ

Vowels Edit

PIE Gal
*e, *h₁e a
*h₂e e
*h₃e o
*o
*h₁1 a
*h₂1
*h₃1
*h₁-2 o
*h₂-2
*h₃-2
*ē, *eh₁ ē
*eh₂ ā
*ō, *eh₃ ō
*i i
*ih₁ ī
*ih₂
*ih₃
*ei, *h₁ei ei
*oi, *h₃ei oi
(*ai), *h₂ei ai
*ēi ēi
*ōi (*oei) ōi
*eh₂ei āi
*u u
*uh₁ ū
*uh₂
*uh₃
*eu,*h₁eu i̯u
*ou,*h₃eu ō
*h₂eu au
*ēu eu
*ōu ou
*m̥
*mh₁
*mh₂
*mh₃
*m̥m amm
*n̥
*nh₁
*nh₂
*nh₃
*n̥n ann
*l̥ al
*lh₁
*lh₂
*lh₃
*l̥l all
*r̥ ar
*rh₁
*rh₂
*rh₃
*r̥r arr

Notes:

  • 1 Between consonants, or at the end of a word after a consonant.
  • 2 At the beginning of a word, followed by a consonant.

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