|Nouns decline according to...|
|Verbs conjugate according to...|
Proto-Gurang is the original language of the Gurang language branch of the Davian language family found on the Davian Isles. The language has been reconstructed by linguists, however is no longer in use. It has developed into the modern languages of the Gurang family, such as Guragurang, Ngyatagurang and Woragawang. After Sir Wallace Davies discovered what is today known as the Davian Isles, he made a record of the languages he encountered in hopes of further relations developing. Using the data recorded, linguists have been able to recreate the language at least partially. Due to its lack of a previous writing system, the script for Proto-Gurang is currently simply a romanisation.
Classification and DialectsEdit
Proto-Gurang is generally considered an theoretical reconstruction of an obsolete and thus extinct language. In the past, it is believed to have developed into at least two dialects, which eventually became Guragurang and Ngyatagarang. Linguists debate whether it has direct or only indirect relation to Woragawang.
An active revival of the language has been attempted in some small areas that believe that learning it will help them better understand their distant ancestors, but despite this the communities capable of speaking or understanding Proto-Gurang are extremely small and very rare.
|Plosive||t d||ʈ ɖ||k g||ʔ|
|Fricative||f||θ ð||s ʃ|
|Approximant||w ʍ||ɹ||ɻ||j||w ʍ||h ɦ|
|Flap or tap|
Proto-Gurang has no distinction between aspirated and unaspirated stops. It is also notable for possessing several retroflex variants of alveolar sounds that are treated differently in the language. Proto-Gurang lacks trills, flaps and affricates.
Proto-Gurang has a limited vowel inventory. Any diphthong combination between its five basic vowels is permitted, if uncommon. However, adding more than two vowels together to create a triphthong is forbidden. If two vowels are next to each other, a glottal stop may be added to separate them rather than combine them.
Proto-Gurang has a variety of phonotactical rules due to its varied consonantal phonemic inventory. Note that these rules are sometimes disobeyed on certain occasions.
1. Words cannot begin in approximants, which in Proto-Gurang are [ɹ], [ɻ], [j], [h], and [ɦ]. The exceptions to this rule are [w] and [ʍ], and the lateral approximants [l] and [ɭ], which can all be used at the start of words.
2. Words cannot end in retroflex consonants. This means that the sounds [ɳ], [ʈ], [ɖ], [ɻ] and [ɭ] cannot be placed at the end of a word.
3. The glottal stop can only be used in between vowels.
4. If a prohibited phonemic combination is created during the merging of words or affixes, the first sound produced of the conflicting sound is to be used.
5. The following sound combinations are illegal: [f] and [θ], [n] and [ɳ], [ɳ] and [ɲ], [t] and [ʈ], [d] and [ɖ], [w] and [ʍ], [ɹ] and [ɻ], [h] and [ɦ], [l] and [ɭ].
6. Syllable structure is as follows: (C)(C)V(C)(C)
7. If [n] is present after a retroflex stop, it will become [ɳ].
Currently, IPA symbols are also a valid and common method of writing out Proto-Gurang.
Proto-Gurang is an analytic language. It uses relatively few affixes, instead separating morphemes into separate words for the most part. It uses an object-subject-verb (OSV) word order, which is uncommon in linguistics. The morphosyntactic alignment of Proto-Gurang is nominative-accusative, and the language has a final head direction.
When referencing an individual's name in a sentence in Proto-Gurang, one must say their name each time they reference it. Objects have two levels of plurality- one for singular, one for plural, which is identified using the prefix "gaka-". Genders include uncertain (which has no prefix), no gender (which also has no prefix), female (prefix tal-) and male (prefix kül"-).
fo= first person pronoun (equivalent to I)
rru= second person pronoun (equivalent to you)