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The First Stage Of The Developement Of The Kagan Language

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Stage 1 Proto-Kagan
(no native name attested exist)
Type
Agglutinative/Polysynthetic
Alignment
Nominative-Accusative
Head direction
Final
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
2 & 3
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

It is with out a doubt the Kagan is inherantly related to Japanese. This proto language examplifies the first round of changes that help turn Kagan into what it is. There is clearly a Sanskrit influence, too. The language must have been spoken by Gauri & his crew before the early Kagans had settled in Bali. For more information on Kagan history, see Catagory:Kagan Languages.

PhonologyEdit

Like Japanese imitating Sanskrit, the language contains a large abundance of phonemes quite alien to Japanese, but retains many important features. The destinction between asperated & unasperated, just as it is in Sanskrit, is important.

Consonants

Bilabial Labio-dental Denti-alveolar Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal *m *n *ng
Plosive *p/*ph/*b/*bh *t/*th/*d/*dh *c/*ch/*j/*jh *k/*kh/*g/*gh *'
Fricative *v *s/*z *sh/*zh *h
Affricate *ts/*dz
Approximant *w *y
Flap *r

The consonant ' can be voiced or unvoiced.

VowelsEdit

Long vowels are prounced twice as long as short vowels are.

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close *i/*ii *u/*uu
Near-close
Close-mid *o
Mid *e
Open-mid
Near-open *a
Open *aa

(NOTE: I have fully decieded if these will be the vowels the language uses.)

PhonotacticsEdit

Stage 1 Proto-Kagan must have had the following diphthons: ay, aay, aw, aaw, ey, ow. The latter two being less common.

Do to extensive borrowings from Sanskrit, Stage 1 Proto-Kagan is largely filled with consonant clusters when compared to Japanese.

Initial Consonants & Clusters Central Consonants & Clusters Final Consonants & Clusters
m/n/ng m/n/ng m/n/ng
p/t/c/k p/t/c/k/' p/t/c/k
ph/th/ch/kh ph/th/ch/kh ch/kh
b/d/j/g b/d/j/g/' b/d/g
bh/dh/jh/gh bh/gh
s/sh/h s/sh/h s/sh
z/zh/v z/zh/v zh/v
ts ts/dz
w/y/r w/y/r r
mp/mc/mk/nt/nc/ngt/ngk
mph
mb/nd/nj/ngg
ms/msh/ns/nsh
mz
my ny/nr
st/sk/sht/shk/sg st/sk/sht/shk/sp/shp/sg sk/st
bzh/gv/gzh/gz gz
tw/cw/kw/py/pr/tr/kr tw/cw/kw/'w/py/pr/tr/kr/rp/rt/rc/rk rt
bw/dw/jw/gw/by/gy/br/dr/gr bw/dw/jw/gw/by/gy/br/dr/gr/rb/rd/rg
sw/sr/shw/shr/hw/hy/hr sw/sr/shw/shy/shr/hw/hy/hr/rs/rsh rsh
vr zhw/vr/zr/rv rv
str/skr/shtr/shkr/skw/shkw/spr/sgw/sgr str/skr/shtr/shkr/skw/shkw/spr/sgr/sgw

























GrammarEdit

(NOTE: I haven't officially if some of these addfixes will be what this language uses.)

Addfixes must mach the consonant cluster rules listed above. The sound 'a' is sometimes inserted between the root form and an addfix to fix this problem.

Example Noun English translation Example Verb English Translation
Root form *Mimas Ear *Mawaragidata Turn
Example *Mimat Ears *Mawaridata Turned
Example *Mim At (an/the) ear *Mawaradoto (Is) frequently turning
Example *Mimaha Ear *Mawarashwadata turn (quickly)
Example *Mimsu (Her) Ears *Mawarazadata (will) turn
Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No No Yes No Yes Yes Yes
Nouns Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Adjectives No No No Yes No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No

NounsEdit

Nouns have eight cases (nominative, accusative, instrumental, dative, ablative, genitive, vocative, & locative), two genders (masculine & feminine), & two numbers (singular & plural). Most of the nouns are borrowed from Sanskrit.

Masculine Singular Masculine Plural Feminine Singular Feminine Plural
Nominative *-s *-t *-ha *-sh
Accusative *-m *-han *-ham *-has
Instrumental *-nya *-ys *-yaa *-habhis
Dative *-ya *-bhiya *-yay *-habhiya
Ablative *-hat *-hebhiya *-y'as *-bhiiya
Genitive *-za *-nam *-yas *-naam
Vocative *-y *-cu *-yam *-su
Locative (No Addfix) *-ws *-ya *-hus

PronounsEdit

The pronouns of Stage One Proto-Kagan where very complex. There where 7 cases(nominative, accusative, instrumental, dative, ablative, genetive, & locative), two genders (masculine & feminine), three numbers (Singular, dual, & plural), & three persons.

First Person Singular First Person Dual First Person Plural Second Person Singular Second Person Dual Second Person Plural Third Person Singular Third Person Dual Third Person Plural
Nominative Masculine *Watash *Aavam *Wariwari *Anata *Yuvaam *Anatagata *Anogito *Taw *Karera
Nominative Feminine *Aam *Vayam *Aamgata *Tevam *YuuYam *Tevamgata *Saa *Taas *Saakata
Accusative Masculine *Maam *Avaam *Maamgata *Tevaam *Vaam *Tevaamgata *Tam *Taan *Tamgata
Accusative Feminine *Maa *Asmaan *Maakata *Tevaa *Yushmaan *Tevaakata *Taam *Taas *Taamgata
Instrumental Masculine *Mayaa *Avaabhiya *Mayaakata *Tevayaa *Samabhis *Tevayaakata *Tena *Tabhiya *Tenakata
Instrumental Feminine *Mayay *Mayayri *Mayaykata *Tevayay *Tevayayri *Tevayaykata *Tayaa *Tabhiyas *Tayaakata
Dative Masculine *Mayam *Avabhiyaa *Mayamgata *Tubhiya *Yuvabhiya *Tubhiyakata *Tasmay *Taabhiyaa *Tasmaikata
Dative Feminine *Me *Samabhiya *Mekata *Te *Yushmabhiya *Yushmabiyakata *Tazay *Taabhiyas *Tazaykata
Ablative Masculine *Mat *Aavabhiya *Matgata *Tevat *Yuvaabhiya *Tevatgata *Tasmaat *Tabhiyaas *Tasmaatgata
Ablative Feminine *Mati *Matiri *Matikata *Tevati *Tevatiri Tevatikata *Tasmaati *Tasmaatiri *Tasmaatikata
Genitive Masculine *Mama *Avayos *Mamakata *Tava *Yuviyos *Tavakata *Taza *Tayos *Tazakata
Geninitve Feminine Mamay *Mamayri *Mamaykata *Tavay *Tavayri *Tavaykata *Tazas *Taasaam *Tazaskata
Locative Masculine *Mayi *Aavayos *Mayikata *Tevayi *Yuvayos *Tevayikata *Tasmin *Tecu *Tasminata
Locative Feminine *Mayifi *Mayifiri *Mayifikata *Tevayifi *Tevayifiri *Tevayifikata *Tazaam *Taasu *Tazaamgata

Adding the prefix "*Ka-" turns it into an Interrogative Pronoun. This does not happen with First Person Pronouns.

DemonstrativesEdit

        Proximal Mesial Distal Interrogative
-re *Kore (this one) *Sore (that one) *Are (that one over there) *Kare (which one?
-no *Kono (this/of this) *Sono (that/of that) *Ano (that over there/of that over there) *Kano (what?/of what?)
-ma *Koma (like this) *Soma (like that) *Ama (like that over there) *Kama (what sort of?)
-ku *Koku (here) *Soku (there) *Aku (over there) *Kaku (where?)
-cir *Kocir (this way) *Socir (that way) *Acir (that way over there) *Kacir (which way?)
-'u *Ko'u (in this manner) *So'u (in that manner) *A'u (in that manner/in that other manner) *Ka'u (how? in what matter?)
-'ec *Ko'ec (this person) *So'ec (that person) *A'ec (that person/that other person) *Ka'ec (who?)

VerbsEdit

Verbs are especially complex. Verbs have 2 aspects (imperfective & perfective), thee voices (passive, causative, & causative passive), four tense (past, present, imperative, & future), a mood (benidictive), a negative, a potential form, & a polite form.

there are also intensives & frequentatives.

Past Present Intensive Frequentative Imperative Future
Perfective *-idata *-gidata *-shwadata *-kasadata *-kakudata *-zadata
Imperfective *-ito *-gito *-shwato *-kasto *-kakuto *-zato
Passive Perfect *-ireru *-gireru *-shwareru *-kasreru *-kakureru *-zareru
Causative Perfect *-iseru *-giseru *-shwaseru *-kasasaro *-kakuseru *-zaseru
Causative Passive Perfect *-iserureru *-giserureru *-shwaserureru *-kasaserureru *-kakuserureru *-zaserureru
Passive Imperfective *-irareru *-girareru *-shwarareru *-kasrareru *-kakurareru *-zarareru
Causative Imperfective *-isaseru *-gisaseru *-shwasaseru *-kasasaseru *-kakusaseru *-zasaseru
Causative Passive Imperfective *-isaserare *-gisaserare *-shwasaserare *-kasasaserare *-kakusaserare *-zasaserare
Negative *-ina *-gina *-shwana *-kasna *-kakuna *-zana
Potential *-iru *-giru *-shwaru *-kasru *-kakuru *-zaru

But these only scratche the surface of the complex prefixing system. In truth, multable prefixes are fitted in from the root form. The order of prefixes is tense-intensive-frequentative-potential-negative-aspect/voice.

Tense Intensive Frequentative Potential Negative Aspect/Voice
Past *-i- Intensive *-shwa- Frequentative *-kas- Potential *-ru- Negative *-na- Perfective *-data
Present *-gi- No Intensive no addfix Frequentative *-kasa- No Potental no addfix No Negative no addfix Imperfective *-to
Imperative *-kaku- No Frequentative no addfix Passive *-s
Future *-za- Passive Perfect *-reru
Passive Imperfect *-rareru
Causative *-t
Causative Perfect *-seru
Causative Imperfect *-saseru
Passive Causative *-st
Passive Causative Perfect *-serureru
Passive Causative Imperfect *-saserare

The benedictive form uses the prefix "*Se-".

The polite form uses the prefix "*Suma-".

A polite benedictive form also exists, "*Sema-".

Thus, a verb can be very complex.

Sema'abhisamaspercakakushwakasrunaserureru

*sema- ' -abhisamasperca- -kaku- -shwa- -kas- -ru- -na- -serureru
Polite/Benidictive "Wash" Imperative Intensive Frequentative Potential Negative Passive Causative Perfect

AdjectivesEdit

Stage one Proto-Kagan, much like Japanese, does not have real adjectives. Instead, special verbs & nouns are used. These non-adjectives have three tenses (past, present, & future), adverbal forms, negative forms, & polite forms. Adjectival verbs end with the vowel *i.

Past Past Negative Present Present Negative Future Future Negative Adverb Form
Adjectival Verbs *-kata *-kunakata (no prefix) *-kunay *-kava *-kunakava *-ku
Polite Adjectival Verbs *-katadesu *-kunakatadesu *-desu *-kunaydesu *-kavadesu *-kunakavadesu (no polite form exists)
Adjectival Nouns *-data *-dewanakata *-da *-dewanay *-dava *-dewanakava *-na
Polite Adjectival Nouns *-deshita *-dewarimasedeshita *-desu *-dewarimasen *-deshiva *-dewarimasedeshiva (no polite form exists)

(NOTE: If the past few box charts are unusually big for some reason, than it's just some glitch that out of my control. I have tried to fix this several times before, but it never works out.)

AdverbsEdit

There are 3 main tipes of adverbs, nominal, verbal & adjectival. The adjectival form is mentioned in the Adjectives chart above.

Nominal - *-nu

Verbal - *-ni

NumeralsEdit

Stage 1 Proto Kagan had two seperate sets of numerals, one inherited from Japanese, the other borrowed from Sanskrit.

Ekas Hito
Dwava Futa
Trayas mi
Catwaras Yo
Panca Itsu
Shanta Mu
Sapta Nana
Ashantava Ya
Nava Kokono
Dasha To

TopicEdit

The Topic/Nontopic destinction is made with prefixes. In a discourse one is used to identify if the word iin a sentence is the topic of the sentence. That word, when repeated, will not need the same prefix. During a discourse, the word can have the other prefix to change from topic to nontopic or from nontopic to topic. Again, after that prefix is used, the word will not reuse the prefix untill after it switches topic again.

  • Ga- - Topic
  • Wa- - Nontopic

(NOTE: For some reason the asterisks whon't stay. They keep being replaced by these square things.)

SyntaxEdit

Though while the languages word order is mostly free, Stage 1 Proto-Kagan is a verb final language.

Stage 1 Proto-Kagan uses Postpositions, not Prepositions.

VocabularyEdit


No. English Stage 1 Proto Kagan
1IWatash
2you (singular)Anata
3heAnogito
4weWariwari
5you (plural)Anatagata
6theyKarera
7thisKono
8thatSono
9hereKoku
10thereSoku
11whoKa'ec
12whatKano
13whereKaku
14when'itsu
15howKa'u
16notNavi
17allSivet
18manyHok
19someIgarak
20fewSukunay
21otherHoka
22oneEkas
23twoTrayas
24threeCatwaras
25fourPanca
26fiveShanta
27bigSamverdha
28longNagaku
29wideBahra
30thick'atswi
31heavyAraghu
32smallAraka
33shortMicike
34narrowNirucvasa
35thinHosom
36womanAbara
37man (adult male)Contionary_Wiki
38man (human being)Mansha
39childKodmo
40wifeJita
41husbandAaryasta
42motherAbaa
43fatherJanajinu
44animalSateva
45fishSangena
46birdTor
47dogIno
48louseContionary_Wiki
49snakeAnandazha
50wormAshantapada
51treeAgacha
52forestMor
53stickBoo
54fruitKusuma
55seedTane
56leafKonoha
57rootNe
58barkJuhi
59flowerAartava
60grassAkusa
61ropeTsuna
62skinAsergdhara
63meatJaangara
64bloodCi
65boneAandhika
66fatAanjana
67eggTamagu
68hornKuunta
69tailShipu
70featherHane
71hairKey
72headCuunda
73earMim
74eyeCakashu
75noseHana
76mouthAana
77toothHa
78tongueShita
79fingernailNamazuma
80footAnyo
81legKiyakubu
82kneeHiza
83handTe
84wingTsubsa
85bellyKobra
86gutsKimo
87neckKubi
88backPershanthaka
89breastKronda
90heartAgramaamsa
91liverKaaraka
92drinkNom
93eatTaberu
94biteKamu
95suckSuhu
96spitTsuba
97vomitSamudharanda
98blowFuku
99breatheAvaan
100laughKark
101seeContionary_Wiki
102hearKiku
103knowShiru
104thinkOmou
105smellNiyow
106fearBhayana
107sleepAasvapana
108liveContionary_Wiki
109dieContionary_Wiki
110killKoros
111fightDavermadiya
112huntKarsuru
113hit'utsu
114cutKiru
115splitWaru
116stabSasu
117scratchKako
118digHoro
119swimBherana
120flyContionary_Wiki
121walkContionary_Wiki
122comeContionary_Wiki
123lieYokotwaru
124sitSuwaru
125standTatsu
126turnMawar
127fallOciru
128giveAbhidaa
129holdContionary_Wiki
130squeezeApindita
131rubKosru
132washAbhisamasperca
133wipeNuguu
134pullContionary_Wiki
135pushOsu
136throwContionary_Wiki
137tieAnubandha
138sewNo'u
139countKazoweru
140sayNobru
141singContionary_Wiki
142playAnukrind
143floatUku
144flowNagari
145freezeKir
146swellHirogaru
147sunAbhiishumat
148moonAbhiruupa
149starJiyotas
150waterAhi
151rainAbhivarsha
152riverAbudhikaamin
153lakeMizu'um
154seaBharu
155saltShiyo
156stoneIshi
157sandSuna
158dustCiri
159earthAcaraa
160cloudKumo
161fogKiri
162skyAbrapatha
163windAbramkasha
164snowYuki
165iceKoor
166smokeAmbhaksu
167fireAdmani
168ashContionary_Wiki
169burnMoyas
170roadAjani
171mountainAgama
172redContionary_Wiki
173greenPaaraasha
174yellowHaaridraka
175whiteAniira
176blackBahura
177nightAktaa
178dayamsha
179yearAbda
180warmAshta
181coldSamwi
182fullIpay
183newAtrashii
184oldToshitot
185goodBhariva
186badContionary_Wiki
187rottenKusat
188dirtyKitanay
189straightMasugu
190roundMarwi
191sharpSruday
192dullNibuwi
193smoothNamraka
194wetNureta
195dryKawita
196correctSekak
197nearCikaku
198farToko
199rightMig
200leftHidari
201atNi
202inNi
203withda
204andta
205ifMosh
206becauseDaker
207nameSeym

(Note: I could not find a perfect Sanskrit to translate into, so I left some blank. When later stage varieties are completed, some words here will be taken away to give this language a more "unfinished reconstruction" look.

Example textEdit

The Origin of the Kagan Republic.
It happened many years ago, way back over there, over to our original homeland, a place far, far away. There, a man who knew of great legends & lore, had a vision. In it, he learned of a new, distant, majical world. A land for where he & his fellow Hindus could live in rapture. A land far, far away. With all the motivation in the world, he & is crew saught out to sea to find this land. He had found many strange & unique lands along the way, but it wasn't untill his third and final voyage he found the land he had invisioned. There, deep into the forest, he founded the city Nagarkaga. His name is known to us all. He is Gauri Badarda.

(Note: This primarilly exists as a template for stage 2 to evolve from. When stage 2 is created, several words will be dileted here along with the example above.)

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