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Proto-Makuran

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Whence a language, thence another.

 p b t d ṭ ḍ k g q ḡ ʔ
     s z ṣ ẓ  h   x  ħ
  m   n   ṇ   ŋ   ɴ
  w  r l  ṛ   j   ƿ?
 
 i y   ⱶ   o u
  e         υ
 ɛ ø   ɘ    ω 
 a å   ə   ɑ ǫ
 
 ——————————————————
 
 ...   SG     PA     PL
 
 ABS   -Ø    -ⱶl    -ⱶs
 ERG   -ɛ    -el   -ɛsaħ
 ACC  -ɛrɑ   -el   -ərəħ 
 DAT   -i    -ⱶl    -ⱶs   
 ABL  -əṛɑ   -ɑl   -ələħ
 TOP  -ⱶlɑ   -ol   -ələħ

          —————

 1IN   SG     PA     PL
 
 ABS   //    ƿysə   raƿəħ
 ERG   //    ωrəs   ωħɛs
 ACC   //    ωrə    ωħɛr
 DAT   //    ωrole  ωħⱶ
 ABL   //    ωrə    ωħɛl
 TOP   //    ωrəṣ   ωħɛl

 1EX   SG     PA     PL
 
 ABS   ajə   ƿərə   ƿəħə
 ERG   υlɛ   ωlɛ    ωħɛs
 ACC   υrɛ   ωlɛ    ωħɛr
 DAT   υmi   ωlⱶ    ωħⱶ
 ABL   υrɛ   ωlɛ    ωħɛ(l?)
 TOP   υlɛ   ωrωṣ   ωħυṣ

          —————

 2ND   SG     PA     PL
 
 ABS   ḡⱶl    kalⱶ  kⱶsⱶħ
 ERG   kølɛ   kelⱶ  kⱶrⱶħ
 ACC   kørɑ   kelⱶ  kⱶrəħ
 DAT   køri   kⱶlⱶ  kⱶsⱶħ
 ABL   kørɑ   kǫlⱶ? kⱶlⱶħ
 TOP   kølɑ   kulⱶ  kⱶlⱶħ

 Third person pronouns are extremely difficult to reconstruct: they seem to have
 been demonstratives, though no language agrees on what kind. They probably followed
 a more regular form of the 2nd person declension, as all descendants reflect such
 a paradigm in their own variants of them.

        —————————

 INF
  ├━ » TRN  ta-R-k / te-R-k / ...
  └━ » ITR  tⱶ-R-Ø / tⱶ-R-k / ...

 ITR   SG     PA     PL    [Intransitive]

 1IN   //    -əl    -əħ(ɛl)
 1EX   -ⱶ    -ⱶl    -ⱶħ(ɛl)
 2ND  -sk    -kⱶl   -kⱶħ(ⱶl)
 3RD  -pɛ    -pⱶl   -pⱶħ(ⱶl)

 TAC   SG     PA     PL    [Transitive Active]

 1IN   //    -υlⱶ   -υħⱶ
 1EX   -ə    -υlⱶ   -υħⱶ
 2ND  -əkə  -kalⱶ   -kaħⱶ
 3RD  -əmə  -malⱶ   -maħⱶ

 TPA   SG     PA     PL    [Transitive Passive]

 1IN   //    -pυlⱶ  -pυħⱶ
 1EX  -əp    -pυlⱶ  -pυħⱶ
 2ND  -kəp   -palⱶ  -paħⱶ
 3RD  -pəp   -palⱶ  -paħⱶ

 TPA   SG     PA     PL    [Transitive Antipassive]

 1IN   //    -pəl   -pəħⱶ
 1EX  -ⱶp    -pⱶl   -pⱶħⱶ
 2ND  -skəp  -pⱶl   -pⱶħⱶ
 3RD  -pɛp   -pⱶl   -pⱶħⱶ

        —————————

 Word order is normally [Ab{V]ErAc}; negation is performed with a negative particle
 at the beginnings of clauses. Interrogatives are subsitutory and negation doubling
 is obligatory in most cases. All verb phrases are head-final but noun phrases can
 usually be head-initial. Possession is indicated by the dative case on the possessor
 even when it is a pronoun.
 
 The verb system is fairly complex but not adequately developed and thus often re-
 -analysed in its descendants. Many nouns have irregular paucals and plurals.

        —————————

» ḡωrə   —— human male, man
» ṣυm    —— human female, woman
» mawər  —— relative, kinsman (cf. májis)
» ħurot  —— sibling, close kinsman 
 
» ƿⱶhər  —— mother
» wɘwɘ   —— mother
» ṛɑhər  —— father
» dɘdɘ   —— father

» olɛk   —— hand
» ḍɑƿⱶ   —— tongue, cheek
» mikɛ   —— tongue nib, tongue blade
» zoba   —— web between fingers
» herɛ   —— finger/toe
» usυḡ   —— fingernail
» ele    —— arm, hand
» elgωs  —— radial bone
» hum    —— thigh
» eṣ     —— calf
» eṣkωs  —— femur
» ǫgə    —— foot
» usυrə  —— toenail

» aqⱶ    —— eye
» alⱶqⱶ  —— violet eye
» ωl     —— face
» ɴeli   —— nose

» tekrək —— to run, to rush, to be in a hurry
» talɛk  —— to wave, to greet with hands 
» teṛⱶk  —— to playfully kick legs
» takək  —— to look around, to take a glance at surroundings

» tⱶrat  —— to throw, to toss sth. far
» tⱶhaṛ  —— to hit, to strike
» tⱶlek  —— to squeeze sth. out of an object

» tⱶjⱶk  —— there is; existential copula
» tⱶṣⱶk  —— is; relational copula (takes a noun)
» tⱶlejk —— is; relational copula (takes an adjective)
» tⱶqⱶk  —— is; locative copula
                             —————— Family Tree ——————
 
 
 —— Proto-Makuran (†)
         |
         ├━━ Northern Makuran
         |             |
         |             ├━━━━ » Mantiri (†)
         |             |
         |             └━━━━ » Mandasi (†)
         |
         └━━ Northwestern Makuran
                       |
                       ├━━━━ » Early Edāsan (†)
                       |                  |
                       |                  |
                       |                  ├━━━━ » Elahan (†)
                       |                  |
                       |                  └━━━━ » Silari
                       |
                       └━━━━ » Bentardari (†)

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