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The Proto-Pola Language

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Proto-Pola
*Pola-
Type
Agglutinative/Poly-Synthetic
Alignment
Nominative-Accusative
Head direction
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
0
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

This is a reconstruction of the language that which all Pola Languages descended from. It has been assumed to have been spoken in nearly all of California before splitting into the four languages spoken there today. It has been assumed that the language may be distantly be related to Iranian. Some also compare the language to the Semitc languages as well as Japanese.

Neo-Pola, Proto-Pola with an extended vocabulary, is a recent invention used for literature.

The nameEdit

Pola, or something close to it, is used for the name of all eight Pola languages uses. Thus, it itself is the name for the laguage family. The to main subdivision are named after the reconstruction of their next part of their name. The division is devided by the use of "m" and "d", Mira and Dira. It has been assumed that Polamira or Poladira is a whole word without an adfix, but linguists do find it handy to use Pola, Mira, & Dira seperately. The names of the Pola languages give a clue what kind of soundshifts have occured.

Pola-miya = r becomes y

Pola-mas = r becomes s, vinal vowel drop in large words, simple vowel shift

Pila-mariya = complex vowel shift

Pol-mor = Vowel loss, simple vowel shift

Pola-la = d becomes l, simple vowel shift

Poli-dia = r is dropped, simple vowel shift

Palo-dia = r is dropped, simple vowel shift

Por-dora = l becomes r, simple vowel shift, vowel loss

There are other differences, notably grammatical ones, but these are the ones evident from the names alone.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Labio-Velar Glottal
Nasal (m) n ng
Plosive p t k
Voiced plosive b (d) g
Ejective plosive t' k'
Fricative f s sh h
Voiced fricative z
Affricate ts c
Voiced affricate ds j
Approximant y w
Flap or tap r
Lateral approximant l

Additionally, Proto-Pola had the following palatalized consonants, ny, py, ky, cy, ly, ry, & hy.

VowelsEdit

Proto-Pola destinguashes between short & long vowels.

Short Front Long Front Short Central Long Central Short Back Long Back
Close i i: u u:
Mid e e: o o:
Open a a:

DiphthongsEdit

Ai

Au

Ei

Oi

Ou

AlphabetEdit

Proto-Pla does not have a standard way of writing, while Neo-Pola uses the Pola Alphabet, just as every other Pola language. The Pola-Alphabet is very distinct & is inrelated to any known writing system. It is written from left to right.

Latinized Neo-Pola uses Ao for Au, Th for T', Kh for K', & uses vowels with a horizontal line over them instead of using :.

An apstrophy is used to separate vowels so as to not confuse them for diphthongs.

PhonotacticsEdit

The basic word structure is (C)(C)V(C).

There are only two possible clusters, "tr" & "sr".

Final consonants include n, ng, p, t, & k. Ng is only found on endings.

GrammarEdit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes
Nouns No Yes Yes No No No No No
Adjectives No No No Yes No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No Yes No No No No
Pronouns No No Yes No No No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No


NounsEdit

CaseEdit

Nouns uses prefexes for case.

Nominative: Wa-

Used to identify the subject.

Example: Wamaci / Wadaci = House

Accusative: Ma- / Da-

Used to identify the direct object.

Example: Mamaci / Dadaci = House

Ablative: Ha-

Used to indicate that the word is the cause of the action.

example: Ta h'amaci / Ta h'adaci = Because of the house

Dative: Ya-

Use to identify the inderect object.

Example: Yamaci / Yadaci = House

Locative: Ye-

Used to identify a location.

Example: Ta y'emaci / Ta y'edaci = In the house

Genitive: Shi-

Used to identify possession.

Example: Ta s'hi'maci / Ta s'hidaci = Of the house / (Owned) b'y the house

NumberEdit

Nouns have a complex list of numbers.

Minus: -mu- / -du-

Used for if a word is of smaller numbers than another, or is of diminishing numbers.

Example: Macimusu mukusu / Dacidusu dukusu = F'ewer houses than water / L'ess houses than water

Add: -ku-

Used for if a word is of larger numbers than another, or is of growing numbers.

Example: Maci'kuyai mumuyai / Dacikuyai duduyai = M'ore houses than water

Absent: -co

Used for a word that is absent or taken away.

Example: Macico / Dacico = No houses / House (is gone)

Singular: -ki

Example: Maciki / Daciki = One house

Dual: -ma / -da

Example: Macima / Dacida = Two houses

Tripple: -wa

Example: Maciwa / Daciwa = Three houses

Quadruple: -cya

Example: Macicya / Dacicya = Four houses

Quintepple: -ba

Example: Maciba / Daciba = Five houses

Few: -su

The amount that qualifies as a few may very depending on the word itself or when compared to another word. It is often used as the default. Otherwise, -ki is used.

Example Macisu / Dacisu = (a) Few houses

Moderate: -tsa

Used as a midway between few & many.

Example: Macitsa / Dacitsa = (Fair) amount of houses

Many: -yai

Example: Maciyai / Daciyai = Alot of houses

Very lage amount: -gura

Example: Macigura / Dacigura = Hundreds & hundreds of Houses

Uncountable: -gara

Used as a mixture of "Very Large Amount" & "Uncertain."

Example: Macigara / Dacigara = (Not sure, but it was) alot of houses

Unlimited: -kama / -kada

Used for when a word truely is unlimited

Example: Ka macikama / Ka dacikada = An endless amount of houses

Uncertain: -gen

Example: Maci'gen / Dacigen = D'on't know how many houses / (Was there) any houses?

AdjectivesEdit

TenseEdit

Adjectives have five tenses.

Remote Past: -tu

Example: Ka ugatu maciki / Ka ugatu daciki = A big house from way back

Recent Past: -ta

Example: Ka ugata maciki / Ka ugata daciki = A big house from not so long ago

Present: -wan

Example: Ka ugawan maciki / Ka ugawan daciki = A big house right now

Near Future -ya

Example: Ka ugaya maciki / Ka ugaya daciki = A big house soon

Remote Future -hu

Example: Ka ugahu maciki / Ka ugahu daciki = In the future, (there will be) a big house

PronounsEdit

Personal PronounsEdit

I/Me: Wak

You (singular): Kuma / Kuda

He/She/Her: Yang

Demonstrative & Interrogative PronounsEdit

This: Han

That: Aku

Which: San

NumberEdit

Pronouns uses the same prefixes for nouns for plurality.

Example 1: Wakma / Wakda = The two of us

Example 2: Hansu = These

Example 3: Yangsu = Them

Example 4: Akusu = Those

Example 5: Wakguru = Us

AdverbsEdit

The adverbial form of an adjective uses the prefix "No-." Adverbs uses the same tenses as adjectives.

Example: No'ugata = (had jumped) highly

VerbsEdit

Verb put addfixes in the following order.

Root-Negative-Tense-Mood-Aspect-Voice-Number

NegativeEdit

The negative is "-na-."

Example: Ta wamaci Ta mamuya likunaketzaico / Ta wadaci ta daduya likunaketzaico = The house doesn't talk to the water

VoiceEdit

Active: -zai-

Used to tell that the subject is doing the verb.

Example: Ta wamaci ta mamuya likuwanketzaisu / Ta wadaci ta daduya likuwanketzaisu = The house talks to the water / The house is talking to the water

Passive: -ra-

Used to tell that the subject is being affected by the verb.

Example: Ta wamaci ta mamuya likuwanketrasu / Ta wadaci ta daduya likuwanketrasu = The house is talked by the water

Reciprocal: -to-

Used to tell that both the object & the object causes the verb.

Example: Ta wamaci ta mamuya likuwantoki / Ta wadaci ta daduya likuwantoki = The house and the water talked

Reflexive: -gun-

Used to tell that both the subject is the same as the object.

Example: Ta wamaci likutagunki / Ta wadaci likutagunki = The house talked to itself

MoodEdit

Indicative: -ket-

Used to tell that the verb is happening, had happen, or will happen.

Example: Ta wamaci likuwanketzaiki / Ta wadaci likuwanketzaiki = The house did talked / The house does talk

Conditional: -ba-

Used to tell that the verb would or would have happen.

Example: Ta wamaci likutabazaikuco / Ta wadaci likutabazaikuco = The house would have talked

Jussive: -fu-

Can be used in two ways.

1) It tells that, under the right circumstances, the action should happen.

Example: Ta wamaci likuyafuzaikuki / Ta wadaci likuyafuzaikuki = (If this is true, than) the house should talk

2) It tells that the verb is a suggestion or a demand.

Example: Wak likufuzaikuki = Talk to me

Inferential: -fo-

Used to tell that the action is being told by someone who did not witnessed the event.

Example: Ta wamaci likuta'fozaiki / Ta wadaci likutafozaiki = A'ccording to (him), the house talked

Potential: -ri-

Used to tell that the verb is likely to happen.

Example: Ta wamaci likuyarizaikusu / Ta wadaci likuyarizaikusu = The house is likely to talk

Interrogative: -so-

Used to question if the action will happen.

Example: Ta wamaci likuya'sozai / ta wadaci likuyasozai = W'ill the house talk?

NumberEdit

Verbs uses the same prefixes for numbers as nouns do.

Example: Ta wamaci likutaketzaima / Ta wadaci likutaketzaida = The house talked twice

Example: Ta wamaci likuwanketzaimutsa / Ta wadaci likuwanketzaidutsa = The house isn't talking as much

Example: Ta wamaci likutaketzaiyai / Ta wadaci likutaketzaiyai = The house has talked several times

Example: Ta wamaci likuwanketzaikama / Ta wadaci likuwanketzaikada = The house never stops talking

Example: Ta wamaci likutaketzaigen / Ta wadaci likutaketzaigen = Don't know haow many times the house has talked

TenseEdit

Verbs uses the same prefixes for tense as adjectives do.

Example: Ta wamaci likutaketzai / Ta wadaci likutaketzaisu = The house had talked before

Example: Ta wamaci likuwanketzai / Ta wadaci likuwanketzaitsa = The house is talking

Example: Ta wamaci likuyafuzai / Ta wadaci likuyafuzaikusu = The house will talk soon

AspectEdit

Perfective: -ta-

Used to indicate the whole action without withouts it's temporal structure.

Example: Ta wamaci likutakettazaiki / Ta wadaci likutakettazaiki = The house has talked

Progressive: -mi- / -di-

Used to tell that the action is ongoing & changing.

Example: Ta wamaci likuwanketmizaikuyai / Ta wadaci likuwanketdizaikuyai = The house is still talking, more so than ever

Stative: -len-

Used to tell that the action is ongoing but not changing.

Example: Ta wamaci likuwanketlenzaikuyai / Ta wadaci likuwanketlenzaikuyai = The house is still talking

Cessative: -tung-

Used to tell that the action has ended.

Example: Ta wamaci likuwankettungzaiyai / Ta wadaci likuwankettungzaiyai = The house has stoped talking

Defective: -she-

Use to tell that an action almost happened

Example: Ta wamaci likutaketshezaico / Ta wadaci likutaketshezaico = The house almost talked

Pausative: -ruk-

Used to tell that the action momentarilly stopped.

Example: Ta wamaci likuwanketrukzaikuyai / Ta wadaci likuwanketrukzaikuya = The house had stoped talking for a brief moment.

Intentional: -bao-

Used to tell that the action was done intentionally

Example: Ta wamaci likutaketbaozaisu / Ta wadaci likutaketbaozaisu = The house intentionally talked

ArticlesEdit

Definitive: Ta

Example: Ta maci / Ta daci = The house

Indefinitive: Ka

Example: Ka maci / Ka daci = A house

ParticlesEdit

Word-OrderEdit

Word order is free, though a Verb-Subject-Object, Possessed-Possesser, & Noun-Adjective are common.

VocabularyEdit


No. English Pola-Mira
1IWakContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
2you (singular)KumaContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
3heYangContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
4weWaksuContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
5you (plural)KumasuContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
6theyYangsuContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
7thisHanContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
8thatAkuContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
9hereHan gamaContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
10thereAku gamaContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
11whoSan batuContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
12whatSanContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
13whereSan gamaContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
14whenSan tokContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
15howSan trakContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
16notContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
17allContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
18manyContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
19someContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
20fewContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
21otherContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
22oneContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
23twoContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
24threeContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
25fourContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
26fiveContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
27bigUgaContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
28longWaiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
29wideWimuContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
30thickNyeContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
31heavyGerekContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
32smallUtuContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
33shortSriContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
34narrowLingContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
35thinLingContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
36womanHakeContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
37man (adult male)AbaraContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
38man (human being)BatuContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
39childLikContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
40wifeContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
41husbandContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
42motherAp hakeContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
43fatherAp abaraContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
44animalContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
45fishContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
46birdContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
47dogContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
48louseMaciContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
49snakeContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
50wormContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
51treeTiriContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
52forestTirigaraContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
53stickPitContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
54fruitContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
55seedContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
56leafContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
57rootContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
58barkContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
59flowerContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
60grassContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
61ropeContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
62skinContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
63meatContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
64bloodContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
65boneContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
66fatContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
67eggContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
68hornContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
69tailContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
70featherContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
71hairTraiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
72headBekContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
73earContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
74eyeIyaContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
75noseTunContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
76mouthBataContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
77toothContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
78tongueContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
79fingernailContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
80footContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
81legGaniContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
82kneeT'enContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
83handPahuContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
84wingContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
85bellyUbuContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
86gutsContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
87neckContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
88backContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
89breastBeciContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
90heartContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
91liverContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
92drinkLutiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
93eatYakoContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
94biteCepContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
95suckContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
96spitContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
97vomitContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
98blowContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
99breatheContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
100laughContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
101seeContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
102hearContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
103knowContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
104thinkContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
105smellContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
106fearContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
107sleepContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
108liveContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
109dieContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
110killContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
111fightContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
112huntContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
113hitContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
114cutContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
115splitContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
116stabContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
117scratchContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
118digContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
119swimContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
120flyContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
121walkGapaContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
122comeContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
123lieContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
124sitCinContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
125standBecaContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
126turnContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
127fallContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
128giveContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
129holdContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
130squeezeContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
131rubContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
132washContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
133wipeContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
134pullContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
135pushContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
136throwContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
137tieContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
138sewContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
139countContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
140sayContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
141singContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
142playContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
143floatContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
144flowContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
145freezeContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
146swellContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
147sunContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
148moonContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
149starContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
150waterMukuContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
151rainEberaContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
152riverTereciContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
153lakeContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
154seaApaContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
155saltContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
156stoneContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
157sandPasaContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
158dustContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
159earthTrokuContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
160cloudContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
161fogContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
162skyContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
163windContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
164snowContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
165iceContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
166smokeContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
167fireContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
168ashContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
169burnContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
170roadContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
171mountainContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
172redContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
173greenContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
174yellowContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
175whiteContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
176blackContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
177nightContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
178dayContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
179yearContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
180warmContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
181coldContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
182fullContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
183newContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
184oldContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
185goodContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
186badContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
187rottenContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
188dirtyContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
189straightContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
190roundContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
191sharpContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
192dullContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
193smoothContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
194wetContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
195dryContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
196correctContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
197nearContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
198farContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
199rightContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
200leftContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
201atContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
202inContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
203withContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
204andContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
205ifContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
206becauseContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki
207nameContionary_WikiContionary_WikiContionary_Wiki


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