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The Proto-Pola Language

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Proto-Pola
*Prabirya
Type
Agglutinative
Alignment
Nominative-Accusative
Head direction
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
0
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

This is a reconstruction of the language that which all Pola Languages descended from. It has been assumed to have been spoken in nearly all of California before splitting into the eight languages spoken there today.

The nameEdit

Pola, or something close to it, is used for the name of all eight Pola languages uses. Thus, it itself is the name for the laguage family. The to main subdivision are named after the reconstruction of their next part of their name. The division is devided by the use of "m" and "d", Mira and Dira. The name for Proto-Pola itself is assumed to be *Prabirya, pronounced /pra.bi.rja/ or /pɐra.bi.rja/. It has also been suggested to be pronounced The names of the Pola languages give a clue what kind of soundshifts have occured. The eight Pola languages are Pilamariya, Polamiya, Polamas, Polmor, Pordora, Polidia, Palodia, and Polala.

PhonologyEdit

Since All surviving Pola languages differ largely in vocabulary, reconstruction of the phonetics is rather difficult. What is givin here is the best summary of what we know.

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Labio-Velar Glottal
Nasal m /m/
Plosive p /p/ t /t/ k /k/
Voiced plosive b /b/ d /d/
Fricative s /s/ h /h/
Affricate c /t͡ʃ/
Voiced affricate j /d͡ʒ/
Approximant y /j/ w /w/
Rhotic r /r/

Additionally, Proto-Pola had the following the clusters; /rj/, /ps/, /ts/, and /ks/.

VowelsEdit

Proto-Pola destinguashes between short & long vowels.

Short Front Unrounded

Long Front Unrounded Short Front Rounded

Short Central Unrounded

Long Central Unrounded

Short Back Rounded

Long Back Rounded
Close i /i/ ī /i:/ y /y/ u /u/
Mid e /e/ ē /e:/ /ɐ/ o /o/ ō /o:/
Open a /a/ ā /a:/

Soundshifts and Sound CorrespondanceEdit

Proto-Pola has diverged largely in many ways. Overlapping features shared between some languages make it hard to subcatigorize.

ConsonantsEdit

Proto-Pola (Prabirya) m p t k b d ps ts ks t͡ʃ d͡ʒ s h j w r rj
Pilamariya n p t k m d ts ts ks ʃ ʒ r h j w l rij
Polamiya n p t k m r s ts z t͡ʃ d͡ʒ ʃ h j w l j
Polamas n p t k m r z ts ks t͡ʃ d͡ʒ ʃ h j w l s
Polmor n p d k m r ps s s ʃ d͡ʒ s h j b l r
Pordora m p t k d n t͡ʃ t͡ʃ d͡ʒ ʃ Ø r v r r
Polidia n p θ k d r ps t ks t͡ʃ g s h d͡ʒ v l j
Palodia n p θ k d r ps t ks t͡ʃ g s h d͡ʒ v l j
Polala m p ʃ h l n ps t k t͡ʃ ʃ s h d͡ʒ w l j
Neo-Pola (Polamira) n p t k m d ps ts ks t͡ʃ d͡ʒ s h j w l r

VowelsEdit

Proto-Pola (Prabirya) ɐ a e i y o a: e: i: o:
Pilamariya i a a a u o a: a: a: u:
Polamiya o a e i i o a e i u
Polamas o a a a i o a e i u
Polmor o Ø i o i a a: a: e: a:
Pordora o Ø i o u o a e i o
Polidia o i e i u u a a i a
Palodia a o e i u u a a i a
Polala o a a a i o a e i o
Neo-Pola (Polamira) o a e i y u a: e: i: o:

Additional SoundshiftsEdit

Final Syllable Dropping Fonal Vowel Dropping Dahl's Law Palatalization Labialization
Pilamariya
Polamiya /m/ /n/ /p/ /t/ /k/ /l/ /s/ /r/ /t/ /k/
Polamas Yes /m/ /n/ /p/ /t/ /k/ /l/ /s/ /r/
Polmor Yes /p/ /k/ /r/ /l/ /s/
Pordora Final vowel becomes /ɐ/ Yes /p/ /t/ /k/ /d/ /r/ /m/ /k/ /n/ /r/ /c/ /ʃ/
Polidia Yes /k/ /l/ /h/ /s/
Palodia Yes /k/ /l/ /h/ /s/
Polala Only in words with four or more syllables.

AlphabetEdit

Proto-Pola uses the Latin Alphabet. It is very regular and  closely matches the IPA transcription.

Capital A Ā C D E Ē H I Ī J K Ks M O Ō P Ps R Ry S T Ts U W Y
Lowercase a ā c d e ē h i ī j k ks m o ō p ps r ry s t ts u w y
IPA ɐ a a: t͡ʃ d e e: h i i: d͡ʒ k ks m o o p ps r rj s t ts u w y

Example Word ComparisonEdit

Note: This isn't completed yet. The meanings of the words and the original Proto-Pola forms haven't been made yet.

Proto-Pola (Prabirya)
Pilamariya tinkara dina
Polamiya kokora kanta cikori akaku waka moka kumpa
Polamas tonkash kokor kant akaku waka kamac mok kump ron
Polmor kaamp don
Pordora gokona parta kerta voka doka kolpa noma
Polidia bapalita atula
Palodia atula
Polala shomhasa hohona hamsha ahaho waha malaha hawiya sapala loha holpa noma
Neo-Pola (Polamira)

GrammarEdit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Nouns No Yes No No Yes No No No
Adjectives No No No No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns No No No No No No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No

 Note: I will have to change the info below later.

NounsEdit

CaseEdit

Nouns uses prefexes for case.

Nominative: Wa-

Used to identify the subject.

Example: Wamaci / Wadaci = House

Accusative: Ma- / Da-

Used to identify the direct object.

Example: Mamaci / Dadaci = House

Ablative: Ha-

Used to indicate that the word is the cause of the action.

example: Ta h'amaci / Ta h'adaci = Because of the house

Dative: Ya-

Use to identify the inderect object.

Example: Yamaci / Yadaci = House

Locative: Ye-

Used to identify a location.

Example: Ta y'emaci / Ta y'edaci = In the house

Genitive: Shi-

Used to identify possession.

Example: Ta s'hi'maci / Ta s'hidaci = Of the house / (Owned) b'y the house

NumberEdit

Nouns have a complex list of numbers.

Minus: -mu- / -du-

Used for if a word is of smaller numbers than another, or is of diminishing numbers.

Example: Macimusu mukusu / Dacidusu dukusu = F'ewer houses than water / L'ess houses than water

Add: -ku-

Used for if a word is of larger numbers than another, or is of growing numbers.

Example: Maci'kuyai mumuyai / Dacikuyai duduyai = M'ore houses than water

Absent: -co

Used for a word that is absent or taken away.

Example: Macico / Dacico = No houses / House (is gone)

Singular: -ki

Example: Maciki / Daciki = One house

Dual: -ma / -da

Example: Macima / Dacida = Two houses

Tripple: -wa

Example: Maciwa / Daciwa = Three houses

Quadruple: -cya

Example: Macicya / Dacicya = Four houses

Quintepple: -ba

Example: Maciba / Daciba = Five houses

Few: -su

The amount that qualifies as a few may very depending on the word itself or when compared to another word. It is often used as the default. Otherwise, -ki is used.

Example Macisu / Dacisu = (a) Few houses

Moderate: -tsa

Used as a midway between few & many.

Example: Macitsa / Dacitsa = (Fair) amount of houses

Many: -yai

Example: Maciyai / Daciyai = Alot of houses

Very lage amount: -gura

Example: Macigura / Dacigura = Hundreds & hundreds of Houses

Uncountable: -gara

Used as a mixture of "Very Large Amount" & "Uncertain."

Example: Macigara / Dacigara = (Not sure, but it was) alot of houses

Unlimited: -kama / -kada

Used for when a word truely is unlimited

Example: Ka macikama / Ka dacikada = An endless amount of houses

Uncertain: -gen

Example: Maci'gen / Dacigen = D'on't know how many houses / (Was there) any houses?

AdjectivesEdit

TenseEdit

Adjectives have five tenses.

Remote Past: -tu

Example: Ka ugatu maciki / Ka ugatu daciki = A big house from way back

Recent Past: -ta

Example: Ka ugata maciki / Ka ugata daciki = A big house from not so long ago

Present: -wan

Example: Ka ugawan maciki / Ka ugawan daciki = A big house right now

Near Future -ya

Example: Ka ugaya maciki / Ka ugaya daciki = A big house soon

Remote Future -hu

Example: Ka ugahu maciki / Ka ugahu daciki = In the future, (there will be) a big house

PronounsEdit

Personal PronounsEdit

I/Me: Wak

You (singular): Kuma / Kuda

He/She/Her: Yang

Demonstrative & Interrogative PronounsEdit

This: Han

That: Aku

Which: San

NumberEdit

Pronouns uses the same prefixes for nouns for plurality.

Example 1: Wakma / Wakda = The two of us

Example 2: Hansu = These

Example 3: Yangsu = Them

Example 4: Akusu = Those

Example 5: Wakguru = Us

AdverbsEdit

The adverbial form of an adjective uses the prefix "No-." Adverbs uses the same tenses as adjectives.

Example: No'ugata = (had jumped) highly

VerbsEdit

Verb put addfixes in the following order.

Root-Negative-Tense-Mood-Aspect-Voice-Number

NegativeEdit

The negative is "-na-."

Example: Ta wamaci Ta mamuya likunaketzaico / Ta wadaci ta daduya likunaketzaico = The house doesn't talk to the water

VoiceEdit

Active: -zai-

Used to tell that the subject is doing the verb.

Example: Ta wamaci ta mamuya likuwanketzaisu / Ta wadaci ta daduya likuwanketzaisu = The house talks to the water / The house is talking to the water

Passive: -ra-

Used to tell that the subject is being affected by the verb.

Example: Ta wamaci ta mamuya likuwanketrasu / Ta wadaci ta daduya likuwanketrasu = The house is talked by the water

Reciprocal: -to-

Used to tell that both the object & the object causes the verb.

Example: Ta wamaci ta mamuya likuwantoki / Ta wadaci ta daduya likuwantoki = The house and the water talked

Reflexive: -gun-

Used to tell that both the subject is the same as the object.

Example: Ta wamaci likutagunki / Ta wadaci likutagunki = The house talked to itself

MoodEdit

Indicative: -ket-

Used to tell that the verb is happening, had happen, or will happen.

Example: Ta wamaci likuwanketzaiki / Ta wadaci likuwanketzaiki = The house did talked / The house does talk

Conditional: -ba-

Used to tell that the verb would or would have happen.

Example: Ta wamaci likutabazaikuco / Ta wadaci likutabazaikuco = The house would have talked

Jussive: -fu-

Can be used in two ways.

1) It tells that, under the right circumstances, the action should happen.

Example: Ta wamaci likuyafuzaikuki / Ta wadaci likuyafuzaikuki = (If this is true, than) the house should talk

2) It tells that the verb is a suggestion or a demand.

Example: Wak likufuzaikuki = Talk to me

Inferential: -fo-

Used to tell that the action is being told by someone who did not witnessed the event.

Example: Ta wamaci likuta'fozaiki / Ta wadaci likutafozaiki = A'ccording to (him), the house talked

Potential: -ri-

Used to tell that the verb is likely to happen.

Example: Ta wamaci likuyarizaikusu / Ta wadaci likuyarizaikusu = The house is likely to talk

Interrogative: -so-

Used to question if the action will happen.

Example: Ta wamaci likuya'sozai / ta wadaci likuyasozai = W'ill the house talk?

NumberEdit

Verbs uses the same prefixes for numbers as nouns do.

Example: Ta wamaci likutaketzaima / Ta wadaci likutaketzaida = The house talked twice

Example: Ta wamaci likuwanketzaimutsa / Ta wadaci likuwanketzaidutsa = The house isn't talking as much

Example: Ta wamaci likutaketzaiyai / Ta wadaci likutaketzaiyai = The house has talked several times

Example: Ta wamaci likuwanketzaikama / Ta wadaci likuwanketzaikada = The house never stops talking

Example: Ta wamaci likutaketzaigen / Ta wadaci likutaketzaigen = Don't know haow many times the house has talked

TenseEdit

Verbs uses the same prefixes for tense as adjectives do.

Example: Ta wamaci likutaketzai / Ta wadaci likutaketzaisu = The house had talked before

Example: Ta wamaci likuwanketzai / Ta wadaci likuwanketzaitsa = The house is talking

Example: Ta wamaci likuyafuzai / Ta wadaci likuyafuzaikusu = The house will talk soon

AspectEdit

Perfective: -ta-

Used to indicate the whole action without withouts it's temporal structure.

Example: Ta wamaci likutakettazaiki / Ta wadaci likutakettazaiki = The house has talked

Progressive: -mi- / -di-

Used to tell that the action is ongoing & changing.

Example: Ta wamaci likuwanketmizaikuyai / Ta wadaci likuwanketdizaikuyai = The house is still talking, more so than ever

Stative: -len-

Used to tell that the action is ongoing but not changing.

Example: Ta wamaci likuwanketlenzaikuyai / Ta wadaci likuwanketlenzaikuyai = The house is still talking

Cessative: -tung-

Used to tell that the action has ended.

Example: Ta wamaci likuwankettungzaiyai / Ta wadaci likuwankettungzaiyai = The house has stoped talking

Defective: -she-

Use to tell that an action almost happened

Example: Ta wamaci likutaketshezaico / Ta wadaci likutaketshezaico = The house almost talked

Pausative: -ruk-

Used to tell that the action momentarilly stopped.

Example: Ta wamaci likuwanketrukzaikuyai / Ta wadaci likuwanketrukzaikuya = The house had stoped talking for a brief moment.

Intentional: -bao-

Used to tell that the action was done intentionally

Example: Ta wamaci likutaketbaozaisu / Ta wadaci likutaketbaozaisu = The house intentionally talked

ArticlesEdit

Definitive: Ta

Example: Ta maci / Ta daci = The house

Indefinitive: Ka

Example: Ka maci / Ka daci = A house

ParticlesEdit

Word-OrderEdit

Word order is free, though a Verb-Subject-Object, Possessed-Possesser, & Noun-Adjective are common.

VocabularyEdit

 The following will be change at some point.


No. English Pola-Mira
1IWak
2you (singular)Kuma
3heYang
4weWaksu
5you (plural)Kumasu
6theyYangsu
7thisHan
8thatAku
9hereHan gama
10thereAku gama
11whoSan batu
12whatSan
13whereSan gama
14whenSan tok
15howSan trak
16not
17all
18many
19some
20few
21other
22one
23two
24three
25four
26five
27bigUga
28longWai
29wideWimu
30thickNye
31heavyGerek
32smallUtu
33shortSri
34narrowLing
35thinLing
36womanHake
37man (adult male)Abara
38man (human being)Batu
39childLik
40wife
41husband
42motherAp hake
43fatherAp abara
44animal
45fish
46bird
47dog
48louseMaci
49snake
50worm
51treeTiri
52forestTirigara
53stickPit
54fruit
55seed
56leaf
57root
58bark
59flower
60grass
61rope
62skin
63meat
64blood
65bone
66fat
67egg
68horn
69tail
70feather
71hairTrai
72headBek
73ear
74eyeIya
75noseTun
76mouthBata
77tooth
78tongue
79fingernail
80foot
81legGani
82kneeT'en
83handPahu
84wing
85bellyUbu
86guts
87neck
88back
89breastBeci
90heart
91liver
92drinkLuti
93eatYako
94biteCep
95suck
96spit
97vomit
98blow
99breathe
100laugh
101see
102hear
103know
104think
105smell
106fear
107sleep
108live
109die
110kill
111fight
112hunt
113hit
114cut
115split
116stab
117scratch
118dig
119swim
120fly
121walkGapa
122come
123lie
124sitCin
125standBeca
126turn
127fall
128give
129hold
130squeeze
131rub
132wash
133wipe
134pull
135push
136throw
137tie
138sew
139count
140say
141sing
142play
143float
144flow
145freeze
146swell
147sun
148moon
149star
150waterMuku
151rainEbera
152riverTereci
153lake
154seaApa
155salt
156stone
157sandPasa
158dust
159earthTroku
160cloud
161fog
162sky
163wind
164snow
165ice
166smoke
167fire
168ash
169burn
170road
171mountain
172red
173green
174yellow
175white
176black
177night
178day
179year
180warm
181cold
182full
183new
184old
185good
186bad
187rotten
188dirty
189straight
190round
191sharp
192dull
193smooth
194wet
195dry
196correct
197near
198far
199right
200left
201at
202in
203with
204and
205if
206because
207name


Example textEdit

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