|Nouns decline according to...|
|Verbs conjugate according to...|
This is a reconstruction of the language that which all Pola Languages descended from. It has been assumed to have been spoken in nearly all of California before splitting into the four languages spoken there today. It has been assumed that the language may be distantly be related to Iranian. Some also compare the language to the Semitc languages as well as Japanese.
Neo-Pola, Proto-Pola with an extended vocabulary, is a recent invention used for literature.
Pola, or something close to it, is used for the name of all eight Pola languages uses. Thus, it itself is the name for the laguage family. The to main subdivision are named after the reconstruction of their next part of their name. The division is devided by the use of "m" and "d", Mira and Dira. It has been assumed that Polamira or Poladira is a whole word without an adfix, but linguists do find it handy to use Pola, Mira, & Dira seperately. The names of the Pola languages give a clue what kind of soundshifts have occured.
Pola-miya = r becomes y
Pola-mas = r becomes s, vinal vowel drop in large words, simple vowel shift
Pila-mariya = complex vowel shift
Pol-mor = Vowel loss, simple vowel shift
Pola-la = d becomes l, simple vowel shift
Poli-dia = r is dropped, simple vowel shift
Palo-dia = r is dropped, simple vowel shift
Por-dora = l becomes r, simple vowel shift, vowel loss
There are other differences, notably grammatical ones, but these are the ones evident from the names alone.
|Flap or tap||r|
Additionally, Proto-Pola had the following palatalized consonants, ny, py, ky, cy, ly, ry, & hy.
Proto-Pola destinguashes between short & long vowels.
|Short Front||Long Front||Short Central||Long Central||Short Back||Long Back|
Proto-Pla does not have a standard way of writing, while Neo-Pola uses the Pola Alphabet, just as every other Pola language. The Pola-Alphabet is very distinct & is inrelated to any known writing system. It is written from left to right.
Latinized Neo-Pola uses Ao for Au, Th for T', Kh for K', & uses vowels with a horizontal line over them instead of using :.
An apstrophy is used to separate vowels so as to not confuse them for diphthongs.
The basic word structure is (C)(C)V(C).
There are only two possible clusters, "tr" & "sr".
Final consonants include n, ng, p, t, & k. Ng is only found on endings.
Nouns uses prefexes for case.
Used to identify the subject.
Example: Wamaci / Wadaci = House
Accusative: Ma- / Da-
Used to identify the direct object.
Example: Mamaci / Dadaci = House
Used to indicate that the word is the cause of the action.
example: Ta h'amaci / Ta h'adaci = Because of the house
Use to identify the inderect object.
Example: Yamaci / Yadaci = House
Used to identify a location.
Example: Ta y'emaci / Ta y'edaci = In the house
Used to identify possession.
Example: Ta s'hi'maci / Ta s'hidaci = Of the house / (Owned) b'y the house
Nouns have a complex list of numbers.
Minus: -mu- / -du-
Used for if a word is of smaller numbers than another, or is of diminishing numbers.
Example: Macimusu mukusu / Dacidusu dukusu = F'ewer houses than water / L'ess houses than water
Used for if a word is of larger numbers than another, or is of growing numbers.
Example: Maci'kuyai mumuyai / Dacikuyai duduyai = M'ore houses than water
Used for a word that is absent or taken away.
Example: Macico / Dacico = No houses / House (is gone)
Example: Maciki / Daciki = One house
Dual: -ma / -da
Example: Macima / Dacida = Two houses
Example: Maciwa / Daciwa = Three houses
Example: Macicya / Dacicya = Four houses
Example: Maciba / Daciba = Five houses
The amount that qualifies as a few may very depending on the word itself or when compared to another word. It is often used as the default. Otherwise, -ki is used.
Example Macisu / Dacisu = (a) Few houses
Used as a midway between few & many.
Example: Macitsa / Dacitsa = (Fair) amount of houses
Example: Maciyai / Daciyai = Alot of houses
Very lage amount: -gura
Example: Macigura / Dacigura = Hundreds & hundreds of Houses
Used as a mixture of "Very Large Amount" & "Uncertain."
Example: Macigara / Dacigara = (Not sure, but it was) alot of houses
Unlimited: -kama / -kada
Used for when a word truely is unlimited
Example: Ka macikama / Ka dacikada = An endless amount of houses
Example: Maci'gen / Dacigen = D'on't know how many houses / (Was there) any houses?
Adjectives have five tenses.
Remote Past: -tu
Example: Ka ugatu maciki / Ka ugatu daciki = A big house from way back
Recent Past: -ta
Example: Ka ugata maciki / Ka ugata daciki = A big house from not so long ago
Example: Ka ugawan maciki / Ka ugawan daciki = A big house right now
Near Future -ya
Example: Ka ugaya maciki / Ka ugaya daciki = A big house soon
Remote Future -hu
Example: Ka ugahu maciki / Ka ugahu daciki = In the future, (there will be) a big house
You (singular): Kuma / Kuda
Demonstrative & Interrogative PronounsEdit
Pronouns uses the same prefixes for nouns for plurality.
Example 1: Wakma / Wakda = The two of us
Example 2: Hansu = These
Example 3: Yangsu = Them
Example 4: Akusu = Those
Example 5: Wakguru = Us
The adverbial form of an adjective uses the prefix "No-." Adverbs uses the same tenses as adjectives.
Example: No'ugata = (had jumped) highly
Verb put addfixes in the following order.
The negative is "-na-."
Example: Ta wamaci Ta mamuya likunaketzaico / Ta wadaci ta daduya likunaketzaico = The house doesn't talk to the water
Used to tell that the subject is doing the verb.
Example: Ta wamaci ta mamuya likuwanketzaisu / Ta wadaci ta daduya likuwanketzaisu = The house talks to the water / The house is talking to the water
Used to tell that the subject is being affected by the verb.
Example: Ta wamaci ta mamuya likuwanketrasu / Ta wadaci ta daduya likuwanketrasu = The house is talked by the water
Used to tell that both the object & the object causes the verb.
Example: Ta wamaci ta mamuya likuwantoki / Ta wadaci ta daduya likuwantoki = The house and the water talked
Used to tell that both the subject is the same as the object.
Example: Ta wamaci likutagunki / Ta wadaci likutagunki = The house talked to itself
Used to tell that the verb is happening, had happen, or will happen.
Example: Ta wamaci likuwanketzaiki / Ta wadaci likuwanketzaiki = The house did talked / The house does talk
Used to tell that the verb would or would have happen.
Example: Ta wamaci likutabazaikuco / Ta wadaci likutabazaikuco = The house would have talked
Can be used in two ways.
1) It tells that, under the right circumstances, the action should happen.
Example: Ta wamaci likuyafuzaikuki / Ta wadaci likuyafuzaikuki = (If this is true, than) the house should talk
2) It tells that the verb is a suggestion or a demand.
Example: Wak likufuzaikuki = Talk to me
Used to tell that the action is being told by someone who did not witnessed the event.
Example: Ta wamaci likuta'fozaiki / Ta wadaci likutafozaiki = A'ccording to (him), the house talked
Used to tell that the verb is likely to happen.
Example: Ta wamaci likuyarizaikusu / Ta wadaci likuyarizaikusu = The house is likely to talk
Used to question if the action will happen.
Example: Ta wamaci likuya'sozai / ta wadaci likuyasozai = W'ill the house talk?
Verbs uses the same prefixes for numbers as nouns do.
Example: Ta wamaci likutaketzaima / Ta wadaci likutaketzaida = The house talked twice
Example: Ta wamaci likuwanketzaimutsa / Ta wadaci likuwanketzaidutsa = The house isn't talking as much
Example: Ta wamaci likutaketzaiyai / Ta wadaci likutaketzaiyai = The house has talked several times
Example: Ta wamaci likuwanketzaikama / Ta wadaci likuwanketzaikada = The house never stops talking
Example: Ta wamaci likutaketzaigen / Ta wadaci likutaketzaigen = Don't know haow many times the house has talked
Verbs uses the same prefixes for tense as adjectives do.
Example: Ta wamaci likutaketzai / Ta wadaci likutaketzaisu = The house had talked before
Example: Ta wamaci likuwanketzai / Ta wadaci likuwanketzaitsa = The house is talking
Example: Ta wamaci likuyafuzai / Ta wadaci likuyafuzaikusu = The house will talk soon
Used to indicate the whole action without withouts it's temporal structure.
Example: Ta wamaci likutakettazaiki / Ta wadaci likutakettazaiki = The house has talked
Progressive: -mi- / -di-
Used to tell that the action is ongoing & changing.
Example: Ta wamaci likuwanketmizaikuyai / Ta wadaci likuwanketdizaikuyai = The house is still talking, more so than ever
Used to tell that the action is ongoing but not changing.
Example: Ta wamaci likuwanketlenzaikuyai / Ta wadaci likuwanketlenzaikuyai = The house is still talking
Used to tell that the action has ended.
Example: Ta wamaci likuwankettungzaiyai / Ta wadaci likuwankettungzaiyai = The house has stoped talking
Use to tell that an action almost happened
Example: Ta wamaci likutaketshezaico / Ta wadaci likutaketshezaico = The house almost talked
Used to tell that the action momentarilly stopped.
Example: Ta wamaci likuwanketrukzaikuyai / Ta wadaci likuwanketrukzaikuya = The house had stoped talking for a brief moment.
Used to tell that the action was done intentionally
Example: Ta wamaci likutaketbaozaisu / Ta wadaci likutaketbaozaisu = The house intentionally talked
Example: Ta maci / Ta daci = The house
Example: Ka maci / Ka daci = A house
Word order is free, though a Verb-Subject-Object, Possessed-Possesser, & Noun-Adjective are common.