Proto-Southern Horn

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Morphological Type: Agglutinative
Morphosyntactic Alignment: Nominative-Accusative
Linguistic Head: Head Initial
Word Order: SOV
Made by: Maxseptillion77

General InformationEdit

The proto-language for all language spoken on the continent of Qorbnaclim on the conworld of Qorbna

Phonology and OrthographyEdit

Written forms in bold


Labial Coronal Palatal Velar Uvular
Nasal m nː n¹ n (ɲ) (ŋ)
Plosive p b bʱ p b ph t d dʱ t d th c ɟ tj dj k g k g
Fricative f v f v s z s z ʃ ʒ sj zj ʁ gh
Liquid r ɻʷ r wr y
Lat. Fricative ɬ ɮ łh ł ʎ̝̊ ʎ̝ łjh łj
Lat. Liquid l ʎ lj

¹ [n] can function as a vowel (hence the long "vowel" [nː] and short [n]); it's [ŋ] before velars and uvulars and [ɲ] before palatals

Other DigraphsEdit

​- [tɬ]


Note that diphthongs count as one full vowel in addition of the pure vowels.

Front Central Back
High iː ɪ í i uː ʊ ú u
Mid ɛː e é e œː ø ǿ ø ə ə ɔː o ó o
Low aː ɐ á a
Diphthongs: [oɪ̯], [ɪ̯œː], [aːʊ̯], [ʊɪ̯], [ɪ̯ɔː], [ɪ̯ɛː], [eɪ̯], [oʊ̯]
Written:     oe    eo     áu     ui    eó     ié     ei    ou


All long/stressed vowels and syllabic [n] (short and long) must have tone, but short vowels cannot. They can be (with example letter, a): sharp rising, á ([˩˥]); slow rising ā ([˩˦˥]); sharp falling, à ([˥˩]); and slow peaking, â ([˩˦˥˩]). Note that these are the same for n: ń, n̄, ǹ, n̂, and n for [nː˩˥, nː˩˦˥, nː˥˩, nː˩˦˥˩, n]. 


Only long vowels and geminate syllabic [n] can be stressed. Stress is ultimate or penultimate if the last vowel is lax. In morphological forms, the long vowel in the stem or the closest one thereafter is stressed. [ə] can never be stressed


Below is the largest possible word pattern


Where V̆ = lax vowel, V̂ = lax or stressed vowel, V̄ = stressed vowel, and V̇ = [ə] or a liquid


  • If there is a syllabic [n], it can only be surrounded by single consonants
  • Finals can only be: [m, n, j, r, ʁ, ʎ, k, p]
  • Consonant clusters cannot begin with a plosive (except [tɬ] and breathy voice) or liquid (except [r])
  • Laterals cannot be in consonant clusters (except [tɬ])
  • Breathy voice plosives can only begin a cluster
  • [j] cannot preceed [e], [iː], [ø], or [ɪ]
  • Liquids must preceed a consonant except finally
  • [ɻʷ] cannot preceed [uː], [ʊ], [o], or [ø]




Class IEdit

Class I nouns are those which end with -um, -om, -øm.

gônøm - tree Null Singular Plural
Countable Uncountable
Nominative gônøk gôn(əgônøn gônør
Vocative gônøm gônør
Accusative gônøsek gônøste gônøsen gônøser
Dative gônøze gônøzem gônøzer
Ablative gônøzer gônøzeren
Genitive Personal gônøl gônøn gônør
Impersonal gônøli gônølin gônølir

¹ – when the stem consonant before the ending isn't a permissable final consonant


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