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Proto-Taspin is the language of the south east lands in Bidunia. This is the most ancient classical language of the people who first migrated into the area.

Proto-Taspin
Type Agglutinative
Alignment Tripartite
Head direction Initial
Tonal No
Declensions Yes
Conjugations Yes
Genders
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Meta-information
Progress 88%
Statistics
Nouns 100%
Verbs 98%
Adjectives 100%
Syntax 67%
Words 163 of 500
Creator Bryce16


Classification and DialectsEdit

This language diverged into several dialects that became their own languages.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Stops p t k
Asp Stops ph th kh
Eject Stops p' t' k'
Fricatives s h
Approximant w j
Trill r
Flap or tap r

VowelsEdit

Front Central Back
High i u
Mid e o
Low a

PhonotacticsEdit

Writing SystemEdit

Letter
Sound
Letter
Sound
Letter
Sound

GrammarEdit

NounsEdit

There are nine cases in PT that have no particular order. They are all suffixes that are added onto the root word.

Absolutive Edit

The ABS case is unmarked on the noun. Adjectives, however, take an "o" suffix to agree with an ABS noun.

Ergative Edit

"-e"

Accusative Edit

"-u"

Dative Edit

"-o"

Genitive Edit

"-um"

Ablative Edit

"-a"

Instrumental Edit

"-aj"

Vocative Edit

"-ir"

Locative Edit

"-i" Edit

Adjectives Edit

Adjectives come after the noun they modify, and they agree with them only in case.

Comparative Edit

The comparative form of an adjective adds the suffix '-us'

Superlative Edit

The superlative form of an adjective adds the suffix '-(e)rn'

Extremitive Edit

The extremitive form of an adjective adds the suffix '-jot''

Moderative Edit

The moderative form of an adjective adds the suffix '-ha'

Permanentive Edit

The permanentive form of an adjective adds the suffix '-akhi'

Temporal Edit

The temporal form of an adjective adds the suffix '-own'

Prepositions Edit

Most prepositions (Ps) are pretty straight forward. You just have to decline the noun following it to get a different shade of meaning. A physical stative P uses the LOC case, physical dynamic the ABL case, temporal the GEN case, and***?

VerbsEdit

Verbs are separated into various types, and they are distinguished by their suffixes. Verb types 1, 2, 3, 4 are respectively "-ir(-)", "-an(-)", "-is(-)", and "-aj(-)". On every verb are two obligatory markers, tense and aspect. Mood suffixes are optional.

Tense Edit

All tense markers are prefixes that attach to the beginning of the verb, before the aspect marker.

Past Edit

The past tense is used as one would expect. The prefixes "k'a-" and "aŋ-" are used respectively with verb types 1/3 and 2/4.

Recent Past Edit

The recent past tense is used to describe verbs that are relatively recent. This varies wildly between verbs. This may be in the past few hours with the verb "eat", but in the past few weeks when you "climbed" a tree. There is only one suffix, "p'i-".

Present Edit

The present tense is marked with the prefixes "the-", for verb types 1 and 2, and "er-", for types 3 and 4.

Immediate Future Edit

The immediate future is used just as relatively as the recent past. It varies from verb to verb, and can be anywhere from later that day to in a month or two. There is one suffix, "no-".

Future Edit

The future is marked with the prefixes "ju-" for verb types 1 and 4, and "um-" for types 2 and 3.

Aspect Edit

The aspect markers are attached between the tense marker and the verb itself. They are really just a consonant because the vowel following the consonant marker assimilates to the same one used in the tense marker.

Perfective Edit

The perfective aspect is used for verbs that have been completed by the time of the corresponding tense. The perfective marker is "-ph(V)-"

Inceptive Edit

The inceptive aspect is marked with "-s(V)-". It is used for verbs that are just starting at the tense indicated.

Imperfective Edit

The imperfective indicates verbs that have already begun, but haven't finished. It is marked with "-t'(V)-".

Gnomic Edit

The gnomic aspect is an odd one. It was and is used to mark truths about the world and facts that cannot be disputed, but it is believed that the speakers of PT had already begun to use this aspect for facts of all kinds, including feelings, truths, and beliefs. It conveys a stronger message. It is marked with "-m(V)-".

Durative Edit

The durative aspect signals that a verb is lasting for a little period of time. It has already begun and will keep going for a while, but will eventually stop. This applies to the wind blowing to playing an instrument. It uses "-w(V)-".

Mood Edit

Negative Edit

The negative mood is used just like Japanese. To specify that an action is not done, this mood is used. There are two morphemes that signify the mood. For 1 and 3 type verbs, the suffix "-mo" is used. For verb types 2 and 4, the suffix "-nu" is used.

E.g.

"-mo" "-nu"
Imirmo so misik P'iphik'anenu the su
PRES-GNO-be-NEG 1.SG-ABS bad REC-PFV-see-NEG 2.SG-ERG 1.SG-ACC
I am not bad You didn't just see me
Interrogative Edit

The interrogative mood is used to ask yes or no questions. The suffix "-kho" is added to verb types 1 and 2, and the suffix "-par" is added to types 3 and 4.

"-kho" "-par"
Thet'enomthirkho mopoo ŋa kenujopou mopoum
PRES-IPFV-play-INTERR 3.PL-ABS with friend-PL-ACC 3.PL-GEN
Do they play with their friends?
Conditional Edit

The conditional mood is used to express doubt, hypothetical situations, or irrealis statements. The suffixes "-sup" and "-he" are used respectively for verb types 1/4 and 2/3.

Desiderative Edit

The desiderative is used to express wants and desires that are your own. This is usually just used for tangible things, other wishes are expressed with the DEO. The suffixes are "-naws", and it is used with all verb types.

Deontic Edit

The deontic is used for quite a few different things. It is used as an imperative, but it is also used as an optative to express your desires and wishes. The suffix "-m" is used on all verb types.

Voice/Valency changes Edit

Active Edit

There is no marking on verbs for the active voice. Transitive verbs and intransitive ones stay intransitive.

E.g.

Thet'epintan so t'orii

PRES-IPFV-live 1.sg-ABS house-LOC

I live in a house

E.g.

P'iphip'annu se phuŋau tho

REC-PFV-ask-NEG 1.sg-ERG question-ACC 2.sg-DAT

 I didn't just ask you a question

Passive Edit

The passive construction is marked by the suffix "wi" on the verb. Like many passives, it takes the ACC and makes it the ABS. The original ERG argument can be left off or placed back in as an ABL. Intransitive verbs cannot be passivised. This construction is most useful for relative clauses, for only the ABS may be relativised.

E.g.

Aŋphak'ane se pik'u

PAST-PFV-see 1.SG-ERG tree-ACC

I saw a tree

Transformation:

Aŋphak'anewi pik' sa

PAST-PFV-see-PASS tree-ABS 1.SG-ABL

A tree was seen by me

Causative Edit

The causative is the only valency increasing construction in Proto-Taspin. It is the suffix "(i)k'" attached to the verb. With an intransitive verb, the ABS becomes the ACC and the causer becomes the ERG. With a transitive verb, the ACC stays the ACC, but the ERG gets demoted to DAT and the causer becomes the ERG. With a ditransitive verb,***************

E.g. 1 argument

Ert'et'isi tho

PRES-IPFV-run 2.SG-ABS

you are running

Transformation:

Ert'et'isik' sopoe thu

PRES-IPFV-run-CAUS 1.PL-ERG 2.SG-ACC

I made you run

E.g. 2 arguments

Thesek'ane se nurarumu

PRES-INCEP-see 1.SG-ERG light-PROX-ACC

I'm starting to see the light

Transformation:

Thesek'anek' se nurarumu tho

PRES-INCEP-see-CAUS 1.SG-ERG light-PROX-ACC 2.SG-DAT

I'm making you start to see the light

Antipassive Edit

This construction is used exclusively for the relative clause formation. It does not make any sense to use this construction outside of them because they are semantically equivalent. It also has SVO order. When going from ACT to ANTIP with a transitive verb, the suffix "mar" is added to the verb, the ERG becomes ABS, and the ACC becomes INSTR. For intransitive verbs, just add the suffix and flip the order. When this clause is used, the beginning clause usually needs to be passivised in order for the ABS to be the subject of both clauses. Auxilliary stuff (like ABL, DAT, INSTR) are usually placed before the Rel clause, but may go after too.

E.g. 2 arguments:

Ert'ephaja k'ate ŋesu

PRES-IPFV-drink person-ERG water-ACC

A person drinks water

Transformation:

K'at ert'ephajamar ŋesaj

person-ABS PRES-IPFV-drink-ANTIP water-INSTR

A person who drinks water

Application:

K'awasiriwi sa k'at aŋt'aphajamar ŋesaj

PAST-DUR-love-PASS 1.SG-ABL person-ABS PAST-IPFV-drink-ANTIP water-INSTR

For a while was loved by me a person who drank water

For a while, I loved a person who drank water

Middle Edit

The middle voice in PT is used for three things: reflexives, impersonal statements when the subject and patient are the same (the window broke), and emotions (ich fühle mich gut). The suffix is "-oŋ" and it attaches to the verb.

Reflexive Use:

P'iphijot'anoŋ so ihe pharamrumum

REC-PFV-wash-MID 1.SG-ABS on day.summer-PROX-GEN

I washed myself today.

Impersonal Statements:

K'amakowisioŋ khamo thum

PAST-GNO-break-MID plant-ABS 2.SG-GEN

Your plant broke.

Emotions:

Ert'emart'ajaoŋ so rokhin

PRES-IPFV-find-MID 1.SG-ABS happy

I find myself happy.

I feel happy.

SyntaxEdit

StressEdit

The stress of PT is a mostly fixed antepenultimate system with the stress on the 3rd to last syllable. The exception is when there is an ejective in the ultimate or penultimate position. These are treated as special syllables and the closest syllable to the end, the 3rd or closer ejective preceded syllable, will get the stress.

E.g. Nurak'áne = wake up = ejective triggered stress

       Jósaphon = cool/cold = regular antepenultimate stress

Complementizer Clauses Edit

Complementizer clauses are easy because they just use the CONJ "kho" meaning "that".

E.g. I said that I was hungry.

I dreamt that I flew in the sky.

Relative Clauses Edit

Relative clause are a bit more complicated than C clauses. The only thing that can be relativized is the absolutive case and PPs. This ABS must be lined up between the two clauses

Prepositional Phrases Edit

PPs are easy to relativize. The object of the P is replaced with a pronoun with the correct case, and is placed between the two sentences.

E.g. The day I met you was a good day.

Was day good on it met I you.

PAST-GNO-be day.summer-ABS good-ABS on 3.SG-GEN PAST-INCEP-know 1.SG-ERG 2.SG-ACC

Amir pharam k'orthio ihe mum aŋsajaman se thu.

Ergative Edit

To relativize the ergative argument, the clause must use the antipassive voice to turn ERG into ABS.

Accusative Edit

To relative the accusative argument, use the passive voice to turn ACC into ABS.

Other Cases Edit

To relativize other cases, the most common strategy is using a separate sentence.

E.g. I cut the bread with a knife. It was sharp.

Lexicon Edit

Example textEdit

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