Proto-Taspin is the language of the south east lands in Bidunia. This is the most ancient classical language of the people who first migrated into the area.
|Nouns decline according to...|
|Verbs conjugate according to...|
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Classification and DialectsEdit
This language diverged into several dialects that became their own languages.
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The comparative form of an adjective adds the suffix '-us'
The superlative form of an adjective adds the suffix '-(e)rn'
The extremitive form of an adjective adds the suffix '-jot''
The moderative form of an adjective adds the suffix '-ha'
The permanentive form of an adjective adds the suffix '-akhi'
The temporal form of an adjective adds the suffix '-own'
Most prepositions (Ps) are pretty straight forward. You just have to decline the noun following it to get a different shade of meaning. A physical stative P uses the LOC case, physical dynamic the ABL case, temporal the GEN case, and***?
The negative mood is used just like Japanese. To specify that an action is not done, this mood is used. There are two morphemes that signify the mood. For 1 and 3 type verbs, the suffix "mo" is used. For verb types 2 and 4, the suffix "nu" is used.
|Imirmo so misik|
|PRES-GNO-be-NEG 1.SG-ABS bad|
|I am not bad|
Voice/Valency changes Edit
There is no marking on verbs for the active voice. Transitive verbs and intransitive ones stay intransitive.
Thet'epintan so t'orii
PRES-IPFV-live 1.sg-ABS house-LOC
I live in a house
P'iphip'annu se phuŋau tho
REC-PFV-ask-NEG 1.sg-ERG question-ACC 2.sg-DAT
I didn't just ask you a question
The passive construction is marked by the suffix "wi" on the verb. Like many passives, it takes the ACC and makes it the ABS. The original ERG argument can be left off or placed back in as an ABL. Intransitive verbs cannot be passivised. This construction is most useful for relative clauses, for only the ABS may be relativised.
Aŋphak'ane se pik'u
PAST-PFV-see 1.SG-ERG tree-ACC
I saw a tree
Aŋphak'anewi pik'o sa
PAST-PFV-see-PASS tree-ABS 1.SG-ABL
A tree was seen by me
The causative is the only valency increasing construction in Proto-Taspin. It is the suffix "(i)k" attached to the verb. With an intransitive verb, the ABS becomes the ACC and the causer becomes the ERG. With a transitive verb, the ACC stays the ACC, but the ERG gets demoted to DAT and the causer becomes the ERG. With a ditransitive verb,***************
E.g. 1 argument
you are running
Ert'et'isik' sopoe thu
PRES-IPFV-run-CAUS 1.PL-ERG 2.SG-ACC
I made you run
E.g. 2 arguments
Thesek'ane se nurarumu
PRES-INCEP-see 1.SG-ERG light-PROX-ACC
I'm starting to see the light
Thesek'anek' se nurarumu tho
PRES-INCEP-see-CAUS 1.SG-ERG light-PROX-ACC 2.SG-DAT
I'm making you start to see the light
This construction is used exclusively for the relative clause formation. It does not make any sense to use this construction outside of them because they are semantically equivalent. It also has SVO order. When going from ACT to ANTIP with a transitive verb, the suffix "mar" is added to the verb, the ERG becomes ABS, and the ACC becomes INSTR. For intransititve verbs, just add the suffix and flip the order. When this clause is used, the beginning clause usually needs to be passivised in order for the ABS to be the subject of both clauses. Auxilliary stuff (like ABL, DAT, INSTR) are usually placed before the Rel clause, but may go after too.
E.g. 2 arguments:
Ert'ephaja k'ate ŋesu
PRES-IPFV-drink person-ERG water-ACC
A person drinks water
K'ato ert'ephajamar ŋesaj
person-ABS PRES-IPFV-drink-ANTIP water-INSTR
A person who drinks water
K'awasiriwi sa k'ato aŋt'aphajamar ŋesaj
PAST-DUR-love-PASS 1.SG-ABL person-ABS PAST-IPFV-drink-ANTIP water-INSTR
For a while, I loved a person who drank water
Middle voice? Edit
The stress of PT is a mostly fixed antepenultimate system with the stress on the 3rd to last syllable. The exception is when there is an ejective in the ultimate or penultimate position. These are treated as special syllables and the closest syllable to the end, the 3rd or closer ejective preceded syllable, will get the stress.
E.g. Nurak'áne = wake up = ejective triggered stress
Jósaphon = cool/cold = regular antepenultimate stress