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Proto-Taspin

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Proto-Taspin is the language of the south east lands in Bidunia. This is the most ancient classical language of the people who first migrated into the area.

Proto-Taspin
Type Agglutinative
Alignment
Head direction initial
Tonal No
Declensions Yes
Conjugations Yes
Genders
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Meta-information
Progress Expression error: Unexpected < operator.%
Statistics
Nouns Expression error: Unexpected < operator.%
Verbs Expression error: Unexpected < operator.%
Adjectives Expression error: Unexpected < operator.%
Syntax 0%
Words of 1500
Creator [[User:|]]


Classification and DialectsEdit

This language diverged into several dialects that became their own languages.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Stops p t k
Asp Stops ph th kh
Eject Stops p' t' k'
Fricatives s h
Approximant w j
Trill r
Flap or tap r

VowelsEdit

Front Central Back
High i u
Mid e o
Low a

PhonotacticsEdit

Writing SystemEdit

Letter
Sound
Letter
Sound
Letter
Sound

GrammarEdit

NounsEdit

Adjectives Edit

Comparative Edit

The comparative form of an adjective adds the suffix '-us'

Superlative Edit

The superlative form of an adjective adds the suffix '-(e)rn'

Extremitive Edit

The extremitive form of an adjective adds the suffix '-jot''

Moderative Edit

The moderative form of an adjective adds the suffix '-ha'

Permanentive Edit

The permanentive form of an adjective adds the suffix '-akhi'

Temporal Edit

The temporal form of an adjective adds the suffix '-own'

Prepositions Edit

Most prepositions (Ps) are pretty straight forward. You just have to decline the noun following it to get a different shade of meaning. A physical stative P uses the LOC case, physical dynamic the ABL case, temporal the GEN case, and***?

VerbsEdit

Tense Edit

Aspect Edit

Mood Edit

Negative Edit

The negative mood is used just like Japanese. To specify that an action is not done, this mood is used. There are two morphemes that signify the mood. For 1 and 3 type verbs, the suffix "mo" is used. For verb types 2 and 4, the suffix "nu" is used.

E.g.

"mo" "nu"
Imirmo so misik
PRES-GNO-be-NEG 1.SG-ABS bad
I am not bad
Interrogative Edit
Conditional Edit
Desiderative Edit
Deontic Edit

Voice/Valency changes Edit

Active Edit

There is no marking on verbs for the active voice. Transitive verbs and intransitive ones stay intransitive.

E.g.

Thet'epintan so t'orii

PRES-IPFV-live 1.sg-ABS house-LOC

I live in a house

E.g.

P'iphip'annu se phuŋau tho

REC-PFV-ask-NEG 1.sg-ERG question-ACC 2.sg-DAT

 I didn't just ask you a question

Passive Edit

The passive construction is marked by the suffix "wi" on the verb. Like many passives, it takes the ACC and makes it the ABS. The original ERG argument can be left off or placed back in as an ABL. Intransitive verbs cannot be passivised. This construction is most useful for relative clauses, for only the ABS may be relativised.

E.g.

Aŋphak'ane se pik'u

PAST-PFV-see 1.SG-ERG tree-ACC

I saw a tree

Transformation:

Aŋphak'anewi pik'o sa

PAST-PFV-see-PASS tree-ABS 1.SG-ABL

A tree was seen by me

Causative Edit

The causative is the only valency increasing construction in Proto-Taspin. It is the suffix "(i)k" attached to the verb. With an intransitive verb, the ABS becomes the ACC and the causer becomes the ERG. With a transitive verb, the ACC stays the ACC, but the ERG gets demoted to DAT and the causer becomes the ERG. With a ditransitive verb,***************

E.g. 1 argument

Ert'et'isi tho

PRES-IPFV-run 2.SG-ABS

you are running

Transformation:

Ert'et'isik' sopoe thu

PRES-IPFV-run-CAUS 1.PL-ERG 2.SG-ACC

I made you run

E.g. 2 arguments

Thesek'ane se nurarumu

PRES-INCEP-see 1.SG-ERG light-PROX-ACC

I'm starting to see the light

Transformation:

Thesek'anek' se nurarumu tho

PRES-INCEP-see-CAUS 1.SG-ERG light-PROX-ACC 2.SG-DAT

I'm making you start to see the light

Antipassive Edit

This construction is used exclusively for the relative clause formation. It does not make any sense to use this construction outside of them because they are semantically equivalent. It also has SVO order. When going from ACT to ANTIP with a transitive verb, the suffix "mar" is added to the verb, the ERG becomes ABS, and the ACC becomes INSTR. For intransititve verbs, just add the suffix and flip the order. When this clause is used, the beginning clause usually needs to be passivised in order for the ABS to be the subject of both clauses. Auxilliary stuff (like ABL, DAT, INSTR) are usually placed before the Rel clause, but may go after too.

E.g. 2 arguments:

Ert'ephaja k'ate ŋesu

PRES-IPFV-drink person-ERG water-ACC

A person drinks water

Transformation:

K'ato ert'ephajamar ŋesaj

person-ABS PRES-IPFV-drink-ANTIP water-INSTR

A person who drinks water

Application:

K'awasiriwi sa k'ato aŋt'aphajamar ŋesaj

PAST-DUR-love-PASS 1.SG-ABL person-ABS PAST-IPFV-drink-ANTIP water-INSTR

For a while, I loved a person who drank water

Applicative? Edit
Middle voice? Edit

SyntaxEdit

LexiconEdit

Example textEdit

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