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Proto-Tongiva

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Name: Proto-Tongiva

Type: Synthetic

Alignment: Accusative

Head Direction: First

Number of genders: Two

Declensions: Yes

Conjugations: Yes

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No Yes No No No No No
Nouns Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No
Adjectives No No Yes No No No No No
Numbers No No Yes No No No No No
Participles No No Yes No No No No No
Adverb No No Yes No No No No No
Pronouns No No Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No Yes No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No


SettingEdit

Proto-Tongiva (Lámg-Hunggììw) is a language spoken in the area of the Hogoonese culture, centered in the city of Hớgoońg. It was first spoken around 2230 BC, at the rise of the Hogoonese civilization. The Hogoonese syllabary was created around 1810 B.C.

PhonologyEdit

Romanization IPA
p [p]
b [ɓ]
[ʍ]
m [m]
ƀ [ɠɓ]
ń [ɲ]
n [n]
t [t]
d [ɗ]
n [n]
y [j]
ł [ð̞]
l [l]
k [k]
g [g]
h [x]
ng [ŋ]
w [w]
q [q]
ǥ [ʛ]
ħ [χ]
----------------------------
a [a]
e [e]
ɵ [ɵ]
i [i]
o [o]
ơ [ɤ]
u [u]
ư [ɯ]
y [ɨ]
----------------------------
ó [o˥]
ò [o˨˩]
o [o˧]
ô [o˥˧]
ǒ [o˧˥]
[o˧ʔ]


Basic GrammarEdit

The Proto-Tongva grammar is not complex, but it is irregular. It is VSO, pro-drop, head-initial, and wh-in-situ, with noun classifiiers.

Noun DeclensionEdit

Masculine NounsEdit

Most masculine nouns end in approximants, vowels, or nasals.

Nominative proper definite indefinite
singular -l -g
dual -la -ga -bà
plural -mơng -mag -s


Accusative proper definite indefinite
singular -le -ge -b
dual -lem -gem -bàm
plural -lơng -meg -bàs


Ablative proper definite indefinite
singular d'-/da-l d'-/da-g d'/dừ-
dual d'-/da-m d'-/da-ga d'-/da-dàm
plural d'-/da-ng d'-/da-mag d'-/da-dàg


Transitive proper definite indefinite
singular ħ'-/ħa-l ħ'-/ħá-g ħ'/ħừ-
dual ħ'-/ħa-m ħ'-/ħá-ga ħaħ'-/ħaħa-m
plural ħ'-/ħa-ng ħ'-/ħá-mag ħaħ'-/ħaħa-g


Genitive proper definite indefinite
singular -lip -gap -bap
dual -lima -gama -babap
plural -limon -gad -bad


Vocative proper definite indefinite
singular (ǒ)-li (-) (-)
dual (ǒ)-lili (-) (-)
plural (ǒ)-liling (-) (-)

Proper nouns in this case include first and second person pronouns.

Feminine NounsEdit

Nominative proper definite indefinite
singular -wal -ag -âb
dual -wala -wag -bàg
plural -wơng -wamag -wàs


Accusative proper definite indefinite
singular -wale -weg -bèg
dual -wem -ƀwȩ -bȩ̀g
plural -łȩ̀g -wege -abàs


Ablative proper definite indefinite
singular d'-/da-wal d'-/da-ag d'/dừ-áb
dual d'-/da-wala d'-/da-wag d'-/da-ƀàg
plural d'-/da-ang d'-/da-amag d'-/da-dàs


Transitive proper definite indefinite
singular ħ'-/ħa-wal ħ'-/ħa-ag ħ'/ħừ-áb
dual ħ'-/ħa-wala ħ'-/ħa-wag ħ'-/ħa-ƀàg
plural h'-/ha-ang h'-/ha-amag h'-/ha-dàs


Genitive proper definite indefinite
singular -ilib -agib -àbà
dual -ilma -agma -àpà
plural -imon -ga -ba


Vocative proper definite indefinite
singular (ǒ)-il (-) (-)
dual (ǒ)-ilil (-) (-)
plural (ǒ)-iling (-) (-)

Other InflectionEdit

In words relating to and before a noun, the consonant and vowel last syllable is doubled, with the repitition following the following tone pattern loosely:

ó --> o

ò --> o, ô

o --> ò, ó

ô --> ô, ò

ǒ --> ô

ọ --> ô

In adverbs coming before a verb that occurs more than once, the same thing occurs.

Words coming after a noun have the same process, except on the first syllable. Masculine nouns cause the second repitition to hold the neutral tone, and feminine nouns cause it to hold the falling tone.

SyntaxEdit

DictionaryEdit

Example textEdit

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