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Proto-Wargish

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Proto-Wargish
ʋɒrɡraɳ
Type
Polysynthetic
Alignment
Transitive
Head direction
Variant
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
no
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

Proto-Wargish is the language of the eastern nomads that had flooded over the Cobalt Pass. It is a templated polysynthetic language - its verbs are structured according to a large, rigid template that allows for very little lateral movement.

PhonologyEdit

Consonants
Labial Alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Plosive p
(b)
t
d
ʈ
ɖ
k
ɡ
q
ɢ
Fricative Strident s
ʰs
ʂ
ʰʂ
Lateral ɬ ɬ:
ɮ ɮ:
Spirant ʝ
ʝ:
ɣ
ɣ:
ɦ
Approximant ʋ
ʰʋ
j
ʰj
ɰ
ʰɰ
Nasal Voiced m
m:
n
n:
ɳ
ɳ:
Voiceless ɳ̊
Liquid Rhotic r r: ɽ ɽ:
Lateral l l: ɭ ɭ:
Short Vowels
Front Center Back
Unrounded Rounded Unrounded Rounded Unrounded Rounded
High i ɨ ʉ u
Mid ɛ ø
œ
ɜ ɵ ɔ
Low a ɒ
Long Vowels
Front Center Back
High i: ɨ:
ʉ:
u:
Mid ɜ: ɔ:
Nasal Vowels
Front Center Back
ã ɜ̃ ɒ̃
Diphthongs
ɒ͡a
ɥ͡ø
ɥ͡ɵ

MorphologyEdit

Noun MorphologyEdit

Proto-Wargish has five declensions. The declensions divide nouns either by their stem ending or intransitive form, and thus alternate their endings accordingly. Each declension has its own special rules as four out of five feature stem alternation umlauts.

Noun Declensions
Class Example Meaning
First ʋɒrɡraɳ Wargish language
Second ɔrɜqɒnaɳa elf, fairy
Third ɬum̊aɳa night
Fourth jɵdɛnran love
Fifth Vocal n̊ʉɳɜɳ̊a island
Prevoiced darøʰjɛɳ̊a life, existence

First DeclensionEdit

The first declension in Proto-Wargish is a relatively common declension class. First declension nouns are nouns that end in a consonant that is isn't prevoiced, a voiceless nasal, or /ɦ/. They characteristically have an intransitive in <-a>. An example noun of the first declension is <ʋɒrɡran>, which has <ʋɒrɡa> as its intransitive.

Declension of *ʋɒrɡ- (proto-Wargish)
Case Form Suffix
Intransitive ʋɒrɡa -a
Transitive ʋɒrɡraɳ -raɳ
Genitive ʋɒrɡɜ̃m -ɜ̃m
Benefactive ʋɒrɡɒks -ɒks
Directive ʋɒrɡɛlɨ -ɛlɨ
Commutative ʋɵrɡɨq:ɨ -ɨq:ɨ
Oblique ʋɵrɡuʂɨ -uʂɨ
Vocative ʋɵrɡɨʰʋɨ -ɨʰʋɨ
Vialis ʋɒrɡɔn: -ɔn:

First declension nouns undergo umlaut of /ɒ > ɵ/ whenever the suffix attached to them begins in a high vowel and ends in /ɨ/.

Second DeclensionEdit

The second declension is the most common declension class of Proto-Wargish. Second declension nouns are those whose stems end in the same consonants as the first-declension nouns, but have an intransitive identical to the stem. An example second declension noun is <ɔrɜqɒn>.

Declension of *ɔrɜqɒn- (elf, fairy)
Case Form Suffix
Intransitive ɔrɜqɒn -\varnothing
Transitive ɔrɜqɒnaɳa -aɳa
Genitive ɔrɜqɒnɜ̃m -ɜ̃m
Benefactive ɔrɜqɒnaks -aks
Directive ɔrɜqɒnɛlɨ -ɛlɨ
Commutative ɔrɜqɒnɨq:ɛ -ɨq:ɛ
Oblique ɔrɜqɜnuʂɨ -uʂɨ
Vocative ɔrɜqɜnɨʰʋɨ -ɨʰʋɨ
Vialis ɔrɜqɜnʉn:ɨ -ʉn:ɨ

Second declension nouns undergo umlaut of /ɒ > ɜ/ whenever their suffix both begins and ends in a high vowel.

Third DeclensionEdit

The third declension in Proto-Wargish includes all nouns that end in /ɬ m̊ n̊ ɳ̊ ɦ/. An example noun of the third declension is <ɬum̊>.

Declension of *ɬum̊- (night, darkness)
Case Form Suffix
Intransitive ɬum̊ -\varnothing
Transitive ɬum̊aɳa -aɳa
Genitive ɬum̊ɜm -ɜm
Benefactive ɬum̊aks -aks
Directive ɬum̊ɨɰ -ɨɰ
Commutative
Oblique ɬum̊asa -asa
Vocative ɬum̊ɒmɛ -ɒmɛ
Vialis ɬum̊ʉn:ɨ -ʉn:ɨ

Third declension nouns undergo umlauts of /ɒ > ɜ/ and /a > ɔ/. The first is applied when the suffix begins and ends in either front or high vowels, while the second is applied when it both begins and ends in either back or low vowels.

Fourth DeclensionEdit

The fourth declension in Proto-Wargish includes nouns that that end in a consonant other than /ɬ m̊ n̊ ɳ̊/ or any prevoiced consonant and have an intransitive in <-ɔ>. An example noun of the fourth declension is <jɵdɛnran>, which has <jɵdɛnɔ> as its intransitive.

Declension of *jɵdɛn- (love, romantic affection)
Case Form Suffix
Intransitive jɵdɛnɔ
Transitive jɵdɛnran -ran
Genitive jɵdɛnɛm -ɛm
Benefactive jɵdɛnɛʰja -ɛʰja
Directive jɵdɛnɛɭɨ -ɛɭɨ
Commutative jɵdɛnɨqɨ -ɨqɨ
Oblique jɵdɛnukʂɨ -ukʂɨ
Vocative jɵdɛnɒmɛ -ɒmɛ
Vialis jɵdɛnʉnɨ -ʉnɨ

Fourth declension nouns undergo umlauts of /ɒ > ɜ/ and /a > ɔ/ under the same circumstances as the beforementioned declension.

Fifth DeclensionEdit

The fifth declension in Proto-Wargish is a split one.
It includes words ending in either vowels or in prevoiced consonants. The first are called "vocal" nouns and the second "prevoiced" nouns.
They usually share suffixes; their primary difference is in the fact that prevoiced nouns all take a thematic vowel while the vocal ones don't.

Declension of *ɖarøʰj- (existence, life from birth to death)
Case Form Suffix
Intransitive ɖarøʰju/ɖɒrøʰju -u
Transitive ɖarøʰjɛɳ̊a -ɛɳ̊a
Genitive ɖarøʰjɜ̃m -ɜ̃m
Benefactive ɖarøʰjɛɰ -ɛɰ
Directive ɖarøʰjɛʰʋa -ɛʰʋa
Commutative ɖarøʰjɨsɨ -ɨsɨ
Oblique ɖarøʰjɨkʂɨ -ɨkʂɨ
Vocative ɖarøʰjamɛ -amɛ
Vialis ɖarøʰju -u
Declension of *n̊ʉnɜ- (island)
Case Form Suffix
Intransitive n̊ʉnɜ -\varnothing
Transitive n̊ʉnɜɳ̊a -ɳ̊a
Genitive n̊ʉnɜm -m
Benefactive n̊ʉnɜɰ
Directive n̊ʉnɜʰʋa -ʰʋa
Commutative n̊ʉnɜsɨ -sɨ
Oblique n̊ʉnɜkʂɨ -kʂɨ
Vocative n̊ʉnɜmɛ -mɛ
Vialis n̊ʉnɜnu -nu

NumberEdit

Number on nouns in proto-Wargish isn't obligatory and is used only for explicit reference and emphasis. It is marked with a postfixed determiner.

Singular Dual Plural
V+ vɒ̃ ʋɜʂ ɣʉmː
V- ɰɒ̃ ɰɜs/ɰɜʂ ɰar

Here, the determiner has both the category of "V" and the category of number.

  • "V+" means that the noun ends in either a vowel or a prevoiced consonant.
  • "V-" means that the noun ends in any other consonant.

Collectiveness and Spatial DeixisEdit

Nouns in proto-Wargish can be marked to show collectiveness; a collective noun is taken to represent all the instances of its meaning at once, taken as a single whole. Collectiveness in proto-Wargish is conflated with spatial deixis; both are marked with the same postfixed determiner.

nul col
+S +R qɜs ɰar
-R qɒn ɰɨː
-S +R ʋɛj ɖɛ
-R ʋɨr/ʋɵr ɖakɒ

The determiner conflates deixis (indicated by the "R" and "S" tokens) with collectivity.

  • "+S" marks for proximity to the speaker, while "-S" marks for distance from the same.
  • "+R" marks for proximity to the verb's referent, while "-R" marks for distance from the same.
  • "nul" means no marking for collectivity occurs, while "col" is the opposite.

This determiner does not co-occur with the number marker.

Referent PronounsEdit

Proto-Wargish doesn't have personal pronouns and instead relies on a pronoun system referring to the referent. Proto-Wargish pronouns decline as regular nouns (with functioning umlauts).

SingularEdit

The singular pronouns feature the least distinctions found in proto-Wargish referent pronouns.

Singular Pronouns
inv vol
+P ʂɔːʰj ʂɒ͡an
-P ɳɔːj ɳɒ͡a
  • The "P" token refers to the position of the referent relative to the action; "+P" means the referent is in the direct vicinity of the action, while "-P" marks for the opposite.
  • inv marks for an involuntary or inanimate referent and vol marks for a voluntary or animate referent.

DualEdit

The dual pronouns distinguish a handful more features than their singular equivalents.

Dual Pronouns
-C +C
+R -R +P -P
inv +D ɖɜk nuʰʋ/nœʰʋ ɮɛm ɒs
-D rɨk/rɜk ɳ̊ɜʋ ʉki
vol +D rɨːp ɳ̊ɔːp ɮɜm/ɮɛm sɜʂ
-D ɰʋɒd aʰʋ/ɦaʰʋ qaɳɒ ɖɛt/ɖɛʈ
  • The "C" dimension refers to unity of the referents, also called clusivity. A value of "+C" means both the referents are in the same place and treated together, while "-C" means the referents are disjointed. The first is called the "conjoined state", while the second the "disjointed state".
  • "+R" and "-R" exist only under a disjointed state. While "+R" marks both referents are either present or absent from the action, "-R" marks that one is present and the other absent.
  • "+P" and "-P" exist only under a conjoined state. While "+P" marks both referents are present at the action, "-P" marks that they are both absent.
  • Just as in the singular, inv marks for involuntary or inanimate referents and vol marks for voluntary or animate referents. Additionally, inv is used for marking mixed-volition and mixed-animacy referents.

PluralEdit

The plural pronouns distinguish the most features in proto-Wargish pronouns.

Plural Pronouns
+C -C
+R -R +P -P
+DE VOL AAF sajɒ n̊ɒn̊ ɮu kɭɒq/kɭɒ͡a
RAF +D ɢʉː ɢɜɭː ɮɵʝ qɛs/qɒ̃s
-D ʈœn ʋɛɽ ɬːɛ ɥ͡ɵk
REC +D ɡɛɢɛ ʰsʉ ɒʰʋ
-D pɜ̃n/pɜ̃d ʰsɛm̊ ʰsʉ ɒnt
INV AAF sʉɬ ɳɒkɔ ɒʰj tnɛk
RAF +D qɜj ɡɛɢɛ ɣɒɣ kuʈ
-D ɢiː/kiː ɭɨː ʝɨː ɒqœʰj
REC +D saʂ nœ/nœp ʂɛʈɜ ɔːri
-D qɛs ɳɨː ʋɒ̃ra ɨɽ/ɽɨː
-DE VOL AAF qɛms qɜ̃n/qɜ̃d nãkɔ ɒdɛɖ
RAF +D ɬːɨ ɵta rɒ͡an ɜjdɛn
-D ɡɛs œpɛn ɛʰʋɛp ɭːɛ/ɭɛk
REC +D sɛm spak ɒpɛʂ n̊um
-D ʰsʉ/ʉʰs sqɛʂ ɒɢɛ kamː
INV AAF ɽɛʰʂ ɖɛkɨ ɮɨka ɒsɔː
RAF +D aɦja/sɒɦaj ɒp ãʂʈ slɛk
-D ɰut qʉɦɔ sɒkɨ ɒɦɛkɨ
REC +D ɖɛ ɭːɨ/ɭːʉ ɜ̃na ɨː/ʉː
-D pɛm ɽɔ ɜ̃psa
N VOL AAF rapɒ iːk ɔːk/ɔːq ɒjːaʰj
RAF ɒɣ/ɒɣɛs qʉːl sɵʝ/sɵj qɒ̃s
REC pɜ̃d nɨnɨɳ ɔʈ
INV AAF ɖɒ͡ak napa ɔsaɳ kaʰɰa
RAF ɣɒ̃ma ɔʂ ɭɛp
REC sɛlɛ røsɒ ɡɨp ɔsnɔ
  • Clusivity in plural pronouns works much like in the plural, where "+C" means all the referents are closely together, while "-C" means they are spread out and not pertingent to each other. The first is called the "conjoined state", while the second the "disjointed state".
  • "+R" and "-R" exist only under a disjointed state. While "+R" marks both referents are either present or absent from the action, "-R" marks that one is present and the other absent.
  • "+P" and "-P" exist only under a conjoined state. While "+P" marks both referents are present at the action, "-P" marks that they are both absent.
  • Just as in the dual, inv marks for involuntary or inanimate referents and vol marks for voluntary or animate referents. Additionally, inv is used for marking mixed-volition and mixed-animacy referents.
  • aaf, raf and rec are three elements of affection; aaf marks the referents for affecting the action directly, raf marks the referents as being affected directly by the action and rec marks the referents as both being affected by and themselves affecting the action.
  • The dimension of "DE" is destructivity; a value of "+DE" means that the action cannot be repeated by the referent after it has been carried out partly or fully due to the referents' fault, while "-DE" means that the action is repeatable. "N" marks for a nonspecific neutral state.
  • The dimension of "D" is dynamicity; a value of "+D" means the action causes some change in the referent while "-D" marks explicitly for no change.

Verb MorphologyEdit

Proto-Wargish verbs operate on the basis of an immensely complicated verb template with many interdependent affixes. Due to the very templatic nature of the morphology of the verb, we divide it into named and ordered slots into which affixes are fitted. In this chapter there is both a description of the structure of the main verb and of the structure of its dependent co-verbal clitic.

Due to the fact that Proto-Wargish features marking for non-core arguments and has active, productive noun incorporation, it is classifiable as a strictly polysynthetic language. It has elements of both agglutinating and fusional languages.

Main VerbEdit

The main Proto-Wargish verb is built upon the stem by adding prefixes and suffixes. Unlike in nouns, verbs exhibit no regular stem alternations: all changes in the stem are irregularities. The stem is normatively marked with a zero "0", while prefixes receive negative and suffixes positive numbering. Several slots are not actually numbered but instead receive a symbol marking their strong interdependence. The noun template is below:

Proto-Wargish Verb Template
Name Determiner Incorporated Directional Incorporated Referent Incorporated
Benefactive
Reciprocal
Reflexive
Benefactive Aspect Directional Stem Derivation Referent Position Transitivity Gnomicity Volition/Animacy Aspect Tense Telicity Aspect Realis Destructivity Effect Referent Involvement Perfectivity Irrealis Evidential Irrealis Subordinator
Position -6 -!5λ -!4 -3 -2 φ -1λ 0 +1 ρ +2 +3 +4 φ +5 +6 φ +7 +8 +9 ρ +10 ι +11 ι +12

The slots are fixed and immobile. Every affix can be found in exactly one of the slots. Some slots have affixes that either look alike or are identical to affixes in other slots, so sometimes a small amount of ambiguity may creep in.

Stem (0)Edit

The stem of a Proto-Wargish verb is its core. It is made up of either a bare root or a root with derivational affixes; occasionally, the stem may be made up only of affixes and lack an opaque root - this is called the zero-root stem - but this is quite uncommon.
Stems are generally immutable and all stem alternations in Proto-Wargish are counted as irregularities.

The stem encodes the basic semantic information of the verb and usually comes unmarked for grammatical categories. While it gives the basic semantic content of the verb, its meaning is most commonly somewhat vague and is refined further by derivational suffixes and inflectional affixes.

Proto-Wargish stems can be divided into a handful of categories:

  • Regular stems
    • "Rooted" stems - having a non-zero root
    • Zero-root stems - composed only of affixes
  • Irregular stems
    • Alternating - with slightly different forms based on grammatical categories
    • Suppletive
      • Dualistic stems - having two different stem shapes that encode for a binary property (ex. transitivity or telicity)
      • Triplistic stems - having three different stem shapes

Almost all verb stems belong to the regular category. There are no stems that are attested as having more than three suppletive stem shapes.

Derivation (+1)Edit

The derivational suffix in the Proto-Wargish verb template attaches directly to the stem of the verb. Due to the primarily semantic component of this slot, most of its properties are not described in this section. An important morphophonological property of this slot is that, when the stem ends in a consonant, the slot gets filled with an arbitrary thematic vowel, usually an echo vowel. If the stem is avocalic (lacking a vowel), the thematic vowel is consistently either /ɜ/ after palatals and retroflexes or /ɒ/ elsewhere.

Referent Inflection (ρ)Edit

Transitivity (+2)Edit

The transitivity slot features only a binary inflection of transitivity:

Transitivity Shape Gloss
-\varnothing itrn
-ɒʋ trn

Gnomicity (+3)Edit

The gnomicity slot features a binary inflection:

Gnomicity Shape Gloss
-\varnothing agnm
-ɜ̃ɮ gnm

Volition/Animacy (+4)Edit

Example textEdit

Language FamilyEdit

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