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Proto-Whisper

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Proto-Whisper
Type Fusional
Alignment Nominative-Accusative
Head direction Initial
Tonal No
Declensions Yes
Conjugations Yes
Genders 0
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Meta-information
Progress 0%
Statistics
Nouns 0%
Verbs 0%
Adjectives 0%
Syntax 0%
Words 0 of 1500
Creator AJFarmar


Classification and DialectsEdit

This is an initial sketch for Whisper, and has roots in English, Hebrew, Japanese, and French.

Phonology and RomanisationEdit

Consonants (with romanisation)Edit

Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar
Nasal - n [n] - -
Plosive p [p] t [t̪] - k [k]
Fricative f [f]

s [s]

x [ʃ]

q [tʃ] -
Lateral - l [l] - -
Tap/Flap - t [ɾ] - -


Vowels (with romanization)Edit

Front Near-front Central Back
Close i [i] - - -
Open-mid - e [ɛ] - o [ɔ]
Near-open - - a [ɐ] -

PhonotacticsEdit

  • A [ʰ] cannot occur in the middle of a word, and [ɾ] cannot end or begin a word. The letter 't' can stand for both, but can be clearly derived from context.
  • Vowels can only follow a consonant, and dipthongs are dissalowed.
  • 'f', 'x', and 'q' cannot follow or be followed by a consonant.
  • 'x' and 'q' cannot end a word.
  • [pɔ] cannot start a word, exept plurals. See 'nouns' below.
  • Each vowel must follow a consonant.

GrammarEdit

PronounsEdit

Subject Emphatic Possesive  adjective
Me ni nin nina
You ki kin kina
It/Him/Her

te

ten tena
Who/What qe qen qena

NounsEdit

Nouns have a plural form. To make a noun plural, prepend 'po' to the word. For example:

  • 'panana'  -> "Banana"
  • 'popanana' -> "Bananas"

Another example:

  • 'ni' -> "Me'
  • 'poni' -> "Us" (ambiguous inclusivity)

NumbersEdit

Numbers are adjectives most of the time, thus prepend a noun.

Number Word
1/a/an ne
2 qita
3 xalos
4 kat
5 sin
6 leke
7 sene
8 qit
9 nafe
0/none sel
10 selat
100 kaket
1 000 saset

Other numbers are constructed as you'd expect:

  • 127 - 'kaket qita selat sene'
  • 3 546 -> 'xalos saset sin selat kat selat leke'
  • 45 -> 'kat selat sin'
  • 10 000 -> 'selat saset'
  • 5 000 000 -> sin saset saset'

There is but one exception: forty. This is because bible/torah verses often refer to the number forty. Ie: 40 days and 40 nights, 40 years in the desert, etc. If I am going to base this on hebrew at all, or make some effort to translate bible verses, I think this may be a novel idea:

Number Word
40 kalon

VerbsEdit

All verbs end in '-o', and conjugate replacing that ending. Verb conjugates due to person, but not number.

Indicative
(do)
Person Ending
ni -ol
ki -ol
te -o
qe -on
Past Continuous
(was doing)
Person Ending
ni -otol
ki -otol
te -ot
qe -oton
Definite Future
(will do)
Person Ending
ni -opol
ki -opol
te -opo
qe -opon
Indefinite future
(may/would do)
Person Ending
ni -oxol
ki -oxol
te -oxo
qe -oxon

Present participle (doing): -e

This is used with 'xo' to create the present tense. Ie: "I am doing" -> 'Ni xol xape.'

Past participle (done): -epe 

This is used with 'xo' and 'ko' to create the perfect tense. Ie: "I have done" -> 'Ni kol xapepe'. "I was done" -> 'Ni xol xapepe'.

Examples:

  • To be, 'xo': 'ni xol Tanlel' -> "I'm Daniel".
  • To like, 'leko': 'te lekot kin lo!' -> "He/She liked you."
  • To injure, 'kano': 'qe kanopon kin ka?' -> "Who's going to hurt you?"
  • To like, 'leko': 'ni lekoxol ne panana' -> "I would like a banana."

To use the negative, use the adjective 'sel' (0/nothing) as an adverb by placing it before the verb:

  • 'ni sel xol Tanlel' -> "I'm not Daniel."
  • 'te sel lekot kin' -> "He/She didn't like you."

SyntaxEdit

  • Adjectives prepend nouns.
  • Adverbs are adjectives that prepend verbs.
  • Prepositions and indirect objects follow the object.
  • Expression markers append a sentence.

There are two clause markers:

  • 'pi' - "That". This is followed by a sentence in a suitable tense that describes context. Eg: "I want you to like it." can be changed to "I want that you like it", which translates as Ni selol pi ki lekol te.
  • 'si' - "Who/Which". This is followed by a subject-less sentence in a suitable tense which describes the noun that it follows. Eg: "I like the banana which was bad" translates as Ni lekol panana ni xo sat.

Expression markers describe the feeling with which the sentence is constructed:

  • 'ka' - Question marker. Marks a question.
  • 'lo' - Exclamation marker. Marks a sentence with strong feeling or indignation. Can also mark sarcasm.
  • 'ne' - Confirmation marker. Like saying "Isn't it?" or "Right?"

LexiconEdit

VerbsEdit

English Whisper
to be xo
to have ko
to like leko
to want selo
to do/make xapo
to wound kano
to eat pasito
to build sano
to count namelo
to name kalo
to say/speak kitpo
to suck/inhale qeno
to blow/exhale keno
to live lanpato
to work telabo
to be born neto
to beget/be parent to/give birth to pelto
to die telto
to kill keloto
to save teloto

to spread/distribute/scatter

sasto
to plan to cause kexo
to go lipo
to come kelipo
to go up tasano
to come down teseno
to breathe qekeno
to stop tonalo
to lose fekato
to find kekato
to destroy tantalo
to be able to pefelo
to think penselo
to believe korolo
to hate kilalo
to trust telelo
to suspect saspelo
to release/let go/let out/let into peto
to hold/keep back/restrict pekto
to understand kendo
to misunderstand nalkendo
to explain xepano
to confuse kenpano
to start setato
to resume/continue lesto
to finish/complete kenleto

Example textEdit

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