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Name: Proto-Xās

Type: Agglutinating, Synthetic, Isolating

Alignment: Ergative

Head Direction: Final (?)

Number of genders: Five (?)

Declensions: Yes

Conjugations: Yes

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect


Proto-Xās is reconstructed hypothetical ancestor of the three Xahan language families.

Due to the lack of written evidence of Proto-Xās, it has been reconstructed using various methods from both the reconstructed and recorded parts of the "Big Three".



Bilabial Labiode. Dental Alveol. Postalve. Retrofl. Palatal Velar Uvular Radical
Plosives *p *p' *t *t' *k *k'
Fricatives *s *ʃ (x) *x (h) *H' *Hw *Hʕ *H
Lateral Fricatives
Lateral Affricates
Nasals *m *n
Flaps / taps
Glides Approxim. *i̯ (j)  *a̯ (w)
Lateral Appr.
Co-art. approx.


Front Near front Central Near back Back
Open-mid *ɛ (e) *ɛ: (ē) *ɔ (o) *ɔ: (ō)
Open *a (a) *a: (ā)


The basic syllable in Proto-Xās was mainly made up of (C)CN(C) forms, but the maximum form allowed for:

(C) (C) C N (C) (C) (C)

This structure means that each nucleus must be surrounded by at least one and at most three consonants on either end.

The nucleus could be any of the following:

  • A, Ā, E, Ē, O, Ō, J, W (last two written as <I> and <U> when nuclear respectively )

Basic GrammarEdit

Due to the extremely varied nature of its descendants, certain features of Proto-Xās (such as pronouns) could not be fully reconstructed.


PX. had a mild to medium complexity nominal system, with at least five genders, 9 cases and three numbers. Gender was added as an agglutinative suffix to cases and numbers were added only in the "Template" case postpositions.


There are 9 cases in PX. They are traditionally ordered as follows:

  1. Ablative
  2. Ergative
  3. Genitive
  4. Absolutive
  5. Dative
  6. Vocative
  7. Locative
  8. Instrumental
  9. "Template"/Postpositional

These suffixes are attached to the root itself.

Case Suffix
Absolutive -\varnothing
Ergative -ak
Genitive -nāx
Ablative -kāHʕ
Dative -ek
Vocative -sāHweh
Locative -āH'
Instrumental -nāH
"Template" -ym
Template CaseEdit

The Template case was infunctional without the postpositions. These postpositions were in various places in daughter languages reinterpreted as case suffixes.

The postpositions are listed below under "Postpositions"


These reconstructions are very dubious and not very accurate, at best. The best reconstructions cite five genders, grouped under two supergenders:

Genders and Suffixes
Inanimate Animate
Cold Hot Fluid Solid Animate
-Hʕāh -haq -p'yH -xas -(naHw)

These gender suffixes were strapped on to case suffixes.


PX. had a vast array of postpositions, most being locational and used together with the "Template". There was a three-dimensional system of suffixes, binding together type (Location, Destination, Origin), position (ON, AT, IN) and distance (Proximate, Distal, General).

Proximate Distal General
Location Destination Origin, From
ON xaq xyr ~ xēy xēs ~ xaq
AT xēr xās ~ xeH' xāHʕ ~ xax
IN xas xēy ~ xaHw
Location Destination Origin, From
ON pān pēx pāHʕt
AT pak psak pēt'
IN pHāt pēsk pHwek
Location Destination Origin, From
ON nēH nasp' nāH
AT nt'āk nys naHʕ
IN nH'ah nēhx neys


Example textEdit

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