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Proto Csillan/Lexicon

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Word PoS Meaning

afɯ

con

or

agz

con

if

ajn

post

without [+GEN] away from [+ALL]

āktɯ

post

around [+LOC]

āno

adv

very, intensely, greatly

bzaw

post

near [+LOC], towards [+ALL]

bzēwo, bzēɣɯ, bzēɣa

n

arrival, coming

dīwzalo, dīwzalɯ, dīwzala

n

Csillan, inhabitant of Csilla

dīwzɯ, dīwzɯj, dīwzo

n

earth, ground, land

dōfo, dōfɯ, dōfa

n

air, breeze, wind, breath, life

dol

post

with, along [+GEN] among [+LOC]

dzīwzeto, dzīwzetɯ, dzīwzeta

n

Csilla

dzoteto, dzotetɯ, dzoteta

n

birdkind

dzotije, dzotiji, dzotiɣa

n

hummingbird, songbird

dzoto, dzotɯ, dzota

n

bird, avian

dzotoɣa, dzotoje, dzotoɣaw

n

bird of prey

effo, effɯ, effa, efpɯ, efpa

adj

breathing, animate, lively

ēɣɣze, ēɣɣzi, ēɣɣza, ēɣɣdi, ēɣɣda

adj

round, spherical

ējola, ējole, ējolaw

adj

temporal, temporary

ejoto, ejotɯ, ejota, ejodɯ, ejoda

adj

avian, flying, feathered, nomadic

ejtɯ, ejtɯj, ejto, ejdɯj, ejdo

adj

fragile, offshooting, spreading

ēkje, ēkji, ēkɣa, ēkfi, ēkfa

adj

celestial, heavenly

elko, elkɯ, elka, elgza

n

culinary, of food, edible

enozɯ, enoze, enoza, enode, enoda

adj

growing in earth/soil

eŋsa, eŋse, eŋsaw, eŋte, eŋtaw

adj

new, vibrant, childish

eŋseto, eŋsetɯ, eŋseta

n

childhood

et

post

concerning, of [+GEN]

ēwleto, ēwletɯ, ēwleta, ēwledɯ, ēwleda

adj

visual

ēwso, ēwsɯ, ēwsa, ēwtɯ, ēwta

adj

vital, central

fim

adv

here

fimeto, fimetɯ, fimeta

n

presence, “here-ness”

fŋte, fŋti, fŋta, fŋda

adj

sandy, gritty

ɣālo, ɣālɯ, ɣāla

pro

relative pronoun

ɣaza, ɣazɯ, ɣazaw

n

uantity, amount

ɣazeto, ɣazetɯ, ɣazeta

n

thing, everything

ɣɯjla, ɣɯjle, ɣɯjlaw

n

egg, fetus, unborn offspring

ɣɯ̄sa, ɣɯ̄se, ɣɯ̄saw

n

person, Chiss

ɣɯ̄sije, ɣɯ̄siji, ɣɯ̄siɣa

n

child, kid

ɣɯwtelko, ɣɯwtelkɯ, ɣɯwtelka, ɣɯwtelgzɯ, ɣɯwtelgza

v

survive, subsist

īgzbe, īgzbi, īgzba, īgzpi, īgzpa

adj

high, lofty, elevated

igzze, igzzi, igzza, igzdi, igzda

adj

denominating, distinctive, identifying

imko

post

behind, after [+LOC], beneath, under [+GEN]

inne, inni, inna, inli, inla

adj

wet, liuid, slippery

iŋza, iŋze, iŋzaw, iŋde, iŋdaw

adj

many, much

iwwo, iɣɣɯ, iɣɣa, iwkɯ, iwka

adj

botanical, green, growing

jīne, jīni, jīna

n

water, liuid

jīneto, jīnetɯ, jīneta

n

ocean, sea

jīnīje, jīnīji, jīnīɣa

n

droplet

jīnoɣa, jīnoje, jīnoɣaw

n

lake, pond

jiwzēɣɣze, jiwzēɣɣzi, jiwzēɣɣza, jiwzēɣɣdi, jiwzēɣɣda

v

bend, make round

jiwzejtɯ, jiwzejtɯj, jiwzejto, jiwzejdɯj, jiwzejdo

v

scatter, disperse (trans only)

jiwzenozɯ, jiwzenoze, jiwzenoza, jiwzenode, jiwzenoda

v

cultivate, grow, plant

jiwzēwleto, jiwzēwletɯ, jiwzēwleta, jiwzēwledɯ, jiwzēwleda

v

demonstrate, show

jiwzīgzbe, jiwzīgzbi, jiwzīgzba, jiwzīgzpi, jiwzīgzpa

v

raise, elevate, incline

jiwzinne, jiwzinni, jiwzinna, jiwzinli, jiwzinla

v

lubricate, moisten

jiwzlgzse, jiwzlgzsi, jiwzlgzsa, jiwzlgzti, jiwzlgzta

v

inspire, encourage

jowo, joɣɯ, joɣa

n

shrub, bush

jowoɣa, jowoje, jowoɣaw

n

tree

jowojeto, jowojetɯ, jowojeta

n

forest, jungle

kējje, kējji, kēɣɣa

n

beast, ravenous animal

kējo, kēɣɯ, kēɣa

n

animal, creature

kje

adv

there

kjeto, kjetɯ, kjeta

n

place, location

kɯ̄ml

adv

then, after that

kɯzēwleto, kɯzēwletɯ, kɯzēwleta, kɯzēwledɯ, kɯzēwleda

v

be seen, appear, seem

kodfe

adv

too (much), excessively

kol

post

to, towards [+ALL], against [+GEN]

kos

pro

you (unstressed)

kōza, kōze, kōzaw

n

utterance, sound, speech

kōzeto, kōzetɯ, kōzeta

n

language, tongue

kōzije, kōziji, kōziɣa

n

babbling, gibberish

ksino, ksinɯ, ksina

pro

that (demonstr)

ksōɣ

con

because

l, la (before l)

pref

negativizer

laŋno

adv

again, another time

lgzse, lgzsi, lgzsa, lgzti, lgzta

adj

hot, enflamed, empassioned

libeto, libetɯ, libeta

n

maternity

libi, libej, libe

n

mother, child-bearer

libi, libej, libe, lipej, lipe

adj

maternal, motherly

liboɣa, liboɣɯ, liboɣaw

n

grandmother

lke

post

on, on top of [+LOC], over, across [+ALL]

lɯ̄se, lɯ̄si, lɯ̄sa

n

heat, fire

lɯ̄soɣa, lɯ̄soɣɯ, lɯ̄soɣaw

n

the sun

lōj

con

though

maɣe, mazi, maɣa

pro

I (emphatic)

mate, mata, mati

n

sand, soil, sediment

ɯ̄fza, ɯ̄fze, ɯ̄fzaw, ɯ̄fde, ɯ̄fdaw

adj

spoken, oral

mjē

post

for, because of [+GEN], from, away from, out [+ALL]

ɯksa, ɯkse, ɯksaw, ɯkte, ɯktaw

adj

having human (chiss) uality

ɯkseto, ɯksetɯ, ɯkseta

n

mankind (chiss-kind)

mli

adv

enough

ɯ̄tjo, ɯ̄tɣɯ, ɯ̄tɣa, ɯ̄tlɯ, ɯ̄tla

adj

living, active

ɯwne, ɯwni, ɯwna, ɯwli, ɯwla

adj

paternal, fatherly

ɯwneto, ɯwnetɯ, ɯwneta

n

paternity

ɯzila, ɯzile, ɯzilaw, ɯzine, ɯzinaw

adj

primordial, rudimentary

nakɯ, nakɯj, naka

pro

general interrogative

ntēk

post

across, through [+ALL], deep within [+LOC]

ŋalɯ, ŋalɯj, ŋala

pro

this (demonstr)

ŋoɣɯ, ŋoɣɯj, ŋoja

n

girth, size

obzde

con

until

ōfke, ōfki, ōfka, ōfzi, ōfgza

adj

melodious, sing-song, musical

ojtwo, ojtɣɯ, ojtɣa, ojtfɯ, ojtfa

adj

coming, moving, arriving

ōŋteld

adv

perhaps, maybe

psɯ̄ze, psɯ̄zi, psɯ̄za

n

label, name

psɯ̄zije, psɯ̄ziji, psɯ̄ziɣa

n

nickname, pet name

psoke, psoki, psoka

n

song, melody

psokije, psokiji, psokiɣa

n

lullaby, children’s song

con

but, yet

siteto, sitetɯ, siteta

n

plant life

sitɯ, sitɯj, sito

n

leaf, foliage, branch

sɯ̄be, sɯ̄bi, sɯ̄ba

n

height, summit

sōnmɯ

adv

thus, in this way

tak

pro

I (unstressed)

taketo, taketɯ, taketa

pro

ego, personality

tasi, tasej, tase

n

infant, child, birth, growth

teko, tekɯ, teka

n

food, cuisine, meat

telo, telɯ, tela

pro

you (emph)

tɯ̄je, tɯ̄ji, tɯ̄ɣa

n

sky, heaven

tɯ̄jije, tɯ̄jiji, tɯ̄jiɣa

n

roof, ceiling

tola, tole, tolaw

n

eyeball

toleto, toletɯ, toleta

n

sight, vision

toso, tosɯ, tosa

n

heart, core, center

totēŋkwe

adv

indeed, surely, certainly

tōz

adv

next

tse

con

and

tsējnɯ, tsējnɯj, tsējno

n

mouth, jaw

tsɯze, tsɯzi, tsɯza

n

sphere, ball, round object

tsɯ̄ze, tsɯ̄zi, tsɯ̄za

n

label, name

tsoɣɯ, tsoɣɯj, tsoɣo

n

hand, finger, grasp

tsōla, tsōle, tsōlaw

n

time, hour, day

tsōleto, tsōletɯ, tsōleta

n

eternity

wek

adv

now, at this time

wlpso

con

except, unless

wŋɣɯ, wŋɣɯj, wŋjo, wŋlɯj, wŋlo

adj

large, fat, heavy

wone, woni, wona

n

father, progenitor

woneffo, woneffɯ, woneffa, wonefpɯ, wonefpa

v

breathe, live

wonejoto, wonejotɯ, wonejota, wonejotɯ, wonejoda

v

fly, soar

wonejtɯ, wonejtɯj, wonejto, wonejdɯj, wonejdo

v

spread, expand, branch out, break off

wonelko, wonelkɯ, wonelka, wonelgzɯ, wonelgza

v

eat, consume

wonēwleto, wonēwletɯ, wonēwleta, wonēwledɯ, wonēwleda

v

see, look, observe

wonīgzbe, wonīgzbi, wonīgzba, wonīgzpi, wonīgzpa

v

climb, ascend

wonigzze, wonigzzi, wonigzza, wonigzdi, wonigza

v

call by name

woniŋza, woniŋze, woniŋzaw, woniŋde, woniŋda

v

populate, multiply

woniwwo, woniɣɣɯ, woniɣɣa, woniwkɯ, woniwka

v

grow, flourish

wonlibi, wonlibej, wonlibe, wonlipej, wonlipe

v

give birth, comfort, raise (ie, “do what a mother does”)

wonɯ̄fza, wonɯ̄fze, wonɯ̄fzaw, wonɯ̄fde, wonɯ̄fdaw

v

speak, talk, say

wonɯ̄fzɯɣa, wonɯ̄fzɯɣe, wonɯ̄fzɯɣaw, wonɯ̄fzɯgzaw

n

speaker

wonɯ̄tjo, wonɯ̄tɣɯ, wonɯ̄tɣa, wonɯ̄tlɯ, wonɯ̄tla

v

live, be alive

wonɯwne, wonɯwni, wonɯwna, wonɯwli, wonɯwla

v

beget, instruct, raise (ie, “do what a father does”)

wonōfke, wonōfki, wonōfka, wonōfzi, wonōfgza

v

sing, carry a tune, hum

wonoɣa, wonoɣɯ, wonoɣaw

n

grandfather

wonojtwo, wonojtɣɯ, wonojtɣa, wonojtfɯ, wonojtfa

v

come, arrive, move

post

by means of [+GEN]

zem

pro

he/she/it (unstressed)

post

at, in [+LOC]

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