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Provitano

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Provitan
Łengua Prôvitano (East), Łengua Provitano (West)
Type
Fusional
Alignment
NOM-ACC
Head direction
Head Initial
Tonal
No
Declensions
No
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
2
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



Third person singular present active indicative of "esser" used to be "é" it was recently (12.12.14) changed to "es" (He/she/it is).

General informationEdit

Provitan is a Western Romance Language that is spoken around Catalonia in Spain and in Western France. The Provitano spoken in Catalonia is the Western Variant (Łengua Provitana del hueste)) and the Provitano spoken in France is Eastern Variant (Łengua Prôvitana del Este). The Standard (Łengua Provitana Oficiala) is mainly based on the Western Variant. This usually comes in to play with some forms of words, word final vowels, and some pronunciation variations.

Note that while is says verbs conjugate for all 6 parts, they use synthetic forms for all people, moods, and numbers and most tenses but analitic forms for voice, some aspects and some tenses.

Due to code restrictions, rather than using pointy brackets to represent orthography as per IPA standards, I will be using dashes on either side.

Regional Variants Edit

Provitan is spoken in Catalonia and France. The main varieties are Western (Catalan) Provitan and Easter (French) Provitan. The differences between these two regions are usually minor but do affect the following areas (note that Standard Provitan is defined as the Western variant except where noted):

  • clusters originating as Latin -ct- reduce to -ch- in the West and to -it- in the East
  • [ʁ] is a nearly universal allophone of /r/ everywhere
  • While diphthongization of long vowels is more common than simply longer vowels, longer vowels do exist in the East while being totally absent in the West (Standard Provitan dictates lengthier vowels, not diphthongs, though diphthongs are widely accepted)
  • Geminate consonants -tl- -tł- -tm- -tn- are usually realized as short in the East.
  • 'ceu' is a recognized variant of 'cel' in the East and 'am' as a variant of 'con'
  • Many forms of the verb 'fer' are different (see the page on irregular verbs)
  • In the East, long /aː/ is realized as the more velar /ɑː/.
  • In the East final /l/ maybe vocalized into /w/
  • In the North of the Western variant, older speakers may be encountered that switch final /a/ and /aː/ with /ɔ/ and /ɔː/ respectively. (This is very rare now-a-days and completely non-standard).
  • Provitano is spelt without a long -o- in the West and with it in the East.
  • Some words vary slightly region to region but they are very rare. For example in the West 'die' for 'day' is more common despite 'jorno' being standard.
  • The biggest difference between the east and west as far as pronunciation goes is the pronunciation of 'u' and 'o'. In the east -u- is pronounced /y/ and -o- is pronounced /u/ virtually everywhere they occur. However, ò and ou remain /ɔ/ and /ow/
  • Click this link for more information

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial

Labio-dental

Dental

Alveolar

Post-alveolar

Palatal

Velar

Uvular

Nasal

m (m)

mː (tm)

n (n)

nː (tn)

ɲ (ñ)

Plosive

p (p)

b (b)

t (t)

d (d)

k (c)

g (g)

ks (x)

Fricative

f (f)

v (v)

s (s/ss/c/ç)

z (s/z)

ʃ (iz)

ʒ (g/j/ig)

[ʁ]†

Affricate

tʃ (ch)

dʒ (tg/tj/itg)

Approximant

j (i)

w (u)

Trill

r (r/rr)

Lateral app.

l (l)

lː (tl)

ʎ (ł)

ʎː (tł)

-c- represents /k/ before consonants and letters -a o u- (and variants such as â, ò etc.) and /s/ before -e i- (and variants such as ê, í etc.). Furthermore, -ç- is used before -a o u- for /s/ where necessary such as in feliç, feliços. always represents /s/.

The sound /ʃ/ is represented by the cluster -iz- at the end of a word and intervocalically. Note that the -i- part of the digraph -iz- does not form a yod-diphthong with the preceding vowel unless it is written -ïz- then the -i- forms a diphthong with the previous vowel.

The sound /dʒ/ is represented by -tg- before <e i> and variants and -tj- before all else. Also it can be represented by <itg> finally 

The sound /ʒ/ is represented by -g- before <e i> and variants and -j- before all else. Also it can be represented by <ig> finally 

[ʁ] is a dialectual variant of /r/ that occurs in Eastern Provitano.

VowelsEdit

Short Vowels Edit

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close

1 i (i)

4 u (u)

Close-mid

2 e (e)

3 o (o) 

Open-mid

2 ɛ (è)‡

3 ɔ (ò)‡
Open

2 a (a)

‡ Occur only in stressed syllables and must be marked regardless of whether they occur in a normally stressed syllable or an irregularly stressed syllable.

Reduced Vowels Edit

In Provitan, vowels may reduce in common speech. This varies East to West however,

Refer to the vowel charts below to determine reductions. You can tell because the number of the vowel in the above table corresponds to a number of a vowel quality in the tables below so for example all vowels labeled 2 in the above table are reduced to the one vowel labeled 2 below.

Vowel reductions occur in short vowels in unstressed syllables.

WESTERN REDUCTIONS

Front Central Back
Close

1 ɪ

4 u~ʊ~o

Mid 2 ə  3 o
Open

EASTERN REDUCTIONS

Front Near-front Central Back
Close

1 ɪ

4 u (u)

Mid 3 œ~o 2 ə  
Open

    Note: that accent marks are used to mark irregular stress (See below for stress rules) as follows:   

  • à    
  • é/è    
  • í    
  • ó/ò    
  • ú    

Long Vowels Edit

Unlike most Romance languages, Provitan contrasts short vowels with long vowels. Long vowels are sometimes realized as diphthongs, occur in any position regardless of stress, are never reduced, cannot form diphthongs with other vowels, are marked with a circumflex, and (like è and ò) must be marked in any position in a word

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close

iː (î)

yː (û)

uː (ô)

Middle

eː (ê)

 
Open

aː (â)

ɑː (â)‡‡

‡‡/ɑː/ occurs in place of /a:/ in the East as an allophone. 

/oː/ does not occur because due to a vowel shift, /oː/ shifted to /uː/ likewise /uː/ is not represented by -û- becuase the shift fronted that to /yː/.

Long vowels can occur in and out of stress syllables but may be allophonically reduced outside of stress.  

Long vowels are represented with a circumflex and are usually realized as diphthongs. As follows:

â --aː ~ aɒ̯

ê -- eː ~ eɪ̯ ~ aɛ̯

î -- iː ~ iɪ̯

ô -- uː ~ uʌ̯

û -- yː ~ yʏ̯

AlphabetEdit

The alphabet does not include accents, circumflexes, or cedilla. It also does not include digraphs. In proper collating order the alphabet is:

a b c d e f g h i j k l ł m n ñ o p q r s t u v w x y z (with -k-, -w- and -y- used only in borrowed words like kilowatt or Nova York.)

There is also -à é è í ó ò ú- which all mark stress on syllables in words where stress does not follow proper rules.

Also long vowels are written -â ê î ô û-.

Furthermore there are the polygraphs: ch, gu, gü, tg, tj, tl, tł, tm, tn, qu, qü, ig, itg iz, ss which are explained below section.

Soft and Hard -c- and -g- Edit

In Provitan -c- is hard and makes the /k/ sound before any consonant (except h) and the vowels [a à â o ó ò ô u ù û ü]. It is soft and makes the /s/ sound before [e é è ê i í î ï]. Furthermore, -ç- is soft everywhere that -c- isn't and can only be used in such positions. The -qu- digraph represents /k/ everywhere that -c- is normally soft and represents /kw/ everywhere that -c- is normally hard. To represent /kw/ before a normally soft -c- position use -qü-

In the forming of noun plurals and gender changes, the final soft or hard -c- (whichever is present in the masculine singular) is preserved. For example

  • científic (masculine singular 'scientist') ➜ científiques (feminine plural 'scientists')
  • aqua (feminine singular 'water) ➜ aqües (feminine plural 'waters')

In Provitan -g- is hard and makes the /g/ sound before any consonant and the vowels [a à â o ó ò ô u ù û ü]. It is soft and makes the /ʒ/ sound before [e é è ê i í î ï]. Furthermore, -j- is soft everywhere that -g- isn't and can only be used in such positions. The -gu- digraph represents /g/ everywhere that -g- is normally soft and represents /gw/ everywhere that -g- is normally hard. To represent /gw/ before a normally soft -g- position use -gü-

In the forming of noun plurals and gender changes, the final soft or hard -g- (whichever is present in the masculine singular) is preserved. For example

  • łengua (feminine singular 'language') ➜ łengües (feminine plural 'languages')

When it comes to verbs, forms of the same verb usually preserve the sound present in the infinitive.

  • płegar (arrive), jo płego (I arrive), jo płegue (may I arrived), tu płegues (may you arrive), etc.
  • chercar (search), jo cherco (i search), jo cherque (may I search), tu cherques (may you search) etc.
  • seguir (follow), jo sego (I follow), tu segues (you follow), etc.

Diphthongs Edit

Diphthongs are fairly straightforward when it comes to vowels:

With in a word vowels -a e è o ò- can combine with -i- to form the respective falling diphthongs that is /aj ej ɛj oj ɔj/. The diphthong /uj/ does not exist and -ui- are always realized as /wi/

In any position -a e è o ò- may combine with -u- to form the respective diphthongs, that is /aw ew ɛw ow ɔw/

Furthermore, when -i- appears before a short vowel it becomes a rising diphthong /j/ + SHORT VOWEL. This can occur with any short vowel. Same goes for -u- to form the diphtong /w/ + SHORT VOWEL.

When -iu- occurs word finally /iw/ takes precedent over /ju/

Combinations such as -ae- or -oa- are not technically diphthongs and in careful speech are two seperate vowels, though in fast speech -e- acts as -i- and -o- acts as -u- to form diphthongs.

Tremas ( ¨ ) can be used on letters to separate diphthongs as in països /paˈis.os/. An accent mark on the semivocalic part of a diphthong can also indicate stress as well as force a hiatus such as in país /paˈis/. See the section on stress to learn more about when to use a diaeresis and when to use a written accent

Consonant Clusters Edit

In Latin, the initial clusters: -cl- -pl- -fl- -l- -bl- often palatalized in the Romance language. In Provitan, -cl- -pl- and -l- palatalize.

In Provitan:

  • -cl- becomes -ch- pronounced /tʃ/. (Example: clamarechamar; Cf. Spanish llamar & Portuguese chamar).
  • -pl- becomes -pł- which is analyzed as /pʎ/ but realized as /ʎ/ in the West and /pj/ in the East. (Example: plenus płejo; Cf. Spanish lleno & Portuguese cheio).
  • -l- becomes -ł- pronounced /ʎ/. (Example: lavarłavar; Cf. Catalan llavar).

These are not universal in the Romance languages. For example -pl- -cl- mutations are unheard of in Catalan and -l- mutations are less common in Spanish while being heavily present in Catalan. Furthermore, -bl- mutations occur in Italian but not in Spanish (hence Italian bianco but Spanish blanco).

These mutations do not occur in borrowed words which often are taken directly from Latin and have slightly different meanings. In Spanish, for example, there is lleno "full" and pleno "broad" which both come from Latin plenus except that lleno evolved and pleno was borrowed.

Furthermore, in many cases, -ct- around vowels mutates as well. In Italian, this is seen as -tt- such as in otto, dottore, Vittoria, aspettare. In Spanish, this is less common but can be seen in ocho, and to a lesser extent in fruto. In French and Catalan there is huit and fruit.

In Provitan, this mutation occurs differently in the East and West.

Western Mutations

act ➜ ach

ect ➜ ech (as in aspectareaspechar)

ict ➜ ich

oct ➜ och (as in octoocho)

uct ➜ uch (as in fructus frucho)

Eastern Mutations

act ➜ ait

ect ➜ eit (as in aspectareaspeitar)

ict ➜ eit

oct ➜ oit (as in octo oito)

uct ➜ oit (as in fructus froito)

Digraphs Edit

Provitan has numerous digraphs that have special sounds

-ch- whcih makes the /tʃ/ sound.

-tg/tj- which makes the /dʒ/ sound.

-ss- which makes the /s/ sound in between vowels

-gu- which makes /gw/ normally but /g/ before -e i y- and variants

-qu- which makes /kw/ normally but /k/ before -e i y- and variants

-qü- which makes /kw/ before -e i y- and variants

-gü- which makes /gw/ before -e i y- and variants

-tl- which makes /lː/

-tł- which makes /ʎː/

-tn- which makes /nː/

-tm- which makes /mː/ (as in setmana /semːana/ 'week')

-ts- which makes the /ts/ sound everywhere

-tz- which makes the /dz/ sound where -s- makes the /dz/ sound and /ts/ sound where -s- makes the /s/ sound

-z- only after -i- and before another vowel or word final /ʃ/ (as in peiz /peʃ/ 'fish' or dormizer /dormiˈʃer/ 'fall asleep')

-g- only after -i- word final /ʒ/ (as in manteig /manteʒ/ 'butter')

-tg- only after -i- word final /dʒ/ (as in maitg /madʒ/ 'May')

Cluster Reductions

Sometimes, at the end of words, consonant clusters are reduced in common speech.

Words like -temp- are analyzed as /temp/ but realized as [tem].

There is also -corp- which is analyzed as /corp/ but realized as [cor].

This kind of thing happens with most complex clusters however they are reduced when suffixes are added so that [cor] ➜ [cor'po.res]

Stress Edit

Stress is very predictable in Provitan.

Simply put if a word endings in any letter at all, except -r, -m, -t, -l, -z (but not -iz), or a diphthong then the stress is on the second to last vowel.  (Note that silent vowels like <u> in the digraph <qu> or <gu> before <e> or <i> are not counted as vowel as they are silent.)

  • amo - 'love'
  • ragazo - 'boy'
  • jusque - 'until'
  • corpores - 'bodies'
  • vełos - 'old.PLURAL'
  • os - 'eyes'
  • esperança - 'hope'
  • calci - 'calcium'
  • sodi - 'sodium'
  • sego - 'I follow'
  • pots - 'you are able'
  • aman - 'they love'
  • acostas - 'you put to bed'

If the word endings in -r, -m, -t, -l, -z (but not -iz), or a diphthong then stress is on the final vocalic sound not on the final vowel (stress occurs on the last vowel sound which means the diphthong is stressed not the last vowel of a diphthong; when a word ending in a consonant this final vocalic sound works out to be the final vowel anyway)

There is one exception to this rule: when a word endings in any consonant+s at the end, then the word is stressed on the final vowel no matter what.

  • adult - 'adult'
  • doitor - 'doctor'
  • doitors - 'doctors'
  • animal - 'animal'
  • satans - 'demons'
  • animals - 'animals'
  • indicatiu - 'indicative' (Remember stress is on the final vowel sound; since this ends in a diphthong the final vowel sound is the -i- and the -u- is made a semivowel which is equivalent to consonants)
  • actiu - 'active'
  • amar - 'to love'
  • amait - 'you (all) love'
  • volêm - 'we want'
  • conexions - 'connections'
  • amai - 'I loved'
  • traxei - 'I carried'

If the stress pattern of a word does not follow this rule it will be marked by the appropriate stress mark

  • cienfic - 'scientist'
  • voló - 'He wanted'
  • potència - 'power'
  • conciència - 'conscience'
  • satàn - 'satan'
  • dio (alternate form of sodi) - 'sodium'
  • lcio (alternate form of calci) - 'calcium'

Remember that when there is a diphthong it is analyzed as such and stress is treated as if the diphthong is one vowel. If a diaeresis appears above the off-glide of the diphthong then that vowel is now a separate syllable and stress shifts accordingly. This allows words like països (countries) to be stressed on the 'i'. When a hiatus is needed, and stress must be moved to that new syllable an acute/grave accent is used such as in país (country) which is also stressed on the 'i'. Hiatus can be forced in any syllable with a diaeresis but stress is followed normally with the rules for accute/grave accents.

GrammarEdit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
Nouns Yes No Yes No No No No No
Adjectives Yes No Yes No No No No No
Numbers Yes No No No No No No No
Participles Yes No Yes Yes No No Yes No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article Yes No Yes No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No

Please note that epicene nouns and adjectives are often referred to as "common" nouns or adjectives because one form is common to both genders.

NounsEdit

Nouns, like most Romance Languages, have no case but do have gender and can be singular or plural. Nouns may be either masculine or feminine and there is a small class of nouns which are irregular that are occasionally called neuter but are technically masculine.

Plurals Edit

Nouns usually pluralize with -s, -es, or -os. There are some exceptions however ones that end in digraphs, have irregular stress or hiatus and nouns descending from neuter 3rd declension Latin nouns.

Generally, nouns endings in -a pluralize as -es. Nouns ending in other vowels take a +s. Nouns ending in consonants add +s for most consonants and +os if the noun is masculine and ends in -ł, -s, -z, -iz, -ñ, -ch, -j, -ig, -itg, -ç, and add an +es if it is feminine and has those endings. Some nouns require changes in positioning of accent marks or diaereses depending on the way the plural is formed and some require minor variations in letters. See below.

Regular Plurals:

estudi "study" -- estudis "studies"

amant "lover" -- amants "lovers"

ragazo "child" -- ragazos "children"

pae "father" -- paes "fathers/parents"

oł "eye" -- ołos "eyes"

idea "idea" -- idees "ideas"

doña "lady" -- doñes "ladies"

animal "animal" -- animals "animals" 

mułer "wife" -- mułers "wives"

adult "adult" -- adults "adults"

Variant Plurals

Variant Plurals are those that simply alternate an accent mark or change one out for a diaeresis. Sometimes they have to change a -c- to a -qu- or a -gu- to a -gü- or the like. They are the least irregular plural

país "country" -- països "countries"

Note that an accent on an off glide of a would be syllable forces a hiatus. However an accent mark is only used to mark irregular stress so, if the stress would normally fall on that syllable (i.e. that vowel is the second to last vowel of a word) then simply adding a diaeresis will indicate a hiatus thus making that vowel the penultimate vowel of the word and no longer requiring an accent mark.

łengua "tongue" -- łengües "tongues"

científic "scientist" -masculine-- científics "scientists" -masculine

científica "scientist" -feminine-- científiques "scientists" -feminine

Note that /k/ /g/ /kw/ /gw/ are always preserved between singular and plural forms of nouns and orthography must adjust to account for that as shown above.

Alternative plurals

Alternative plurals are ones that change slightly in the plural. They are more common than totally irregulars but not too common. They mainly include plural nouns ending in -ig- or -itg-

manteig "butter" - manteges "butters"

Irregulars:

hom "man" -- homines "men"

nom "name" -- nomines "names"

temp "time" -- tempores "times"

corp "body" -- corpores "bodies"

òp "work" -- opores "works"

These are the only irregular plurals in Provitan. Every other noun will pluralize with -s, -os, or -es, although some ending in -c may have to change to -qu- and ones ending in -gu- may need to change to -gü- etc.

Gender Edit

Nouns also change for feminine and masculine gender.

Some are specialized like pae/mae or muller/marito but most can be derived.

When a noun is masculine that ends in a consonant or -i-, it becomes feminine by adding +a, and it when it ends in vowel + u it is made feminine by changing the -u- to -v- and adding +a; when it ends in -o it changes -o to -a; it is usually epicene when it ends in -e

Examples:

adult m. -- adulta f. (singular) 'adult'

adults m. -- adultes f. (plural) 'adults'

neveu m. -- neveva f. (singular) 'nephew/niece'

neveus m. -- neveves f. (plural) 'nephews/nieces'

When a noun ends in an -o- the -o- changes to -a.

Examples:

ragazo m. -- ragaza f. (singular)

ragazos m. -- ragazes f. (plural)

Nouns ending in -e- do not change and can be either masculine or feminine.

Forming Nouns Edit

As you may or may not be aware: many Latin suffixes descend quite regularly into the Romance language. These are important noun-creating suffixes that are found throughout Provitan.

-ción (plural: -cions) (borrowed from Latin -tionem Cf. Spanish -ción; Catalan -ció; English -tion)

-çón (plural: -çons) (inherited from Latin -tionem Cf. Spanish -zón; Catalan -çó, Portuguese -ção)

-ità (plural: -ités) (inherited form Latin -itatem Cf. Italian -ità; Catalan -itat)

-ia (plural: -ies) (borrowed from Latin -ia Cf. Italian -ia; Spanish -ia) (usually following -c-)

-a (plural: -es) (inherited from Latin -ia Cf. Italian -a; Spanish -a) (usually following -ç-)

-ment (plural: -ments) inherited from Latin -mentum Cf. Italian -mento; Spanish -miento)

Some Examples include: râçón 'reason', transportación 'transportation', cità 'city', esperança 'hope', velocità 'speed', cambiament 'change'

Articles Edit

Articles, like other Romance languages, come in singular, plural, masculine, feminine, definite, and indefinite. Articles may be used before nouns when possessive, or any, adjectives follow, but they cannot be used before possessive determiners but can be used before adjectives.

Definite Articles Edit

Singular Plural
Masculine el los
Feminine la (l' before vowels and h) les

Indefinite Articles Edit

Singular Plural
Masculine un unos
Feminine una (un' before vowels and h) unes

Note that Masculine singular definite articles only combine with the following prepositions:

  • en el -> nel
  • de el -> del
  • a el -> al
  • per el -> pel

Pronouns Edit

There are many pronouns in Provitan. Similar to English they come in nominative, accusative, dative, emphatic, and possessive. You can click below to go to the page on Pronouns

Provitan Pronouns

VerbsEdit

Much like other Romance Languages, Provitan has complex verb conjugations. There are 4 conjugations the 3rd of which breaks up into 3 sub-conjugations. Verbs conjugate for present, preterite, future, conditional, and imperfect in the indicative and some in the subjunctive. There is also an imperative and analytic tenses perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect.

Verbs, being lengthy, are divided into pages. Click below to go to those pages.

Conjugating verbs in moods, tenses, aspects, and for persons and numbers

Irregular Verbs Conjugated in Tenses

Adjectives Edit

Adjectives are very similar to nouns. They inflect for gender (usually) and number. They -- like nouns -- do not inflect for case.

There are a few main classes of adjectives (much like nouns):

Vowel -o and -a Ending

-o ending masculines, which take plural masculine in -os, feminine singular in -a and feminine plural in -es such as:

  • płejo, płejos, płeja, płejes - full

Vowel -e ending

These adjectives are epicene end in -e in masculine and feminine forms and in -es in masculine and feminine plural forms.

Vowel -i ending

These adjectives end in -i in masculine singular and -is in masucline plural. They end in -ia in feminine singular and -ies in feminine plural

Consonant Ending

These adjectives can sometimes be epicene or sometimes have forms for both genders. If they are not epicene and end in a consonant in masculine singular and add and +s in the masculine plural (unless they end in -ł, -s, -z, -iz, -ch, -j, -ig, -itg, -ñ, -ç in which case they take +os) and they add an +a for the feminine singular and add an +es for the feminine plural. (This class includes pass participles of most verbs)

  • veł, vełos, veła, vełes - old
  • âlt, âlts, âlta, âltes - tall
  • amat, amats, amata, amates - loved

If they are epicene which usually but not always is indicated because they end in -l or -r, then they have only one form for both genders (this includes all present participles of verbs

  • singular, singulars - singular
  • solar, solars - solar
  • facil, facils - easy
  • amant, amants - lover

Note that when there is a mixed gender group, or the gender is undetermined, you should use masculine.

Prepositions & Function Words Edit

There are many prepositions in Provitan that I will be explaining in greater detail in the coming days. For now we will look at a list with English approximations.

  • per - 'for' / 'through' / 'by'
  • a - 'at' / 'to'
  • con (am) - 'with'
  • en - 'in'
  • matéiz - 'same' or intensifier
    • Example: tu matéiz irás a la casa. = You yourself will go to the house
    • Example la matéiza cosa - same thing
    • Also used in certain idioms:
      • òra matéiz = right now
  • pròpio - 'own'
    • Example: Maltratô per seva pròpia fîlla. = Mistreated by his own daughter
  • e (et before vowels) - 'and' / 'both'
  • ma (mas before vowels) - 'but'
  • maiz - 'more'
  • płú - 'most'
  • mai/nunque - 'never'
  • o (ot before vowels) - 'or'
  • nènt - none, nothing
  • nessòn/s/a/es - 'none', 'any'
  • nessòn cosa - nothing
  • nessú - no one
  • qualque / alssòn - some/any
  • qualque cosa / alssona cosa - something/anything
  • qualcú / alssú - someone/anyone
  • res - thing, anything, something
  • rare algo - something
  • sen - 'without'
  • pel metjá de - 'through the power/intervention of'
  • a traves de - 'through'
  • denovo - 'again'
  • sota - 'beneath' 'under'
  • avânt - 'before'
  • depuiz - 'after' / 'since'
  • jusque - 'until'
  • ja (east tja) - 'already'
  • desde - 'since'
  • de baiza de - 'below'
  • sur - 'on' / 'atop'
  • en frênt de - 'in front of'
  • al dêstro de - 'to the right of'
  • al sinstre de - 'to the left of'
  • en - 'in'

SyntaxEdit

VocabularyEdit

For More Vocabulary Click Here


No. English Provitano
1Ijo
2you (singular)tu
3he
4wenos
5you (plural)vos
6theyełos
7thisContionary_Wiki
8thatContionary_Wiki
9hereContionary_Wiki
10thereContionary_Wiki
11whoqui
12whatque
13whereContionary_Wiki
14whenquan
15howcome
16notnon
17alltôdo
18manyContionary_Wiki
19someContionary_Wiki
20fewContionary_Wiki
21otheraltro
22oneun
23twodoiz
24threetreiz
25fourcatro
26fivecinco
27biggrande
28longlông
29wideContionary_Wiki
30thickContionary_Wiki
31heavyContionary_Wiki
32smallpetît
33shortContionary_Wiki
34narrowContionary_Wiki
35thinContionary_Wiki
36womandoña
37man (adult male)adult
38man (human being)human
39childragazo
40wifemułer
41husbandmarit
42mothermae
43fatherpae
44animalanimal
45fishpeiz
46birdavón
47dogcane
48louseContionary_Wiki
49snakeContionary_Wiki
50wormContionary_Wiki
51treeárbor
52forestContionary_Wiki
53stickContionary_Wiki
54fruitfroito/frucho
55seedContionary_Wiki
56leafContionary_Wiki
57rootContionary_Wiki
58barkContionary_Wiki
59flowerflor
60grassContionary_Wiki
61ropeContionary_Wiki
62skinContionary_Wiki
63meatcârn
64bloodsangre
65boneContionary_Wiki
66fatContionary_Wiki
67eggôva
68hornContionary_Wiki
69tailâlt
70featherContionary_Wiki
71hairpeł
72headtêsta
73earContionary_Wiki
74eye
75nosenariz
76mouthbôc
77toothdent
78tonguełengua
79fingernailContionary_Wiki
80footpeds
81legContionary_Wiki
82kneeContionary_Wiki
83handmâno
84wingContionary_Wiki
85bellyestómac
86gutsContionary_Wiki
87neckcoło
88backContionary_Wiki
89breastContionary_Wiki
90heartcore
91liverContionary_Wiki
92drinkbebita
93eatmântjar
94biteContionary_Wiki
95suckContionary_Wiki
96spitContionary_Wiki
97vomitContionary_Wiki
98blowsoflar
99breatherespirar
100laughredir
101seever
102hearaudir
103knowsaber/conoizer
104thinkpensar
105smellContionary_Wiki
106feartemor
107sleepdormir
108livevivir
109diemorir
110killmatar
111fightContionary_Wiki
112huntcaçar
113hitContionary_Wiki
114cuttałar
115splitContionary_Wiki
116stabContionary_Wiki
117scratchContionary_Wiki
118digContionary_Wiki
119swimnadar
120flyvolar
121walkamnar
122comevenir
123lieContionary_Wiki
124sitContionary_Wiki
125standContionary_Wiki
126turnContionary_Wiki
127fallcaer
128givedar
129holdtener
130squeezeContionary_Wiki
131rubContionary_Wiki
132washłavar
133wipeContionary_Wiki
134pullContionary_Wiki
135pushContionary_Wiki
136throwContionary_Wiki
137tieContionary_Wiki
138sewContionary_Wiki
139countcontar
140saydir
141singcantar
142playjugar
143floatContionary_Wiki
144flowContionary_Wiki
145freezefrevar
146swellContionary_Wiki
147sunsôl
148moonluna
149starestreła
150wateragua
151rainpłuïr
152riverContionary_Wiki
153lakeContionary_Wiki
154seamar
155saltsâl
156stonepedra
157sandContionary_Wiki
158dustContionary_Wiki
159earthterra
160cloudContionary_Wiki
161fogContionary_Wiki
162skycel
163windContionary_Wiki
164snowneva
165icegèl
166smokefumos
167firefoc
168ashContionary_Wiki
169burnbrûler
170roadcałe
171mountainmontaña
172redrôitz
173greenverd
174yellowContionary_Wiki
175whiteblanc
176blackneri
177nightnoite/noche
178dayjorno
179yearaño
180warmContionary_Wiki
181coldfreu
182fullpłejo
183newneu
184oldveł
185goodbôn
186badmal
187rottenContionary_Wiki
188dirtysûci
189straightContionary_Wiki
190roundContionary_Wiki
191sharpContionary_Wiki
192dullContionary_Wiki
193smoothContionary_Wiki
194wetContionary_Wiki
195dryContionary_Wiki
196correctcorreche
197nearContionary_Wiki
198farContionary_Wiki
199rightdêstros
200leftsinstre
201ata
202inen
203withcon
204ande
205ifsi
206becauseperque
207namenom

208. cherry | cheréiz

Example textEdit

Days of the Week & Months of the Year Edit

Days of the Week (Jornos de la Setmana) Edit

  • Monday - diłûns (dł.)
  • Tuesday - dimarts (dm.)
  • Wednesday - dimècs (dc.)
  • Thursday - dijovs (dj.)
  • Friday - divens (dv.)
  • Saturday - dissávat (ds.)
  • Sunday - duminge (dg.)

Months of the Year (Mêsos del Anyo) Edit

  • January - jenèi / jenèr (jen.)
  • February - febrèi / febrèr (feb.)
  • March - març (mar.)
  • April - abril (abr.)
  • May - maitg (mag.)
  • June - jûño (jûñ.)
  • July - jûło (jûł.)
  • August - agòst (agt.)
  • September - sechembre / seitembre (sec./set.)
  • October - ochubre / oitubre (och./oit.)
  • Novembre - novembre (nov.)
  • December - decembre (dec.)

1st Article of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights Edit

Primêr Article de la Declaración Universal de los Dêstros Humans

Tôdos los essers humans són naizuts libres et iquals en dignità e dêstros e són dotat con râçón e conciència e deven comportarse a unos a los altros nel espírit de la fraternità.

Our Father (Pae Nostro) Edit

Pae nostro qui estàs en los cels
Santífic sî ton nom
Venga a nós ton rein.
Sî facha ta volontà sur la terra aizí es en los cels
Danoi, hôitg, nostre pan de câdo jorno
E perdona-noi nostres pecats
Aizí nos perdonâm llos que noi ofenden
E no noi induças a la tentación
Ma libera-noi del mal.

Genesis Edit

1 - La Creación 

1. Nel principi, Dio creó los cels e la terra. 

2. E la terra era sin forma e vàgua e les tenêbres cobrivan la faça del abisso et el espírit de Dio veniva et iva sur les aqües de la terra. 

3. e dizó Dio, «sî facha luiz» e la luiz era facha. 

4. Dio consideró la luiz sî bona e la separó de les tenêbres. 

5. Ell chamó la luiz, «el jorno» e les tenêbres «la noche» et aizí veniva la noche et entón el jorno płegó e passó el primêr jorno.

Numbers 1 - 100 Edit

  • uno - 1
  • doiz - 2
  • treiz - 3
  • catre - 4
  • cenc - 5
  • seiz - 6
  • seche/seite - 7
  • ocho/oito - 8
  • nove - 9
  • dètz - 10
  • ontze - 11
  • dotze - 12
  • tretze - 13
  • catortze - 14
  • quintze - 15
  • seitze - 16
  • detset - 17
  • detzocho/detzoito - 18
  • detnove - 19
  • vênt - 20
  • ventuno - 21
  • vent-doiz - 22
  • vent-treiz - 23
  • vent-catre - 24
  • vent-cenc - 25
  • vent-seiz - 26
  • vent-seche / vent-seite - 27
  • vent-ocho / vent-oito - 28
  • vent-nove - 29
  • trênt - 30
  • trentuno, trent-doiz, ...
  • carênt - 40
  • cinqüênt - 50
  • sessênt - 60
  • sechênt / seitênt - 70
  • ochênt / oitênt - 80
  • novênt - 90
  • cent - 100

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