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Provitano/Pronouns

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hPronouns Edit

Pronouns in Provitan come in all 3 persons in singular and plural and for a few different cases. We will examine them below.

Singular Pronouns Edit

Nom. D.O. I.O. Disj./ Emph/

Reflexive

Poss.

Deter.        

Poss.

Adj.

1st Person jo me mi mi me

mon(s) m.

ma/mes f. 

meu/meus m.

meva/meves f. 

2nd Person Informal tu te ti ti te

ton(s) m.

ta/tes f.

teu/teus m.

teva/teves f.

Formal vostí vostí vostí vostí vostí

voston(s) m.

vosta/vostes f.

vosteu/vosteus

vosteva/vosteves

3rd Person Masc. lo li ło se

son(s) m.

sa/ses f.

seu/seus m.

seva/seves f.

Fem. eła la li ła se

son(s) m.

sa/ses f.

seu/seus m.

seva/seves f.

Unspec. is ho hi ho se

son(s) m.

sa/ses f.

seu/seus m.

seva/seves f.

indef. sa  so si so se

son(s) m.

sa/ses f.

seu/seus m.

seva/seves f.

Masculine forms of possessive determiners are used when possessing masculine nouns and likewise for feminine forms and feminine nouns. Number also agrees where singular forms are used for singular nouns. These same conditions work for possessive adjectives masculine forms for masculine possessions. Determiners are used before the noun and adjectives after the noun or when nouns are not present but possession is indicated. 

Plural PronounsEdit

Nom D.O. I.O. Disj. / Emph

Reflexive

Poss.

Deter.

Poss.

Adj.

1st

Person

nos noi noi nós/noiz noi

nostre/s

m/f

nostro(s) m.

nostra/es f.

2nd

Person

Informal vos voi voi vós/voiz voi vostre/s m/f

vostro(s) m.

vostra/es f.

Formal vostés vostés vostés vostés vostés

vostre/s

m/f

voseu/s m.

voseva/es f.

3rd

Person

Masc. ełos los lis łos se

son(s) m.

sa/ses f.

seu/seus m.

seva/seves f

Fem. ełes les lis łas se

son(s) m.

sa/ses f.

seu/seus m.

seva/seves f

Unspec. issos hos his hos se

son(s) m.

sa/ses f.

seu/seus m.

seva/seves f

Indef. sa so si so se

son(s) m.

sa/ses f.

seu/seus m.

seva/seves f

Unspecified does not indicate a gender and can be used when a mixed or unidentified gender comes up. Masculine may also be used when there is a mix of gender in a group. 

D.O. is direct object and I.O. is the indirect object.

Disjuctive/emphatic occurs after prepositions such as 'a' 'de' 'con' etc. 

Indefinite pronouns correspond to things in English like 'one' such as 'one does not eat soup'

Using Pronouns Edit

Pronouns always come before the verb except in the following conditions

  • in an imperative where it is attached to the verb form and a hyphen is used.
    • Example: da-lis-lo :: give them it
    • Example sede-te :: sit!
  • in an infinitive construction
    • Example: deven comportarse :: [they] should act
    • Example: devo ferlo? :: should I do it?

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