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Qâêr

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Note - The author of this article assumes the reader already has basic linguistic knowledge and some terms and systems are explained very briefly (or not at all) because the author assumes that the reader already knows what these terms/systems mean.

Name: Qâêr

Type: Fusional

Alignment: Ergative/Absolutive

Head Direction: Head-First

Number of genders: 2

Declensions: Yes

Conjugations: Yes

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect


Brief OverviewEdit

This is the evolved and modified version of Ancient Qâêr which came about due to the arrival of the 8 Lesser Races seen in the brief history of the Qâêr at Sâfaolehracópâ. This major event resulted in the Qâêr reforming their language for the new peoples, and also this evolved version features some assimilation and dissimilation from Ancient Qâêr which vame about purely due to time.


For a list on the dialects and different variations of Qâêr, please see the Qâêr Language Family


PhonologyEdit

Single Letters Edit

Qaer Script 2

Example of Qâêr Script (NB This is the script of the Ancient Qâêr and Qâêr languages, not of the dialects and variations of Ancient Qâêr and Qâêr which are seen at Qâêr Language Family)

Dental Alveolar Postal Alveolar
Plosive t | d
Nasal n
Fricative θ (th) | ð (dh) s ʃ (c)
Approximant ɹ (r)
Lateral Approximant l
Bilabial Labiodental Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Plosive p | b k | g q
Nasal m ɲ (ñ)
Fricative f h
Lateral Fricative j

NB - The consonants in parentheses next to the phonemes are the letters used in Qâêr (When using the Latin Alphabet) to write those particular phonemes and when there is no letter in parentheses then the letter which represents the phonemes is simply used.

Other Consonants
Hw ʍ (Non-Voiced-Labial Approximant)
W w (Voiced Labial-Velar Approximant)

DiphthongsEdit

Diphthong English Pronunciation
êo
âo
ei
ah ʌ
ih i
eh ɛ
oh ɵ

VowelsEdit

Vowels IPA Symbols Vowel IPA Symbols
a æ o ɒ
â ʌ ô ɵ
á æɪ̯ ó ɔ
e e i ɪ
ê ɛ î i
í ɑe̯

PhonotacticsEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Consonant Rules


Syllable and StressEdit

Syllable Structure - (C)(C) V (A) C

  • The (A) means all consonants apart from stops.

The rule for stress placement in Qâêr;

  • The stress is always placed on the second last accentuated vowel, and in the case where this is not accentuated then the stress swaps to the nearest accentuated vowel. In the case of two syllable words then the stress is always placed on the accentuated vowel and in the rare case where both vowels are accentuated the first one is favoured.

GrammarEdit

Sentence StructureEdit

The sentence structure in Qâêr follows a simple pattern. To start off the basic structure is - VERB - SUBJECT - OBJECT, and in subclauses it becomes - SUBJECT - OBJECT - VERB.

Example of Qâêr phrase structure using english words;

Is that man, who I him hit yesterday.
English translation - That is the man who I hit yesterday.


The order of phrases is a sentence is;

NP VP (PP)
Where - NP is a Noun Phrase, VP is a Verb Phrase, Adj.P and Adv.P are Adjectival and Adverbial Phrases respectively, and PP is a Prepositional Phrase.
NB The things in (_) above are not olbigatory.


In these phrases the structure is different to that of English;

In Qâêr VPs consist of a verb, adverb, mood particle, and an NP. The mood particle always comes first followed by the verb then the adverb and then the NP with its own structure.

In NPs the noun is always first followed by its determiner(if any) then its adjective(s), or an NP may consist also of just a pronoun.

In PPs the preposition comes first, then the noun, then its determniner and adjectives.


In general these, VP, NP, and PP, structures can be broken down thus;

VP= Mood Particle + Verb + (Adv.) + NP
NP= Noun + (Det.) + (Adj.)
PP+ Preposition + Noun + (Det.) + (Adj.)
NB in the layout above the things in (_) means they are not obligatroy.

DistinctionsEdit

Nouns

- Difference between plural and singular
- Un/Defined
- Possessiveness

Personal Pronouns

- Number ( I vs. We)
- Inclusive and Exclusive
- Animacy
- No distinction between he and she
- Case (Erg vs. Abs vs. Poss)

Verbs

- Voice
- Aspect/Tense
- Number & Gender Agreement

Adjectives

- Comparative
- 'Gradable' Prefix


Noun, Verb and Adjective StructureEdit

Nouns Structure

Noun Case Derivation


Verbs Structure

Verb Aspect Voice Agreement


Adjective Structure

Adjective Comparative / Gradable Prefix
  • Adjectives cannot be inflected with comparative and the "Gradable" prefix at the same time.

Aspect and TempusEdit

Aspect


Tense

Perfective Imperfective Imperfective 2 (Conative) Habitual Perfect Inceptive Continuative Terminative
Past -e -efe -efa -efo -efi -pe -le -ero
Present -- -fe -fa -fo -fi -a -lo -ro
Future -i -ime -ima -imo -imi -ipe -ile -iro

The Imperfective 2 Aspect here seen in the table is the Conative Imperfect Aspect and is further explained in the Aspect Section.

CorrelativesEdit

Table of correlatives
interrogative demonstrative quantifier
proximal distal existential elective universal negative alternative-positive
determiner which
what
this (sg.)
these (pl.)
that (sg.)
those (pl.)
some any
whichever
whichsoever
every
each
all
no another
pronoun human who
whom
this (one) (sg.)
these (ones) (pl.)
that (one) (sg.)
those (ones) (pl.)
someone
somebody
anyone
anybody
whoever
whomever
whosoever
whomsoever
everyone
everybody
all
no one
nobody
another
someone else
somebody else
nonhuman what this (one) (sg.)
these (ones) (pl.)
that (one) (sg.)
those (ones) (pl.)
something anything
whatever
whatsoever
everything
all
nothing something else
out of two which this one (sg.)
these (ones) (pl.)
that one (sg.)
those (ones) (pl.)
one either
whichever
whichsoever
both neither
out of many some
one
any
whichever
whichsoever
each
all
none
pro-adverb location where here there somewhere anywhere
wherever
wheresoever
everywhere nowhere elsewhere
source whence
wherefrom
hence thence
thencefrom
  whenceever
whencesoever
  nowhence
goal whither
whereto
whereinto
whereunto
hither thither somewhither anywhither
whithersoever
  nowhither
time when now then sometime anytime
whenever
whensoever
always
everywhen
never
manner how
whereby
thus
hereby
thereby somehow anyhow
however
howsoever
  noway
noways
nowise
nohow (col.)
otherwise
reason why
wherefore
  therefore        


Personal PronounsEdit

First Person
Not You Inclusive You Inclusive
Erg. Ce (I) Elâ (We) Lelâ (We)
Abs. Len (Me) Erelâ (We) Lamelâ (We) Êoso (Objective) (Us)
Poss. Cem (Mine) Ohme (Ours) Áohme (Ours)
Second Person
Living Non-Living
Singular (Exclusive) Plural (Inclusive) Singular
Erg. Dwá (You) Adwen (You) Se (It)
Abs. Adwá (You) Âdwen (You) Sóe (It)
Poss. Odwá (Your[s]) Ódwen (Your[s]) Some (Its)
Third Person Singular
Living & Non-Gendered Non-Living & Neutral
Erg. Bess (He/She) Dha (It)
Abs. Ábess (Him/Her) Ádha (It)
Poss. Óbess (His/Hers) Ódha (Its)
Third Person Plural
Living & Non-Gendered Non-Living & Neutral
Erg. Mêron (They) Adha (It)
Abs. Ámêron (They) Aládha (It)
Poss. Ómêron (They) Ódha (Its)

CasesEdit

Cases
ERG Ergative Agent of Transitive Verbs
ABS Absolutive Subject or Direct Object
DAT Dative

Indirect Object

or

To Sth./Sbdy

GEN Genitive

Description - Man of Honour

or

Origin - Men of Rome

PART Partitive

Part of a Group of Sth.


eg. Wheel of Cheese

POSS Possessive

Can be both Alienable and Inalienable Objects


eg. My Briefcase (Alienable)

or

John's Nose (Inalienable)

VOC Vocative

Used when Speaking to Someone and Saying Their Name.


eg. Et tu, Brute?

ABES Abessive

Lack of Sth.


'-less' in English

INS Instrumental

The Instrument of an Action


I wrote with a Pen

EQU Equative

Likeness


eg. He is King-Like

Declension Table for NounsEdit

Singular
Cases Living Non-Living
Defined Undefined Defined Undefined
Ergative -a -o -a -o
Absolutive -we -wo -(r)en -(r)on
Genitive -dwâ -dwô -dwê -dwî
Possessive -thes -thos -thes -thos
Partitive -enemâ -mâ -enâ -enâ
Dative -âbes -(b)es -(t)eren -(t)irin
Abessive -(s)âso -(s)âs -(l)eisos -(l)esos
Instrumental -(q)âno -(q)ene -(mr)el -(q)ene
Equative -(f)enna -enenn -(f)enó -(f)enne
Vocative Replaces the last syllable with -(t)ó
Plural
Cases Living Non-Living
Defined Undefined Defined Undefined
Ergative
Absolutive -wê -wó -râ -(r)ôn
Genitive -bl -bl -blâ -blô
Possessive -dhes -dhos -dhes -dhos
Partitive -neneb -nwene -noneb -nwenne
-Dative -abjenâ -(b)enâ -(p)âre -(p)ârene
Abessive -(r)esâs -(s)âses -láóte -lammó
Instrumental -(q)êlo -(q)âle -nren -êsen
Equative -(hw)ês -wes -(hw)áte -(hw)átâl
Vocative Replaces the last syllable with -(t)ó

Note Example of Vocative Case

Normal Name Uninflected - Brutus
Inflected in Vocative - Brutó

CopulasEdit

There is one Copula in Qâêr and that is Mellon.

Mellon is similar to the English verb to be in the sense that when saying a noun is something then the appropriate form of Mellon is used.. It conjugates thus;

Mellon Mellon
I Mel
He/She Mên They Len
You Lon You (Plural) Ellon
It Mon It (Plural) Men
We (Exclusive) Lêo We (Plural) Lêonon


NB The pronouns used with Mellon take Subject(Absolutive) case.
When referring to a person in general, someone of high authority, and/or personally unknown to the speaker or listener(s), then the conjugated form for They is used.

Verb AgreementEdit

Verb conjugation works as a suffix in Qâêr and is dependant on the Agent, Subject, and Object in the sentence. There are six inflectional suffixes for verb agreement that all attach onto the verb depending on these things;

Intransitive Verbs

Singular Plural
Living -nâ
Non-Living -en -won

These suffixes are always accentuated and depending on the location of the other accentuated vowels may or may not change the placement of stress.


Transitive Verbs

Object
Singular Plural
Living Non-Living Living Non-Living
Agent Singular Living -ní -eth -níín -níeth
Non-Living -son -bá -sonín -sobá
Plural Living -níen -en -níení -níethí
Non-Living -sonen -ben -soneí -beníth

These suffixes are always accentuated and depending on the location of the other accentuated vowels may or may not change the placement of stress.

Affixes and Their MeaningsEdit

There are many affixes in Qâêr however here is a basic list of the ones that won't be mentioned anywhere else on this page.

NegationEdit

Verb negation is done by adding the prefix sâo- to any particular verb one wishes to negate. Double negation is done by adding the prefix sêsâo-to any verbs. Double negation is usually used to convey sarcasm and exaggeration.


The negation of adjectives is done also in a similiar fashion by adding the negation prefix sâo- to the adjective thus obtaining results such as Happy - Unhappy

DerivationEdit

All the following are Prefixes which remove the first vowel (if applicable, i.e is simple added if the word begins with a consonant) when being attached to the host.

Adjective --> Adverb - -(a)ren

Example; ijânei (Quick) > dwejânei (Quickly)

Adjective --> Noun -(o)nêo

Example; Happy > Happiness (This is an abstract noun)

Noun --> Verb -(o)soe

Exmple; Glory > Glorify

Noun --> Adjective dwen

Exmple; Recreation > Recreational

Adjective --> Noun (a)roe

Example; Slow > Slowness


Transitive Verbs --> Intransitive Verbs -- Ablaut o/ô/ó

In English this is not shown, e.g. Give can be both Transitive or Intransitive
E.g.; I give to charity (Intransitive) vs. I give Mary Money (Transitive)


Intransitive Verbs --> Transitive Verbs -- Ablaut i/î/í

Adjectives --> Transitive Verbs -- -(e)bê

Example; Rich > Enrich

Nouns --> Transitive Verbs -- -(í)mo

Example; Rapture > Enrapture

Verb AffixesEdit

In this section the different affixes that relate solely to verbs will be discussed.

The Inchoative Verb (Inceptive Verb)Edit

This article or section requires fix up.
It will be done soon.

This verb conveys the process of beginning or becoming. This verb type is created simply but inflecting a verb in the Inceptive Aspect and this represents the start or beginning of that particular action and therefore negates verbs such as to start or to begin'.


The Catenative VerbEdit

A Catenative Verb is a verb which takes other verbs as objects, Example; We promised to try practicing tennis more often.

Here in the above example the verb promised is Catenative and takes the verbs to try (Infinitive Form) and practicing (Gerund Form) as its objects. In English Catenative verbs are not marked however in Qâêr a verb has to be inflected with the Catenative suffix to become a Catenative Verb.

The suffix to change verbs to Catenative form is - âren

Control VerbsEdit

Phrasal, Prepositional, and Phrasal-Prepositional Verbs and their Usage in QâêrEdit

ParticiplesEdit

GerundsEdit

VoiceEdit

Manner Time PlaceEdit

Mood and ModalityEdit

Interrogative WordsEdit

The interrogative particle will be inflected with prefixes and these will phrase interrogative words such as what, where e.c.t. The interrogative particle without one of these prefixes will just be turned into a normal question.

What = qâ + lêqâlê
Where = qin + lê – qinlê
When = qêo + lê – qêolê
Who = qenom + lê – qenomlê
Why = qî + lê – qîlê
How = qâfâo + lê – qâfâolê
How Much = sonâ + lê – sonâlê
Sonâ is derived from the Fáriân word Sjinolâme which means ‘to barter’.
Note – when using any of these interrogative words in Subordinate or Relative clauses, just the prefix is used, not the prefix with the particle.

DictionaryEdit

ExamplesEdit

The Number SystemEdit

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