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Qafesona

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Name: Qafesona

Type: Fusional

Alignment: Nominative-accusative

Head Direction: Initial

Number of genders: 1

Declensions: Yes

Conjugations: Yes

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect

General informationEdit

The Qafesona language (Qafesona: Cyrillic: ӄафесона тил, Latin: qafesona til, IPA: [ˈqafɛˌsonǝ ˈсil]) is a small language isolate within the Slavic language. It is spoken on both sides of Georgia's borders with Armenia, Azerbaijan and Russia (specifically Dagestan, Chechnya, Ingushetia and North Ossetia-Alania) and the vast majority of the language's vocabulary is of Slavic origin. However, there is also a substantial amount of words which are of clear Armenian and Georgian origin. In addition to this there are a few words that have come from Arabic and the Turkic languages. For example, "ӄаўа" ("qawa", "coffee") is from Arabic and "тил" ("til", "language") comes from Old Turkic.

Phonology and orthographyEdit

See also: IPA for Qafesona and Georgian and Armenian alphabets for Qafesona

AlphabetEdit

  • Qafesona Cyrillic alphabet; Ӄафесона кирилличи алфавит; Qafesona kirilliči alfavit; ყაჶესონა კირილლიჭი ალჶავიტ; Քաֆեսօնա կիռիլիճի ալֆավիթ; [ˈqafɛˌsonǝ kiˈriʎiˌt͡ɕi ˌɐɫfǝˈvit]

The Qafesona Cyrillic alphabet is the writing system that is usually used to write Qafesona, however both Georgian and Armenian may also be used. The Cyrillic alphabet shown below was codified in 1955, prior to which Qafesona had no official writing system.

Cyrillic А а Б б В в Г г Д д Е е Ж ж З з
Latin A a B b V v G g D d E e Ž ž Z z
IPA [a], [ɐ], [ǝ] [b] [v] [g] [d] [e], [ɛ], [ə] [ʐ] [z]
Cyrillic Ѕ ѕ И и И й К к Ӄ ӄ Л л М м Н н
Latin DZ dz I i J j K k Q q L l M m N n
IPA [d͡z] [i], [ɪ] [j] [k] [q] [l], [ɫ] [m] [n]
Cyrillic О о П п Р р С с Т т У у Ў ў Ф ф
Latin O o P p R r S s T t U u W w F f
IPA [ɔ], [o], [ǝ] [p] [r] [s] [t] [u], [ʊ] [w] [f]
Cyrillic Х х Ӽ ӽ Ц ц Ч ч Џ џ Ш ш Ы ы Ь ь
Latin Ȟ ȟ H h C c Č č DŽ dž Š š Y y Ǐ ǐ
IPA [x] [h], [ɦ] [t͡s] [ʈ͡ʂ] [ɖ͡ʐ] [ʂ] [ɨ] [◌ʲ]

DiphthongsEdit

There are seven diphthongs in Qafesona.

Cyrillic АЙ ай АУ ау ЕЙ ей ЕУ еу ОЙ ой ОУ оу УЙ уй
Latin AJ aj AU au EJ ej EU eu OJ oj OU ou UJ uj
IPA [aɪ̯] [aʊ̯] [eɪ̯] [eʊ̯] [oɪ̯] [oʊ̯] [uɪ̯]

DigraphsEdit

The digraphs below alter the pronunciation of the constituent letters.

Cyrillic ДИ ди ДЬ дь ЖЖ жж ЖИ жи ЖЬ жь ЛИ ли ЛЬ ль НИ ни НЬ нь
Latin DI di DǏ dǐ ŽŽ žž ŽI ži ŽǏ žǐ LI li LǏ lǐ NI ni NǏ nǐ
IPA [ɟi] [ɟ] [ʑː] [ʑi] [ʑ] [ʎi] [ʎ] [ɲi] [ɲ]
Cyrillic ТИ ти ТЬ ть ЧИ чи ЧЬ чь ЏИ џи ЏЬ џь ШШ шш ШИ ши ШЬ шь
Latin TI ti TǏ tǐ ČI či ČǏ čǐ DŽI dži DŽǏ džǐ ŠŠ šš ŠI ši ŠǏ šǐ
IPA [ci] [c] [t͡ɕi] [t͡ɕ] [d͡ʑi] [d͡ʑ] [ɕː] [ɕi] [ɕ]

Nota beneEdit

  • Qafesona has a spelling rule which states that ы may not be preceded by г, ж, к, ӄ, х, ч, џ or ш, instead the letter и is used.
  • There is also a spelling rule stating that ь may not precede ы, the letter и is used here instead too.
  • Nor may ь precede й, the letter й is simply used here (rather than ьй).

GrammarEdit

NounsEdit

First declensionEdit

First declension nouns end in a consonant (but not ь, й, ў or ӽ) and decline as below:

Singular Paucal Plural
Nominative лес (forest) леса лесы
Accusative лес леса лесы
Genitive леса лесу лесах
Dative лесу лесома лесам
Instrumental лесом лесомы лесамы
Locative лесье лесьу лесьех
Vocative лесь лесы лесых

Second declensionEdit

Second declension nouns end in а and decline as below:

Singular Paucal Plural
Nominative чава (grass) чаве чавы
Accusative чаву чаво чавы
Genitive чавы чаву чав
Dative чаве чавама чавам
Instrumental чавой чавамы чавамы
Locative чавье чавьу чавьех
Vocative чавы чави чавих

Third declensionEdit

Third declension nouns end in е or о and decline as below:

Singular Paucal Plural
Nominative мазо (meat) мазое маза
Accusative мазо мазое маза
Genitive маза мазу маз
Dative мазу мазема мазом
Instrumental маз маземы мазомы
Locative мазье мазьу мазьех
Vocative мазь мазы мазых

Fourth declensionEdit

Fourth declension nouns end in ь and decline as below:

Singular Paucal Plural
Nominative гонь (leg) гоньа гони
Accusative гонь гоньа гони
Genitive гоньа гоньу гоньах
Dative гоньу гоньома гоньам
Instrumental гоньом гоньомы гоньамы
Locative гонйе гонйу гонйех
Vocative гоны гони гоних

Fifth declensionEdit

Fifth declension nouns end in й, ў or ӽ and decline as below:

Singular Paucal Plural
Nominative чай (tea) чайи чайи
Accusative чай чайи чайи
Genitive чайа чайих чайих
Dative чайу чайем чайам
Instrumental чай чайемы чайамы
Locative чайе чайу чайех
Vocative чайи чайих чайих

Sixth declensionEdit

Sixth declension nouns end in мьа and decline as below:

Singular Paucal Plural
Nominative йемьа (name) йемье йемьени
Accusative йемьа йемье йемьени
Genitive йемьень йемьени йемь
Dative йемье йемьом йемьам
Instrumental йемьей йемьомы йемьамы
Locative йемйе йемйу йемйех
Vocative йеми йемйи йемйих

Seventh declensionEdit

Seventh declension nouns end in и, у or ы, are foreign and decline as below:

Singular Paucal Plural
Nominative такси (taxi) такси таксих
Accusative такси такси таксих
Genitive таксийа таксийа таксийах
Dative таксийу таксийу таксийух
Instrumental таксийой таксийо таксийох
Locative таксийе таксийе таксийех
Vocative такси такси таксих

DiminutivesEdit

Diminutives

AugmentativesEdit

Augmentatives

AdjectivesEdit

Hard declensionEdit

Singular Paucal Plural
Nominative новы (new) нова нове
Accusative новы, новов нова, новой нове, новых
Genitive новов новой новых
Dative новом нову новым
Instrumental новым новом новымы
Locative новье новьо новьах
Vocative нов новы новых

Soft declensionEdit

Singular Paucal Plural
Nominative сини (dark blue) синьа синье
Accusative сини, синьов синьа, синьой синье, синих
Genitive синьов синьой синих
Dative синьом синьу синим
Instrumental синим синьом синимы
Locative синйе синйо синйах
Vocative синь сини синих

"А" declensionEdit

Singular Paucal Plural
Nominative ӄафесона (Qafesona) ӄафесоны ӄафесоне
Accusative ӄафесона, ӄафесонов ӄафесоны, ӄафесоной ӄафесоне, ӄафесоных
Genitive ӄафесонов ӄафесоной ӄафесоных
Dative ӄафесоном ӄафесону ӄафесоным
Instrumental ӄафесоным ӄафесоном ӄафесонымы
Locative ӄафесонье ӄафесоньо ӄафесоньах
Vocative ӄафесонь ӄафесоны ӄафесоных

Personal pronounsEdit

SingularEdit

1st person 2nd person 3rd p (m) 3rd p (f) 3rd p (n)
Nominative йа ты он она оно
Accusative мньа тебьа йеӽо йой йеӽо
Genitive мньа тебьа йеӽо йой йеӽо
Instrumental мньа тебьа йеӽым йойу йеӽым
Dative мнье тебье йему йей йему
Locative мнйе тебйе йем йей йем
Vocative ми теби йемь йейи йемь

PluralEdit

1st person 2nd person 3rd person
Nominative мы вы оны
Accusative наз ваз ых
Genitive наз ваз ых
Dative нам вам ым
Instrumental намы вамы ымы
Locative назье вазье ымье
Vocative нйи вйи еми

VerbsEdit

  • There are two aspects, the simple and the perfect.
  • Conjugations are governed by three persons in two numbers and two simple tenses, present and past.
  • There are present and past participles that are used as adjectives and adverbs.
  • There are also periphrastic forms for the future tense and the subjunctive mood.
  • There are two voices, the active and the passive.

AspectEdit

Qafesona has two aspects, the simple and the perfect. Verbs come in aspectual pairs, the perfect usually being the same as the simple just with an added prefix.

The simple aspect is not progressive and not perfect, whereas the the perfect aspect is perfect. For example, the English simple present "I play", simple past "I played" and simple future "I will play" and the perfect present "I have eaten", perfect past "I had eaten" and perfect future "I will have eaten", which all correspond to Qafesona verb tense and aspect.

Aspect in Qafesona differs from the usual Slavonic aspects of imperfective and perfective pairs. However many of the perfect verbs have similar prefixes to the corresponding perfective verb.

Present tenseEdit

First conjugationEdit

First conjugation verbs have the ending -ать or -еть.

Simple Perfect
Infinitive читать (to read) прочитать
йа (1ps) читайу прочитайу
ты (2ps) читайеш прочитайеш
он, она, оно (3ps) читайет прочитайет
мы (1pp) читайем прочитайем
вы (2pp) читайете прочитайете
оны (3pp) читайут прочитайут
Second conjugationEdit

Second conjugation verbs have the ending -ить.

Simple Perfect
Infinitive говорить (to read) поговорить
йа (1ps) говорьу поговорьу
ты (2ps) говорьеш поговорьеш
он, она, оно (3ps) говорьет поговорьет
мы (1pp) говорьем поговорьем
вы (2pp) говорьете поговорьете
оны (3pp) говорьут поговорьут
Third conjugationEdit

Third conjugation verbs have the ending -ачь or -ечь.

Simple Perfect
Infinitive давачь (to give) дачь
йа (1ps) давам дам
ты (2ps) даваш даш
он, она, оно (3ps) дават даст
мы (1pp) давйем дайем
вы (2pp) давйете дайете
оны (3pp) давйут дайут
Fourth conjugationEdit

Fourth conjugation verbs have the ending -ичь.

Simple Perfect
Infinitive итичь (to go (on foot)) пойтичь
йа (1ps) итьу пойтьу
ты (2ps) итьош пойтьош
он, она, оно (3ps) итьот пойтьот
мы (1pp) итьом пойтьом
вы (2pp) итьоте пойтьоте
оны (3pp) итьут пойтьут

Past tenseEdit

The past tense in Qafesona is formed very simply. The verb infinitive is taken and the final -ть or -чь is removed and replaced with -в. For example:

Simple infinitive Simple past Perfect infinitive Perfect past
читать читав прочитать прочитав
говорить говорив поговорить поговорив
могечь (to be able to) могев смогечь смогев
йешть (to eat)* йев сешть сешв

*When an infinitive ends in a consonant + -ть or -чь then both the consonant and the infinitive ending are dropped and -в added.

To beEdit

The conjugation of the verb "to be", быть, is shown below.

PresentEdit
Simple Perfect
Infinitive быть сбыть
йа (1ps) йесем сесем
ты (2ps) йесы сесы
он, она, оно (3ps) йесет сесет
мы (1pp) йесмы сесмы
вы (2pp) йесты сесты
оны (3pp) йесут сесут
PastEdit
Simple Perfect
Past быв сбыв
FutureEdit
Simple Perfect
йа (1ps) бадьу сбадьу
ты (2ps) бадьеш сбадьеш
он, она, оно (3ps) бадьет сбадьет
мы (1pp) бадьем сбадьем
вы (2pp) бадьете сбадьете
оны (3pp) бадьут сбадьут

Future tenseEdit

The past tense is also formed very simply. It is formed by preceding the verb's infinitive with the correct conjugation of the future tense of быть/сбыть ("to be"), быть/сбыть are the only exceptions. For example:

  • "They will be": Оны бадьут. (Ony badǐut.)
  • "I will say": Йа бадьу говорить. (Ja badǐu govoritǐ.)
  • "We will have read": Мы бадьем прочитать (My badǐem pročitatǐ., emphasis on the fact that it will have been read)
  • "We will have read": Мы cбадьем читать (My sbadǐem čitatǐ., emphasis on the fact that it will have been done)

NumeralsEdit

Cardinal Ordinal
One, 1 йедь йедми
Two, 2 два втори
Three, 3 три трети
Four, 4 четрь четери
Five, 5 пьать пьати
Six, 6 шесть шести
Seven, 7 седь седми
Eight, 8 вось восми
Nine, 9 девть девети
Ten, 10 цать цати
Zero, 0 ноль ноли

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