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Qp'nek (Q̊p'nek)
Tlyhh Qp'nek (Tlyȟ Q̊p'nek)
Type
Aggulative
Alignment
Ergative-Absolute
Head direction
Initial
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
Yes
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect


Classification and DialectsEditEdit

Current consensus believes gp'nek to be a language isolate. It is ergative-absolute in most of it's grammer but exibits nomitive-accusitive structure with regards to the gp'nekian copula.

P'cy p'q'pe c'apyc. Cx'ec p'kyp khh t'photxyt.

PhonologyEditEdit

ConsonantsEditEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Velar Epiglottal Glottal
Nasal m~n
Plosive p pʰ p'  t tʰ t' k kʰ k' ʡ ʡʼ
Fricative θ θʰ θ'  s sʰ s' ʃ  ʃʰ ʃ' ʜ h
Lat. Fricative ɬ
Affricate tθ tθʰ tθ'  t͡s  t͡sʰ t͡s'    t͡ʃ  t͡ʃʰ t͡ʃ' 
tɬ tɬʰ tɬ'
Approximant ɰ
  • stuckthrough characters occur only in affricate form
  • fricatives only occur as ejectives in affricate pairs, in the case of the dental, an aspirated form is also absent exept when in affricate form
  • all consonants voiceless word-initially, are near-voiced/voiced if NOT unaspirated or ejective mid-word
  • velar consonants are slightly labialised by most speakers before rounded vowels
  • affricates are lightly germinated word-finally
  • aspirated plosives are lightly germinated word-finally,
  • all consonants except the nasel can be geminated
  • in some dialects the epiglottal and glottal fricatives have merged

VowelsEditEdit

Front Central Back
High i ~ y ~ ʏ ɯ ~ u
High-mid
Low-mid ɛ
Low a* ɑ ~ ɒ
  • vowels that occur as the first syllable of a word are somewhat unrounded
  • word-finally, vowels centralize to [ ʏ ɯ a* in some dialects, ɑ in main]
  • all vowels can be geminated; vowels can take on two phonemic lengths: short, and long

PhonotacticsEditEdit

Possible syllables in Qgp'nek for noun stems are C' and C'(C) , for verbs C(V) and C(V)(C). For affixes, C' C'(C) C(V) C(V)(C) and suffixes, V and C . Syllable initials may be a single consonant, a vowel (rarely), a consonant cluster ending in a bilabial consonant, or an affricate. Medials can be a short vowel, a long vowel, a nasel, or an ejected air burst (or just nonexistent medial). Codas can be a single consonant, a vowel, or a geminate consonant.

Writing SystemEditEdit

Letter Ap Nn Pp Phph P'p' Tt Thth T't' Kk KhKh K'k' Qq Q'q'
Letter Nn Pp Ṗṗ P'p' Tt Ṫṫ T't' Kk K̇k̇ K'k' Q̊q̊ Q̊'q̊'
Sound /m~n/ /p/ /pʰ/ /p'/ /t/ /tʰ/ /t'/ /k/ /kʰ/ /k'/ /ʡ/ /ʡ'/
Letter Ap Xx Ss Shsh Sxsx Hhhh Ll Tx Txh Tx' Cc Chch C'c'
Letter T̆t̆ Ss Ṡṡ Šš Ȟȟ Ll Ṭṭ T̈ẗ Ṭ'ṭ' Cc Ċċ C'c'
Sound /θ/ /s/ /sʰ/ /ʃ/ /ʜ/ /ɬ/ /tθ/ /tθʰ/ /tθ'/ /t͡s/ /t͡sʰ/ /t͡s'/
Letter Ap Tltl Tlhtlh Tl'tl' Cxcx Cxhcxh Cx'cx' Rr Yy Ee Aa Uu
Letter Tltl Tŀtŀ Tl'tl' C̆c̆ C̈c̈ C̆'c̆' Rr Yy Ee Aa Uu
Sound /tɬ/ /tɬʰ/ /tɬ'/ /t͡ʃ/ /t͡ʃʰ/ /t͡ʃ'/ ɰ /i~y~ʏ/ /e/ /* ɑ ~ ɒ/ /ɯ~ u/
  • geminant consonants are written as double letters as are long vowels

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