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Quhtanese

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Quhtanese
Lus Q’ùtá-we
Type
Analytic
Alignment
Accusative
Head direction
right
Tonal
Yes
Declensions
No
Conjugations
No
Genders
3
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

Quhtanese (natively Lus Q’ùtá-we [ɺɤ̄ʃ qʰɤ̂tʰɑ̌ ʁ̞ǣ]; literally: “the official west tongue”) is a dialect continuum spoken across most of western, southcentral, and coastal Quhtan. Because most Quhtanese dialects are found in the west, the group is also referred to as the "western dialect(s)". When the Quhtanese continuum is taken as one language, as is often done in academic literature, it has the secondmost native speakers (nearly a billion) of the languages on Aetho.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

postalveolar dorsal uvular glottal
nasal n -ŋ̟
stop t tʰ k̟ k̟ʰ q qʰ
fricative ʃ χ h
approximant ɻ j ʁ̞
affricate tɬ tɬʰ
flap ɺ
  • A glottal stop appears epenthetically between two vowels in the standard variety. It is phonemic is some dialects.
  • The approximants tend to be fricativized when spoken emphatically.

VowelsEdit

front back
close i ɤ
open æ ɑ
  • Allowable diphthongs are: /iæ/, /iɤ/, /iɑ/, /ɤi/, /æɤ/, /ɑɤ/, and /ɑi/

ToneEdit

# name contour secondary diacritic example
1 flat 22 (ō) none o di "one"
2 rising 34 (ǒ) slack voiced ó dí "poison"
3 peaking 342 (o᷈) long ô dîr "older sibling by the same mother"
4 falling 31 (ô) creaky voiced ò dì "(small eaten animal)"

PhonotacticsEdit

(C)V(n, ŋ̟, k̟, s̻, ʃ, χ, ɻ)

  • Minimal syllable:
  • Maximal syllable: ƛùin /tɬɤ̂i̯n/

NounsEdit

GenderEdit

name description ndef def example
Aethos used exclusively for people -0 -i Sâi "a monarch/emperor"
common anything not a part of the other two genders -we lus-ú "a tongue/spoken variety"
neuter a relatively small number of words, typically non-lustrous, inanimate materials -i -àr ƛ'ej-i "some stone"

TransliterationEdit

Letter a c d e g h i j l n ŋ
Sound /ɑ/ /k̟ʰ/ /t/ /æ/ /k̟/ /h/ /i/ /χ/ /ɺ/ /n/ /ŋ̟/
Letter q q' r s t u w y z ƛ ƛ'
Sound /q/ /qʰ/ /ɻ/ /ʃ/ /tʰ/ /ɤ/ /ʁ̞/ /j/ /s̻/ /tɬ/ /tɬʰ/

VocabularyEdit

NumbersEdit

  1. di <dih>
  2. zà <zaw4>
  3. rú <ru2>
  4. hês <hey3>
  5. zàhês <zaw4 hey3>
  6. sesjâ <sey jaw3>
  7. jâ <jaw3>

Nàu nûj cùs è díu su. [næ̂ɤ̯ nɤ᷈χ k̟ʰɤ̂ʃ æ̂ tǐɤ̯ ʃɤ̄]

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