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Quhtanese
E Lus Qhùtá
Type
Analytic
Alignment
Accusative
Head direction
right
Tonal
Yes
Declensions
No
Conjugations
No
Genders
3
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

Quhtanese (natively e Lus Qhùtá /ǣ ɺɤ̄ʃ ī qʰɤ̂tʰɑ̌/; literally: “the speech (of) officials”) is a dialect continuum spoken across most of western, southcentral, and coastal Quhtan (i Sâiyu Cûis or Cûis). Because most Quhtanese dialects are found in the west, the group is also referred to as the "western dialect(s)". When the Quhtanese continuum is taken as one language, as is often done in academic literature, it has the secondmost native speakers (nearly a billion) of the languages on Aetho.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

postalveolar dorsal uvular glottal
nasal n -ŋ̟
stop t tʰ k̟ k̟ʰ q qʰ
fricative ʃ χ h
approximant ɻ j ʁ
affricate tɬ tɬʰ
flap ɺ
  • A glottal stop appears epenthetically between two vowels in the standard variety. It is phonemic is some dialects.
  • The approximants tend to be fricativized when spoken emphatically.

VowelsEdit

front back
close i ɤ
open æ ɑ
  • Allowable diphthongs are: /iæ/, /iɤ/, /iɑ/, /ɤi/, /æɤ/, /ɑɤ/, and /ɑi/

ToneEdit

# name contour secondary diacritic example
1 flat 22 (ō) none o di "one"
2 rising 35 (ǒ) slack voiced ó dís "poison"
3 peaking 342 (o᷈) long ô dîr "older sibling by the same mother"
4 falling 31 (ô) creaky voiced ò dì "(small eaten animal)"

PhonotacticsEdit

(C)V(n, ŋ̟, k̟, s̻, ʃ, χ, ɻ)

  • Minimal syllable: è /æ̂/
  • Maximal syllable: tlùin /tɬʰɤ̂i̯n/

Transliteration Edit

Letter a c d dl e g h i l n ŋ
Sound /ɑ/ /k̟ʰ/ /t/ /tɬ/ /æ/ /k̟/ /h/ /i/ /ɺ/ /n/ /ŋ̟/
Letter q qh r s t tl u w x y z
Sound /q/ /qʰ/ /ɻ/ /ʃ/ /tʰ/ /tɬʰ/ /ɤ/ /ʁ̞/ /χ/ /j/ /s̻/

Parts of Speech Edit

  • nouns and pronouns: tlex "stone"
  • verbs, adpositions, coverbs, and adjectives: dêg "help"
  • copulae: ay "is"
  • adjectival nouns: qìe "west"
  • articles, determiners, enclitics (inc. interrogative): we "the"
  • numbers: di "one"
  • particles: tlèx "very"
  • preverbs: ca- "association with water"
  • conjunctions: u "and"
  • interjections: Hìr "hello, pay attention"
  • ideophones: rîus "glass breaking"

NounsEdit

GenderEdit

Grammatical Gender is only expressed in indefinite and definite articles and in the pronouns. Some derivational affixes can change the gender of a word.

name description ndef def example
Aethos used exclusively for people 0 (w)i Sâi "a monarch/emperor"
common anything not a part of the other two genders ge (w)e ge lus "a tongue/spoken variety"
neuter a relatively small number of words, typically non-lustrous, inanimate materials gu (h)àr gu tlex "some stone"

Articles Edit

Pronouns Edit

informal formal
1 tu nùi
2 séŋ
3 ae in
c
n gàr

VerbsEdit

SyntaxEdit

Sentence word orderEdit

Verb-Subject-Object

Nouns can be moved before the verb for emphasis.

VocabularyEdit

NumbersEdit

# 8+# #*8 #*64
0 tún tún tún
1 di xâ di nàuz
2 xâ zà zà xâ zà nàuz
3 xâ rú rú xâ rú nàuz
4 hès xâ hès hès xâ hès nàuz
5 dilu xâ dilu dilu xâ dilu nàuz
6 zàlu xâ zàlu zàlu xâ zàlu nàuz
7 seuxâ xâ seuxâ seuxâ xâ seuxâ nàuz
8 zà xâ nàuz xâ nàuz

Nàu nûx cùs è díu su. [nɑ̂ɤ̯ nɤ᷈χ k̟ʰɤ̂ʃ æ̂ tǐɤ̯ ʃɤ̄]

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