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Quhtanese
We Lus Qhùtá
Type
Analytic
Alignment
Accusative
Head direction
right
Tonal
Yes
Declensions
No
Conjugations
No
Genders
3
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

Quhtanese (natively we Lus Qhùtá /ʁæ̀ ɺɤ̀ʃ qʰɤ̂tʰɑ̌/; literally: “the speech (of) officials”) is a dialect continuum spoken across most of western, southcentral, and coastal Quhtan (we Sâiyu Cûis or Cûis). Because most Quhtanese dialects are found in the west, the group is also referred to as we lus qìe or "the western dialect(s)". When the Quhtanese continuum is taken as one language, as is often done in academic literature, it has the secondmost native speakers (nearly a billion) of the languages on Aetho.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

postalveolar dorsal uvular glottal
nasal n -ŋ̟
stop t tʰ k̟ k̟ʰ q qʰ
fricative ʃ χ h
approximant ɻ j ʁ
affricate tɬ tɬʰ
flap ɺ
  • A glottal stop appears epenthetically between two vowels in the standard variety. It is phonemic is some dialects.
  • The approximants tend to be fricativized when spoken emphatically.

VowelsEdit

front back
close i ɤ
open æ ɑ
  • Allowable diphthongs are: /iæ/, /iɤ/, /iɑ/, /ɤi/, /æɤ/, /ɑɤ/, and /ɑi/. All are falling.

ToneEdit

# name contour secondary diacritic example
1 flat 22 (ò) none o di "one"
2 rising 35 (ǒ) slack voiced ó dís "poison"
3 peaking 342 (o᷈) long ô dîr "older sibling by the same mother"
4 falling 31 (ô) creaky voiced ò dì "(small eaten animal)"

PhonotacticsEdit

(C)V(n, ŋ̟, k̟, s̻, ʃ, χ, ɻ)

  • Minimal syllable: e /æ̀/
  • Maximal syllable: tlùin /tɬʰɤ̂i̯n/

Transliteration Edit

Letter a c d dl e g h i l n ŋ
Sound /ɑ/ /k̟ʰ/ /t/ /tɬ/ /æ/ /k̟/ /h/ /i/ /ɺ/ /n/ /ŋ̟/
Letter q qh r s t tl u w x y z
Sound /q/ /qʰ/ /ɻ/ /ʃ/ /tʰ/ /tɬʰ/ /ɤ/ /ʁ̞/ /χ/ /j/ /s̻/

Parts of Speech Edit

  • nouns and pronouns: tlex "stone"
  • verbs, prepositions, coverbs, and adjectives: dêg "help"
  • copulae: ai "is"
  • adjectival nouns: qìe "west"
  • articles, determiners, enclitics (inc. interrogative): wi "the (person)"
  • numbers: di "one"
  • particles: tlèx "very"
  • preverbs: ca- "association with water"
  • conjunctions: u "and"
  • interjections: Hìr "hello, pay attention"
  • ideophones: rîus "glass breaking"

NounsEdit

Gender and ArticlesEdit

Grammatical Gender is only expressed in articles and pronouns. Some derivational affixes can change the gender of a word.

name description ndef def example
Aethos used exclusively for people 0 (w)i Sâi "a monarch/emperor"
common anything not a part of the other two genders ge (w)e ge lus "a tongue/spoken variety"
neuter a relatively small number of words, typically non-lustrous, inanimate materials gu (h)àr gu tlex "some stone"
  • The definite articles lose their initial consonant if the previous syllable ends in a consonant. ex. Dêg in i nàu nûx. "They help the old man."

Pronouns Edit

informal formal
1 tu nùi
2 â séŋ
3 ae in cêz
c we
n gàr

Verbs Edit

Copula Edit

Preverbs Edit

Coverbs Edit

Prepositions and Adjectives Edit

Grammatical Particles Edit

Aspect particles Edit

Mood particles Edit

Tense particles Edit

Nominal particles Edit

Attitudinal particles Edit

SyntaxEdit

Sentence word orderEdit

Verb-Subject-Object

Cùs su nàu tún nûx àr díu dá èn tu.

[k̟ʰɤ̂ʃ ʃɤ̀ nɑ̂ɤ̯ tʰɤ̌n nɤ᷈χ ɑ̂ɻ tǐɤ̯ tɑ̌ æ̂n tʰɤ̀]

eat perf man zero year def.n cream sweet gen 1

"Some kid ate my ice cream."

Nouns can be moved before the verb for emphasis.

Noun phrases Edit

Preposition-Article-Noun-Adjectival noun

VocabularyEdit

NumbersEdit

Because Aethos have only four fingers per hand, they count in base 8.

# 8+# #*8 #*64
0 tún tún tún
1 di xâ di nàuz
2 xâ zà zà xâ zà nàuz
3 xâ rú rú xâ rú nàuz
4 hès xâ hès hès xâ hès nàuz
5 dilu xâ dilu dilu xâ dilu nàuz
6 zàlu xâ zàlu zàlu xâ zàlu nàuz
7 seuxâ xâ seuxâ seuxâ xâ seuxâ nàuz
8 zà xâ nàuz xâ nàuz
  • The spaces between parts are optional.

Larger numbers are constructed by listing the number of 10,0008s, then 1008s, then 108s

  • 10,13,26
  • xâháis xârúnàuz zàxâzàlu
  • 8-myriad 8-3-hundred 2-8-6

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