| Rikutsaren/Rowiktob |
|Nouns decline according to...|
|Verbs conjugate according to...|
Classification and DialectsEdit
- the [æ] rule:
[æ] occurs when "/ɑ/" is stressed, but ONLY when between the start and end of a word, & when followed by a plosive consonant (unless preceded by a semi-vowel). This is an allophone of /ɑ/.
- the [ɑː] rule:
[ɑː] occurs before a consonant and after /dʒ/, but ONLY when in syllable coda. [ɑː] also occurs at the end of a word. This is an allophone of /ɑ/.
- the [eɪ] rule:
[eɪ] occurs when final "/ɛ/" is stressed, or when stressed in syllable coda. This is an allophone of /ɛ/.
- the [ʒ] rule:
[ʒ] (which is an allophone of /dʒ/) occurs if preceded by a vowel while either of the following are also true:
- It is before a consonant and is in syllable coda.
- It is final.
- The second vowel in a word is always stressed.
Modern Rowiktob is written by its native speakers using the Rowiktob Alphabet. However, most linguists, especially those who are used to the latin alphabet, prefer to use the Standardised Orthography for Asermian (SOA).
Nouns are the base unit of Rowiktob grammar. Various suffixes and prefixes are added onto the noun to form various different words. When forming count nouns from mass nouns, -ze is added to the end of the mass noun. Rowiktob nouns do not decline. Instead of plurals being a declension, nouns have a plural particle, "ku". To represent a plural that is also a definite, the word "ik" comes before the word.
Řowiktob has standalone pronouns. Unlike in other languages, there is no distinction between subject and object pronouns. Instead, they occur in either case. However, similar to Řowiktob verbs, pronouns exhibit clusivity. The Personal Pronouns used in Řowiktob are listed below.
- The exclusive 1st plural personal pronoun, čâz, is used to refer to "each one of us" as opposed to "all of us collectively".
- The exclusive 2nd plural personal pronoun, bâz, is used to refer to "each one of you" as opposed to "all of you collectively".
*Non-Human is also used for the English dual and plural correlatives ("which").
Adjectives are formed by adding the suffix -nev to the end of a noun. When conjugating into the degrees of comparison, the adjectival suffix is shortened to -n, thus forming the adjectival root. The comparative suffix is then placed onto the end of the adjectival root.
Adverbs are formed by adding the suffix -gev to the end of a noun. When conjugating into the degrees of comparison, the adverbial suffix is shortened to -g, thus forming the adverbial root. The comparative suffix is then placed onto the end of the adverbial root.
Degrees of ComparisonEdit
The Rowictob language uses 6 Degrees of Comparison, as opposed to the 2 used in English. The prefixes that are added onto the adjectival or adverbial root when using the Degrees of Comparison are listed in the chart below.
Comparatives and Contraries do not use "i" before them unless the subject uses it anyways (ex. "The better man" > "I jasunezlu kob". All other degrees of comparison do use "i" unless they are referring to a possessive (ex. "My best friend" > "Na jasunezluk ǯitubu").
The comparative degrees that are unique to Rowiktob and Rikučreb are described in detail below.
- The Contrary is the opposite of the Comparative, and is used to represent the shortage of something or the lack of a certain quality.
- The Proclivitive is the opposite of the Superlative, and is used to represent the complete absence of a thing or quality.
- The Hyperlative and the Inferlative refer to the absolute most or least amount of something possible, respectively (ex. "The best possible thing" "I jasunezlukø editbî"). These forms can also be used in exaggerations (ex. "The best day ever!" I jasunezlukø uŕav!").
Verbs are formed by adding the infinitive -řī to the end of a mass noun, if there is a corresponding mass noun. Verbs are conjugated into the following conjugation table.
Proximate and Obviate PersonsEdit
In the Rowiktob language, all plural persons, as well as the singular 3rd, exhibit clusivity.
The Inclusive Singular 3rd person is used in the following cases:
- In the present indicative when addressing a 2nd party and referring to a 3rd party that is present (ex."He was not speaking to you." "Ba ox doŋẘo re vaz.").
- In any tense when referring to an absent 3rd party verb that affects a non-absent 3rd party personal pronoun. (ex. "They (Those things) cause them (these people) to talk." "Kredoŋef laz.")
The Exclusive Plural 1st person is used in the following cases:
- In any tense when addressing a 2nd person and referring to a group that you are a part of but whose other members are absent.
- In any tense when relaying a message to a 3rd party that is absent at the time but will be present at a time that you and your group are absent. In this case, the absent 3rd party is referred to in the direct plural 2nd person. (ex. "We are sorry that we were not able to attend, but we have brought to you this gift." "Oč calinev nedas ba oča pobnev rotogrî, ozê doč oltabiẘa re laz edo iwiregze.")
The perfect is created by conjugating Dorî and adding that before the past participle of the verb in question. Dorī is conjugated into the Past Indicative to form the Present Perfect, Present Indicative to form the Pluperfect, Future Indicative to form the Future Perfect, and the Conditional to form the Conditional Perfect.
The continuous is created by conjugating Orî and adding that before the gerund of the verb in question. Orī follows the same conjugation procedure as Dorî follows when conjugated into the Perfect. However, Orī is only conjugated into the Indicative, and therefore the Continuous only has 3 tenses.
Rowiktob is a head-initial language, and all modifiers precede the words the modify. It has the basic word order Subject-Verb-Object. Rowiktob is a null-subject language.
The juiscal particle, go, is a concept unique to the Asermian languages, specifically Rowiktob and its sister language Rikučreb, as well as the Asermo-Khronic language Karbash. It is used to imply or invoke sexual arousal, and is usually used in familiar conversation. When in formal conversation, one will often use the non-juiscal definition of a word or an entirely different word that cannot be made juiscal. The juiscal particle occurs before the word it affects, and is attached to the word via a dash "-". It is derived from the Karbash juiscal particle гo, which is in turn derived from the Early Rikučreb singular 3rd person juiscal additive ga.
Nidu taba i pazikuze su ewilokobnev ku sipelze, owisežk bupukornev ǯal abu ewilokobze uburî i hibečebnev ku jasbuze netak dof katibẘa maz niþi absedul, ñ natemtrî tabniþi ik lazul su i ewilo, i ololenev ñ weznev kerit es neda ik Gon su Ewilote i su Ewilotene Gad jiribef maz, ab uwižbenev iwolžigẘa es ik altabze su ewilokob ǯatik nedas êgem nupugolurî ik kohuze netak telugif maz es i olole.
When in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.