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| Růxo-lǔl |
|Nouns decline according to...|
|Verbs conjugate according to...|
This language is an a priori language with a phonotactic system inspired by Turkish, word roots based loosely off the ones devised by John Quijada in his philosophical language Ithkuil (a language from which I would not consider this language to be derived), and grammar inspired by several epiphanies and "why not?" moments I've had in the past.
|Unvoiced Plosive||[p / pʰ]||[t / tʰ]||[c]||[kʰ]||[ʔ]|
|Fricative||[ɸ / β]||[s / z]||[ʃ / ʒ]||[ɕ]||[x]|
|Nasal||[m̥ / m]||[n̥ / n]||[ɲ]||[ŋ]|
|Approximant||[ʍ / w]||[h̪ / ɦ̪] [l]||r||[j]||[ɰ] [ɫ]|
|High||i / y||u|
|Mid||e / ø||ə||o|
Note: [h̪ / ɦ̪] are bidental fricatives created by meshing the teeth together and creating a light hissing sound that should resemble [f] and [v]. They can be pronounced linguodentally if the native pronunciation is uncomfortable or difficult to pronounce.
On the level of words, there are four sets of vowels in the language that are not permitted to intersect within words. These four sets are [i / e], [y / ø], [ə / ɑ], and [u / o], split into quadrants of front, back, rounded, and unrounded (see Turkish). The same letters almost always make different sounds depending upon the set of vowels into which they're integrated. For example, when paired with front vowels, <k>, <g>, <x>, and <y> are palatalized; when paired with back vowels, <f>, <n>, and <j> are voiced.
On the level of the syllable, phonotactics are essentially (C)(C)V(C)(C). While single consonants on either side of a vowel can be any of the consonants offered in this language, onset biconsonant clusters must be a plosive and a fricative in a sort of mock-affricate ("ts" is permitted, while "tx" is not), and final biconsonant clusters must be a nasal and an unvoiced plosive in the same place of articulation ("mp" is permitted, "mk" isn't).
|Sounds||[p / pʰ]||b||[m̥ / m]||
[ɸ / β] [ʍ / w]
|Sounds||[t / tʰ]||d||[n̥ / n] [ɲ] [ŋ]||[s / z]|
|Sounds||[c / kʰ]||[ɟ / g]||[ʃ / ʒ]||[ɕ / x]|
|Sounds||[l / ɫ]||r||[j / ɰ] [w]||[h̪ / ɦ̪]|
Grammatical morphology is somewhat alien and backward in Růxo-lǔl.
Nouns are assembled out of consonantal roots with vocalic designations of high/low, offering four separate nouns per single root. Nouns decline tonally and syntactically based on case (see Syntax) and receive adjectival suffixes that morph somewhat ornately based on their original noun form. Unique to this language is the acknowledgement of entropic universal change and the recognition that because of this change, an object at one time is not technically the same as an object considered the same at a different time. All this really means is that relative time, tense, and by extension perfectiveness are marked on the relevant nouns.
Nouns have four cases - nominative, absolutive, genitive, and contextual.
Nominative - encompasses the role of agent and of a voluntary experiencer. For instance, an intransitive verb meaning "to skid on ice" with a nominative argument would translate as "to skate," or perhaps "to slide for comedic purposes."
Absolutive - encompasses the role of patient and of an involuntary experiencer. The above example of "to skid on ice" with an absolutive argument would translate as "to slip."
Genitive - encompasses the role of a possessor. As this case has developed out of shortening of subordinate clauses, it is treated as an adjectival suffix with the distinction of having its own vowel set and, therefore, follows the tone of the possessed noun.
Contextual - encompasses all other roles, largely utilities, as specified by special verbal affixes that designate this case as dative, ablative, instrumental, or numerous other utility cases. This case can also be placed as specificational modal words to establish the time period, perfectiveness, modality, or other quantities of a verb if necessary.
Verbs are basically assembled by sticking conjugal affixes onto a noun root. Verbs must conjugate to all nouns except those in the genitive, and in doing so reveal the plurality, gender, and person of the nouns. Verb conjugation is assembled in an indefinite number of slots; at least two are always used, as the language forbids verbs without arguments.
The language has four genders - human/higher order living, animal/lower order living, object, idea
Higher Order Living - often referred to as Sentient or Human gender, this gender pertains to all entities that are, in their current tense, capable of higher-level thought and communication. There are some dialects that omit this gender or meld it with Lower Order Living or Idea.
Lower Order Living - often referred to as Living, Animal, or Insentient gender, this gender pertains to all entities that are animate, but do not fall into the Higher Order Living category. In old texts, this gender does not include plants and fungi, but in later texts it is compulsory to use this gender in reference to plants and fungi as well as lower-order animals. Body parts of a living organism also fall in this category, but if the organism dies the body parts shift to being an Object, just like the body itself. There are some dialects that omit this gender or meld it with Lower Order Living.
Object - sometimes referred to as Inanimate gender, this gender pertains to all inanimate entities with no life functions, including corpses. This is the only gender that is not omitted in any dialects.
Idea - sometimes referred to as Intangible gender, this gender pertains to all ideas that are impossible to manifest as entities, such as periods of time, colors, words, or other ideas. There are some dialects that meld this gender with Higher Order Living.
Adjectives are, as stated previously, noun roots changed into suffixes. These suffixes have tone specifications independent from the base noun, as to retain the established vowel harmony rules while still offering a way to distinguish which way to interpret the root. Adjectives are sometimes separated with hyphens if desired.
Example 1: L' - speech
li - soft/quiet speech (li-li - whisper) → -l' - softly spoken (-l'-l' - whispered) (high/medium tone applied depending on tone of affected noun)
lə - indistinct speech (lə-lə - mumble) → -l'l - indistinctly spoken (-l'-l'l - mumbled) (high/medium tone applied depending on tone of affected noun)
lü - harsh/loud speech (lü-lü - yell/shout) → -l' - harshly spoken (-l'-l' - shouted) (medium/low tone applied depending on tone of affected noun)
lu - clear speech (lu-lu - articulation) → -l'l - clearly spoken (-l'-l'l - articulated) (medium/low tone applied depending on tone of affected noun)
Example 2: R'X, - components/functions of the nervous system
rixe - nerve (v: to feel) → -r'x, - nerve-related; sensual (high/medium tone)
rəxa - basic instinct; "smooth brain" → -r'x,x - instinctual; smooth-brained (high/medium tone)
rüxö - spinal column (v: to be able to move one's entire body) → -r'x, - related to the spinal column; autonomously mobile (medium/low tone)
ruxo - higher thought; philosophy; "developed" brain (v: to think/philosophize) → -r'x,x - philosophical; sentient (medium/low tone)
Syntax changes depending on the mood of the sentence. Case can be determined on the nouns once mood is determined - as case is derived from tone, there are three "isolated" tones and six tonal glides. There are six sentence moods that cannot overlap - the speakers of this language are thusly somewhat forceful in comparison to most other communities.
Indicative: ABS -> VER -> CON -> NOM. Patient and verb are given middle tone, with a fall to low on the designated syllable of the agent, or on the designated syllable of the verb. In the presence of a utility noun, it will continue to carry the middle tone, unless it is at the end, in which case it will experience a fall. Often used for the Imperative.
Subjunctive: ABS -> NOM -> CON -> VER. Patient has a middle tone, the agent rises to high tone, utility continues in high tone, and the verb returns to a middle tone. Sometimes used for the Imperative, but is considered somewhat submissive and is less likely to be respected.
Conditional: ABS -> CON -> VER -> NOM: Patient has a high tone, utility stair-steps to middle tone, verb rises from low to middle tone, agent sinks from middle to low tone. In absence of an agent, the verb takes on the tonal quality of the agent.
Potential: NOM -> CON -> VER -> ABS: Agent has a low tone, utility stair-steps to middle tone, verb rises from low to high, patient sinks from high to middle. In absence of a patient, the verb takes on the tonal quality of the patient.
Subordinate: NOM -> ABS -> CON -> VER: Entire clause holds a low tone.
Inquisitive: VER -> ABS -> NOM - > CON: Verb starts at middle tone but falls to low tone. Low tone is held for the entire sentence until the last element, which rises from low to high.
Tone is marked by diacritics in the Roman orthography. The vowel designated for tonal morphology will have a ring (ə̊) over it in a context where it doesn't have a predestined tone. There are three tones between which the voice can linearly glide, making nine "theoretical" tones.