|Nouns decline according to...|
|Verbs conjugate according to...|
Rɩkučreb (IPA: //) is a language spoken by the inhabitants of Rɩkučar, a fictional nation that encompasses most of the Milky Way galaxy. It is a member of the Asermian language family, which evolved from the Proto-Asermian language. Rɩkučreb, as well as the other members of the Asermian languages, are regulated entirely by Bakzwalt, a bird-like gender-neutral transcendental being who has ruled Rɩkučar since its establishment nearly 5 millennia ago. Bakzwalt inherited the Pre-Asermian language (a substratum of Proto-Asermian) from an ancient earth-based race of avian humanoids, which Bakzwalt was a member of. Following a catastrophic bolide event wiped out most of the island, Bakzwalt became the last remaining native speaker of the Asermian languages.
|Flap or tap||ɾ|
Allophones and DiphthongsEdit
- /ɑ/ lengthens when unstressed after sibilants in syllable coda, and when before any vowel other than [ɪ] or [u]. Does not nasalise.
- [ɒ] does not lengthen. Nasalises normally. Allophone of /ɑ/ before post-alveolar and lateral approximants.
- [ɑ̈] is always long. Does not nasalise. Allophone of /ɑ/ word-finally.
- [a] does not lengthen or nasalise. Allophone of /ɑ/ when unstressed before plosives and stressed after semivowel.
- [æ] does not lengthen. Nasalises normally. Allophone of /ɑ/ when stressed before plosives (unless after semivowel).
- [ʌ] does not lengthen or nasalise. Allophone of /ɑ/ in words of foreign origin.
- /ɑɪ/ occurs word-finally.
- /ʌɪ/ occurs as an allophone of /ɑɪ/ in words of foreign origin.
- /ɑu/ occurs anywhere.
- /ɛ/ does not lengthen or nasalise.
- [e] lengthens when word-final (unless in monosyllabic word), and before any vowel other than /ɪ/. Does not nasalise. Allophone of /ɛ/ when before any vowel other than /ɪ/, or when before post-alveolar approximants.
- /eɪ/ occurs when /ɛ/ or [e] precedes /ɪ/.
- /ø/ does not lengthen or nasalise.
- /ə/ does not lengthen or nasalise.
- /ɪ/ does not lengthen or nasalise.
- /i/ lengthens when before any vowel. Nasalises before /ŋ/.
- /o/ lengthens when before any vowel other than /ɪ/. Nasalises normally.
- [ɔ] does not lengthen. Nasalises normally. Allophone of /o/ when stressed before plosives.
- /oɪ/ occurs anywhere.
- /u/ lengthens before any vowel other than /ɪ/. Does not nasalise.
- /uɪ/ occurs anywhere.
- /ju/ occurs anywhere.
- [χ] occurs in onset of a stressed syllable when between two vowels. This is an allophone of /x/
- [dʒ] occurs when /ʒ/ is initial and is followed by a long vowel. This is an allophone of /ʒ/.
- [ɾ] occurs between two vowels in a free morpheme. This is an allophone of /r/.
Penultimate syllables are always stressed, unless:
- Said syllable is preceded by another syllable containing an identical vowel, in which case that syllable is stressed instead. (ex. sapιsιri; kezkeþι)
- The word has an odd number of syllables (5 or more), in which case the median syllable is stressed (ex. edīazιcam)
The singular definite article in Rɩkučreb is ι. It occurs before the word it affects.
The indefinite article in Rɩkučreb is ôb. It occurs before the word it affects. It is not affected by other particles, and always precedes any particle. It is derived from Rɩkučreb obu, meaning one (number)
Nouns are the base unit of Rɩkučreb grammar. Various suffixes and prefixes are added onto the noun to form various different words. When forming count nouns, -z is added to the end of the root morpheme. Nouns are not declined in Rɩkučreb, and concepts such as number are represented by particles (see Particles).
Rɩkučreb has standalone pronouns. Similar to Rɩkučreb verbs, pronouns exhibit clusivity.
In the Rɩkučreb language, the possessive contains two types of words: determiners and pronouns. Determiners are expressed by the particle "en", which is attached to the end of the subject via a dash "-" (ex. "Net's car" > "Net-en (reze)skotru"). Pronouns are expressed as a particle that comes before the word it affects. These particles are listed below. In cases regarding the possessive form of a personal pronoun (such as "my" or "your"), the possessive pronoun is also used (ex. "That is my car" > "Edu oke na (reze)skotru"; whereas "That car is mine" > "Edu (reze)skotru oke na".)
- The exclusive 1st person plural, ča, is used to refer to "each one of our/ours" as opposed to "all of our/ours collectively".
- The exclusive 2nd person plural, ba, is used to refer to "each one of your/yours" as opposed to "all of your/yours collectively".
As Rɩkučreb has a romance-based verbal conjugation system, there are no subject pronouns. However, there are object pronouns, which also serve as reflexive pronouns. The personal pronouns used in Rɩkučreb are listed below.
- The exclusive 1st person plural, čaz, is used to refer to "each one of us" as opposed to "all of us collectively".
- The exclusive 2nd person plural, baz, is used to refer to "each one of you" as opposed to "all of you collectively".
The Exhortative particles signal the speaker's avid encouragement toward the addressee's bringing about the proposition of an utterance. Exhortative constructions can only be used in second person singular and plural utterances. It is represented by ga! (ex. "You should drink this, it's so good!" "Notoki eto, oke ezu jannev ga!".)
The causative form of a verb is represented by the particle kre (although this may better be described as a clitic). It occurs before the word it affects, and is attached to the word via a dash "-".
The juiscal particle, go, is a concept unique to the Asermian languages, specifically Rɩkučreb and its sister language Rowiktob, as well as the Asermo-Khronic language Karbash. It is used to imply or invoke sexual arousal, and is usually used in familiar conversation. When in formal conversation, one will often use the non-juiscal definition of a word or an entirely different word that cannot be made juiscal. The juiscal particle occurs before the word it affects, and is attached to the word via a dash "-".
Adjectives are formed by adding the suffix -nev to the end of a noun. When conjugating into the degrees of comparison, the adjectival suffix is shortened to -n, thus forming the adjectival root. The comparative suffix is then placed onto the end of the adjectival root.
Adverbs are formed by adding the suffix -gev to the end of a noun. When conjugating into the degrees of comparison, the adverbial suffix is shortened to -g, thus forming the adverbial root. The comparative suffix is then placed onto the end of the adverbial root.
Degrees of ComparisonEdit
The Rɩkučreb language uses 6 Degrees of Comparison, as opposed to the 2 used in English. The prefixes that are added onto the adjectival or adverbial root when using the Degrees of Comparison are listed in the chart below.
Comparatives and Contraries do not use "e" before them unless the subject uses it anyways (ex. "The better man" > "I jannezlu kɩn"). All other degrees of comparison do use "ɩ" unless they are referring to a possessive (ex. "My best friend" > "Na jannezlug jɩtubu".)
The comparative degrees that are unique to Rɩkučreb are described in detail below.
- The Contrary is the opposite of the Comparative, and is used to represent the shortage of something or the lack of a certain quality.
- The Proclivitive is the opposite of the Superlative, and is used to represent the complete absence of a thing or quality.
- The Hyperlative and the Inferlative refer to the absolute most or least amount of something possible, respectively (ex. "The best possible thing" "I jannezlugeu eþëbi"). These forms can also be used in exaggerations (ex. "The best day ever!" I jannezlugeu norvë!").
Adverbs of ComparisonEdit
The Adverbs of Comparison correspond to "so" and "not so [much]" or "very" and "not as" in the English language. They are, respectively, ezun and ezonen.
When referring to an amount of something, the adjective Enev and its comparisons are used. (ex. "I have more." "Dofnë enezlu.").
Verbs are formed by adding the infinitive -ri to the end of a mass noun, if there is a corresponding mass noun. In the Rɩkučreb language, all plural persons, as well as the singular 3rd person, exhibit clusivity. Verbs are conjugated into the following conjugation table.
- The exclusive third person can also be used in any tense when relaying a message to a 3rd party that is absent at the time but will be present at a time that you and your group are absent. In this case, the absent 3rd party is referred to in the direct plural 2nd person. (ex. "We are sorry that we were not able to attend, but we gifted you this." "Oče laubeþwinev nedas ba oča erbēnev rojuburi, oze doče ɩǯɩjiregezŵa laz edo .")
The perfect aspect is created by conjugating Dori and adding that before the past participle of the verb in question. Dori is conjugated into the Past Indicative to form the Present Perfect, Present Indicative to form the Pluperfect, Future Indicative to form the Future Perfect, and the Conditional to form the Conditional Perfect.
The continuous aspect is created by conjugating Ori and adding that before the gerund of the verb in question. Ori follows the same conjugation procedure as Dori follows when conjugated into the Perfect. However, Ori is only conjugated into the Indicative, and therefore the Continuous only has 3 tenses.
Rikučreb is a head-initial language, and all modifiers precede the words the modify. It has the basic word order Subject-Verb-Object. Rikučreb is a null-subject language.
A comprehensive dictionary of the Rikučreb can be found at the Rikučreb/Dictionary page.
This is the entry for constructedlanguages's Conlang Challenge on deviantART, which was to translate the preamble of the United States Declaration of Independence into one's conlang.
Nidu tapa ι jazιkuz au kιnnev sapιsιzkë, natemteke bupukenev čusi sapu kιnιtkë uburi ι lesoιsnev jasbuzkë netâk dof čebedeŵo maz neþe ôbsaιedu, ōu natemtri tâbneþe ι lapnulkë au ι Eči, ι regeronev ōu wezonev kιgerhesâb es neda ι Grenkë au Ečiat ōu au Ečiat-en Gôd jιrebfe maz, ôb nupukenev ιčιlaupâcë es ι altabazke au kιn čatιk nedas ēgem nuparιzri ι greduzkë netâk talugife maz es ι regero.
When in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.